The I. W. W. Has Been Tried and Found Guilty
A Great Victory for the Govern?
ment in the Recent Trial
in Kansas City, Kan.
A VICTORY for American-1
ism and the severest set?
back that the I. W. W. has
ever suffered were pro
?aimed when a Kansas jury con?
victed twenty-seven member?? of
the organization at Kansas City,
Kan., on December 18. The jury,
having deliberated twenty hours,
announced its verdict, finding the
defendants guilty on all four counts
charged: (1) Conspiracy to bring
about a revolutionary overthrow of
the United States government and
to interfere with the various war
emergency laws; (2) conspiracy to
violate the draft act by urging men
to refuse to register; (3) conspir?
acy, under the espionage act, to
hinder recruiting by discouraging
enlistments; (.4) conspiracy, under
the food and fuel act, to hinder the
production of food and fuel.
Judge John C. Pollock sentenced
the twenty-seven defendants to
terms ranging from three and one
half to nine years in the Federal
penitentiary at Fort Leavenworth.
These are the names of the guilty:
Phlneas Eastman, former member
of the I. W. W. executive board; a
secretary at Augusta, Kan., at time
of government raid, September, 1918.
C. W. Anderson, Minneapolis,
Minn., secretary-treasurer of the ag?
ricultural and oil workers' branch
and director in Kansas and Okla?
Albert Barr, secretary of the Tula?,
Okla., local In July, 1917.
A. M. Blumberg, organizer and
E. M. Boyd, secretary at T_ls_ In
Harry Drew, field organiser in
Kansas and Oklahoma.
Samuel Forbes, secretary, at Au?
gusta, Kan., in 1917.
Wencil Francik, O. E. Gordon and
Michael Sapper, members of "the
flying squadron," un organization
committee in the harvest lields.
E. J. Gallagher, traveling organ?
izer, formerly member of the organ?
ization committee, which had charge
of the work in Kansas and Okla?
Fred Gran, George Wenger, Ernest
Henning, Carl Schnell and Paul Mai
hak, German enemy aliens and part
owners of the I. W. W. Hail at Au?
J. Gresbach, active member.
Morris Hecht, organizer at Au?
Peter J. Higgins, member.
E. J. Huber, member.
Harry McCarl, delegate and organ- j
ir.er in oil lields.
Frank Patton, member.
Robert Poe, I. W. W. poet and
Leo Stark, Mexican revolutionist,
active in oil fields.
John Wallberg, member.
Georpe II. Yarlott, member. He is
a fugitive. Disappeared from court?
room in course of trial. Will be af?
fected by verdict.
S. B. Hicock, short term secretary
and organizer at Augusta.
The trial has been followed from
the beginning by newspapers in
Kansas, and in Kansas City, with
the keenest interest, as it was clearly
recognized that this ea.:e would de?
cido the question whether or not the
X. W. W. had a legal right to exist
and either give a new impetus to
radical activities throughout the
country', or affirm, once for all, the
Superiority ?if American principles
over radical doctrines.
The government's case was con?
ducted by Fred Robertson, United
Etates District Attorney, assisted by
Bamuel Amidon, who opened their
ease by presenting to Judge Pollock
thirty-seven specimens of I. W. W.
-"literature" containing all kinds of
propaganda against our laws, mili?
tary policy and general welfare, to
sustain the charge based on the pre?
amble to the I. \V". W. lonstitution.
Between the working and the capi?
talist class a stragglo must go on
Until the workers of the world organ?
ize as a class, take possession of the
earth and the machinery of production
?nd abolish tho wage system.
From this the government charged
that tho I. W. W., under the su?
preme direction of W. D. Haywood,
was conducting a gigantic plot to
Beize the teins of government, over?
turn the present order of things
*nd substitute a new order, nobody
Tho literature shown at the trial
bad been sent from Haywood's of?
fice, at Chicago, to all centers of
production, but especially to the
farm workers in Kansas and work?
ers in the Oklahoma oil fields, some
|>y mail, the rest by freight. It was
Identified by many printers and pub
/lishers, some intimately connected
With the organization.
The first witness was Alex
JToehler, manager of the I. W. W.
printing house at Chicago, who
identified papers he had sent out.
JJeort came James Koen, secretary
of a local onion at Cushing, Okla.,
Who had corresponded with Hay
pood? pointing out how easy it would
jbo to manir? sabotage to tho oil
country. Clara Chappell, of Minne?
apolis, a worker in the. agricultural
branch of the organization, identified
the defendants' membership cards
and showed how bulletins were dis- ;
tributed in the wheat and oil fields.
The agricultural organization's cards
show a black kitten in a defiant atti?
tude on a stack of wheat.
Checks From Haytcood
Frank J. Quinn, secretary of the
Western Newspaper Union at Chi?
cago, testified to having circulated
the I. W. W. newspaper, "Solidari?
ty," from a mailing list furnished
by the organization, and thousands
of inflammatory pamphlets. Checks
signed by Hay wood in payment for
this were introduced.
Fred Moore, attorney for the de?
fendants, obviously was trying to
keep the evidence strictly to the de?
fendants and prevent introduction
of matter which might brand the
whole organization as an outlaw. He
was unable, however, to prevent the
admission of matter like this:
Education Is ammunition. Organ?
isation is this weapon. Aim true and
keep your powder dry.
The I. W. W. hits the boss in the
latitude of his hip where he enrries
Mb greenware (pocketbook).
Fan the flames of discontent.
Sabotage: Make it too expensive
for the boss to take the lives and
liberty of the workers. Stop the
end'ecs court trials by usir.?: the
wooden shoe (emblem of sabotage)
on the job.
One Big Union, One Enemy the
Down in the harvest land, united we
With the A. W". O. (agricultural work?
ers) we are out for the dough.
Out to make old farmer John come
Down in the harvest land,
The one big union grand;
If old farmer John doesn't freeze us,
his machine will visit Jesus;
Down In the harvest land.
R. C. McCluggage, county at
torney of Butler County, Kan.,
showed how it had been necessary to
maintain large corps of armed
guards in 1017 to protect the oil
fields from hordes of agitators.
"It was necessary for the oil com?
panies to maintain large private
police forces to protect their prop?
erties," McCluggage testified.
"Thousands of complaints of the
activities of the I. W. W. were made
to my office by the oil operators,
police, sheriffs and private citizens."
Between 1,000 and 1,500 L W. W.
members were arrested and prose?
cuted in Butler County during the
year 1917, McCluggage testified, due
to their efforts to "sab"' tho oil
fields and create general discontent
by the distribution of incendiary
literature, which formed tho basis
for practically all the trouble in the
i Eldorado and Augusta territories.
.Sabotage, typified by the black
| cat, was extensively defined in ex?
tracts from Haywood's book, "Sabo?
tage." "It does not take human life,
. bur is a direct proposition that prop?
erty hasf no rights." "A boycotted
institution is at all times subject to
sabotage." " 'You are destroying
civilization,' is hurled at us. We
reply, 'We should worry; civilization
is a lie.' " "Sabotage will put a stop
to war." "The saboteur is a sharp?
shooter of the Revolution. He has
the courage to invade the enemy's
country." "Sabotage does not mean
poisoning the soup, putting ground
glass in the bread, or destroying
human life, but is aimed solely at
the heart . . , the pocket book."
"Every worker in the industry has
sabotage at his command?let the
master know he faces industrial
mutiny. Sabotage is simply one of
the weapons in labor's arsenal." I.
W. W. cards were known as "Red
Miss Hilda S. Seery, a stenog?
rapher in Haywood's office, identified
a letter from him claiming that the
war "Was of little consequence."
She was afraid to admit her connec?
tion with the organization, showing
that she feared that might be con?
sidered criminal in itself.
Miss Elizabeth Serviss, assistant
secretary to Haywood, also refused
at first to admit her connection, but,
on being promised that nothing in?
criminating would be asked, gave
During all this, Moore was con?
stantly objecting and advocating the
: right of free speech, but was always
I overruled by the judge. He is de
i scribed by "The Kansas City Post"
i as "hovering like a hawk over each
' government witness, checking each
j reply and objecting to practically
every question. And on the bench,
leaning far back in his chair, his
j eyes closed, sits the judge, appar
i ently asleep until some answer of the
| witness brings a sharp exchango of
1 argument from the attorneys below,
i Then a quiet word froiii the bench
i and the case proceeds. The eyes re
! main closed, but the mind behind is
far from asleep."
Moore undertook to give some
testimony himself, reading long ex?
tracts from I. W. W. books. It is
I hard to see how he hoped to appeal to
tho jury, composed largely of farm?
ers, by describing acts of sabotage on
, farms, such as planting trees upside
I down, but such was the main body
of his testimony.
The next day, December 11, it ap?
peared that one of the witnesses,
who was also one of tho defendant*;,
had vanished. He had not been seen
since Monday, when he had promised
to appear, having been released on
bond on the score of ill health. The
main part of the day's evidence was
furnished by J. C. Shearman, of
Wichita, a handwriting expert, who
showed that even typewriters dis
' play individual peculiarities?an im?
portant factor in identifying un?
Shearman's efforts played a large
| part in helping the government to
; prove its case.
On the next day an I. W. W.
member, I. E. Altamose, who had
disappeared eight months before,
reappeared and announced his will?
ingness to testify, saying that he
had been living quietly in Kansas
City. Frank G. Wermke, a former
saboteur, or "sab cat," in I. W. W.
language, showed how the organiza
I tion tried to bring about a general
i strike in the Kansas wheat fields
; during the summer of 1917. He
I had joined the society in 1916, was
! made an organiz-jr and formed fly
; ing squadrons of workers to spread
I their doctrines among the farm
' workers. He was arrested in the
summer of 1917 and, while in jail,
was converted from his radical be?
liefs. Another former "sab cat"
had been a chemist at San Joaquin,
Cal., where he had constructed
j "kitties" chemicals in a corked
! bottle, which ate away the cork and
i burst into flame. Such a labora
i tory was known as an "ark."
A letter identified by Shearman
as having been written by* Phineas
Eastman, secretary of the Augusta,
Kan., I. W. W. branch, gave threats
! of a proposed blow-up of the oil
fields. It read :
"At your first move, up go your;
? homes and pipe lines and tanks, i
?The World, New York
Change your tune or get out!
A Job the Big Need of British Army Officers
??dJ-^V EMOBBED officer, uni
1 a vsrs-ty man, looks for
M?J^ a start. Will do any?
thing and go any?
The "personal ad" columns of
papers like "The London Times" are
crowded with announcements of the
j above type. The problem of the
. demobilized officer is one of the
! most acute aspects of the crisis of
the British mitldle class and of
after-war social readjustment in
! general. This officer is very fre
- quently a gentleman of the "public
! school" type, with a smattering of
everything and thorough training in
nothing; he is a well mannered and
affable jack-at-all-trades, but the
1 cry of the age is for specialists.
There is, moreover, the psychologi?
cal factor; the spirit of adventure?
always inherent in the young Brit?
isher?which was awakened by the
war from its twilight sleep of the
later pacific decades.
The case of the young Oxford
man who the other day advertised
i for a position outdoors in Africa
. or Australia, because "he could not
think of resuming pre-war studies,"
is typical even if his frankness is a
little above average.
Under such circumstances the
movement now being launched by*
the British East Africa Disabled
Officers' Colony seems to fill a gen?
uine need. The substance of the
story is told by the name of the
organization; details are divulged
by an article published in "The
London Daily News":
About seventy-five officers, we are
told, are shortly going out to East
Africa to form a little community of
| their own. They have secured 25,000
acres of land; fifty miles southeast of
Kisumi, at a nominal price, and they
intern! to make a success of growing
flax. Markets :'ur the produce at the
farms have already been arranged,
; and it is expected that in two years
or so the little colony will be self
Twenty-five of ;ho member? are
married, and their wives will go out
with them. It is intended that the
colony shall he entirely self-con
tained. There will be a resident doc?
tor and also a nurse. The nearest
town of any size Nairobi ? is 200
miles away, and the nearest railway ]
There will, therefore, bo some lack
of society, but it is not anticipated
that there will be any serious danger
of boredom. A clubhouse will be
built, and golf links and lawn tennis
courts made. Lion and rhinoceros
shooting is expected to provide any
variety that may be needed.
The scheme has been organized by
' Lieutenant Colonel R. Hughes I?dgo,
of the British Last Africa Disabled
Officers' Colony, Ltd., 10, Old Jewry
chambers, E. C.
A certain amount of sympathetic
encouragement has been given by the
Ministry of Pensions?all members
beinf*; in receipt of a disablement
pension for wounds or disease?and
it is hoped that the Ministry of Ship?
ping will help to solve the problem
of cargo space for the machinery and
other material which must be shippe?!
from England. All members before
going overseas are to go through a
course of training In farming in this
Obviously, the plan does not solve
the entire problem, for, although
Stanley Kaufman, one of the com?
mittee, says that "there is heaps of
room for every one," a mass migra?
tion of former holders of commis?
sions in His Britannic Majesty's
armed forces is hardly likely to take
place. Bt\t as far as it goes the
scheme sefmis very commendable.
?Mr. Kaufman paints in glowing col
j ors the advantages and amenities
that await,, the prospective colonist.
TKe climate in East Africa, he says,
; is ideal; it is perpetual spring out
.there. Then listen to this;
"Petrol is only 9d. a gallon. Na?
tive lnbor abounds. Horses can be
bought for ?5."
Casoline at 15 cents and S20 for
The pronts, it is explained, will be
; pooled and equally divided. It will
i be communism, but administered by
?a "gentlemen's soviet" and protected
by the Union Jack.
* ? ?
?pOLLEGE yells are among the
things American that inspire our
unsophisticated (or shall we say
sophisticated?) British cousins with
the greatest awe and admiration. A
correspondent of "The Manchester
Guardian" recently wondered at the
feelings of the Prince of Wales lis?
tening to the cheers of welcome at
West Point. The correspondent
j quoted, in this connection, the yells
i of Johns Hopkins University and of
! Colorado College as particularly
I felicitous and colorful products of
! what he described as a "fine poetic
frenzy." His reflections moved an
? other reader of the paper to submit
the following contribution to the i
natural history of college calls:
Some eight years ago a Manchester
friend returned from an Eisteddfod
(a Welsh musical festival) with a
most invigorating musical shout
which he had picked up. He knew
no Welsh, but he invented some gib?
berish that served for tho opening
lines. The climax was in the finish:
"Lloyd George i-gorra! i-gorra!
i-gorra! i-GOR-ra!" I was rash
enough to bang il out on the Union
pianc when I revisited Glasgow Uni?
versity a little later. The se?'uel
came in the middle of the war. A
Glasgow student, wounded and con?
signed to Manchester, was relating
to me how his drooping spirits had
been uplifted ono peculiarly filthy
day on a road in Flanders by hearing
a detachment of a famous Scottish
regiment shouting "the old Glasgow
University call, the one that ends in
'-GOR-ra!'" and how ho found that
it was officered by a fellow student.
I begged to hear the "'old call" iri
extenso. Ile gave it with gusto, mock
Welsh sud all, ?only that "Glasgow"
had ousted Lloyd George in the final
"i-gorra!'' So may an alien plant,
queerly pruned, blossom and become
apparently indigenous in new soil.
It is a pity the correspondent re?
frained from communicating in full
the "mock Welsh" portion of the
call. Readers who are amateur
practitioners of the science called
psychoanalysis might have found its
unraveling a fascinating pastime.
* * M
?X HIS late and?by some of his
friends ? lamented volume of
plays George Bernard Shaw in?
cludes a farce entitled "Catherine
the Great," the climax of which is a
scene wherein Prince Potemkin, the
redoubtable favorite of the Empress,
carries into a court lev?e a violently;
squirming English captain of dra?
goons under his arm and drops him
on Her Majesty's bed as if he were
It would be interesting to knov,
whether Mr. Shaw has read the diary
of a British lady, Mrs. Charles Cal
vert, in which the following entry
appears under the date of Decembe
"I had a letter yesterday from Ed?
mund Knox, who is in Spam, and who
tells me a ludicrous anecdote relat?
ing to Lord Wellesley. The mob took
the horses from his carriage and
drew him along. A woman among
them, quite six feet high, was not
, content with that, but took his little
lordship in her arms out of the car?
riage and carried him, kissing and
hugging him all the time, to where
the Junta was assembled, and put
him down among them, saying she
had brought the savior of her coun- |
It should be explained that the j
Lord Wellesley referred to is better
known under his later title of Duke
of Wellington. The correspondent
of "The Manchester Guardian," who
recalls the incident, notes the
insistence on ceremony characteriz?
ing the Spanish Cortes?a circum?
stance which hardly added to the
comfort of the gallant general in
his rather unconventional situation.
* * *
?f~fcNE effect of the war is the de?
flection of a stream of students
of all nationalities from the univer?
sities of Germany, formerly prob?
ably the most international?as far
as attendance goes?among all seats
of learning in the world. Berlin.
Munich, Halle, Jena, Heidelberg,
Freiburg were the pre-war Meccas of
the students of humanities, while
the engineer worshiped at the
shrine of Charlottenburg or Aachen.
That was before 1914; in A. D. 1920
Paris seems to be the international
watchword. A French newspaper
woman, Andr?e Viollis, writes in
"The London Daily Mail":
"If, after wandering through the
stately passages of the Palais de la
Sorbonne (.the Paris University?, you
open a door you find yourself sud?
denly beforo an unexpected and
"In a vast hall whose bay windows
take captive ail the parsimonious
light of the dull, rainy day, youths
and girls are seated in front of
tables, reading, writing, or in groups
chatting gayly in suppressed tones.
This is nothing unusual, is it?
"All the races of Europe are repre?
sented here, without counting Asia,
with tlie amiable and dainty Japa?
nese, and even Africa, whose daz?
zling smile breaks forth on one
dusky face. And all these young
people from every corner of the
world are trying to speak French:
with different accents, certainly
hoarse, nasal, or chirping -but pro?
nounced piously, carefully, with the
most touching good will.
"Is the learned Sorbonne trans?
formed into a Tower of Babel?
"On the contrary; it is a union of
races striving for the conquest of a
language and an ideal of civilization.
For we are in the hall that the
Sorbonne reserved for the foreign
students entered for the new courses
created this year by the Paris Uni?
versity. They can rest here, work
between the lectures, r.nd find, as
well as a fire -a rare and precious
boon just now?books, advice and
an atmosphere of affectionate solici?
Shade of Columbus?/ thought I discovered America
Tickling the House of Commons
?The People, London
Not Only the Individuals, but the
Organization Placed Under
the Ban by the Verdict
One box of matches can whip the
The sheriff of Sauna County de?
scribed another threat to blow up
New York City, in favor of the I.
W. W. it was shown by the statis?
tical bureau of the United Stater
Fuel Administration that the pro?
duction of oil ha?l not diminishe-.!
during the summer of 1917.
The work of the agricultural
"flying squadrons" was described in
detail, how they drove railroad
spikes in th" wheat fields, so as
to ruin the farmer's machinery.
Searching for such spikes would
mean trampling down the grain.
The squadrons operated largely at
night, terrorizing prospective fanr.
hands on the train?. I.. E. Fanning,
a brakeman, told of such an attempt
The speed with which the gant*
worked and tho thoroughness with
which its work was done were de?
scribed. Fanning went from an oil
car to a coal car on the movinu
freight. As he walked among
? twelve or fifteen men in the car he
was struck on the head with a club
and shot in the shoulder. Nothing
was said, he testified, until he was
being thrown over the side of the
car. Then he was told:
"You will respect a red card after
this. You and all of your friends."
Large camps where the nomadic
farm workers congregated were in?
fested by "wobblies" t members of
the I. W. W.) who had persuaded
16,000 to join during the summer of
1916, although 14,000 had been ex?
pelled for failure to pay dues before
As the government gathered evi?
dence it. became clearer and clearer
that discontent was the foundation
on which the I. W. W. was built, and
through which it expected to abdiak
the wage system and seize the ma?
chinery of production. An agitatoi
would ask a farm hand
"What are you receiving a da;
from the farmer?"
"I get $3.50," was the answer.
"You should have ?4," the agitato
Meanwhile four of the defendant
had disappeared. They had con:
plained that they were dying in jai
and Robertson, the district attornej
had released them on personal bond
or their word of honor. The I. \\
W. professed to know nothing aboi
them, and they have not been hear
of since. Four others had bee
named in the indictment, but ha
vanished before the governmer
could locate them.
Were Well Fed
The I. W. W. attorney was vet
particular during the whole trii
about the quality of care accorded 1
the defendants, making repeat?
complaints against both the jail ar
jailers. The prisoners received sp
cial food, steak and dessert, a di
ordered by Judge Pollock on ??
appeal by the I. W. W. attorne
Moore. The other prisoners gat
ered around and envied the "ba
quets" served to the I. W. W. met
bers, who, however, shared some
their food with them.
On Tuesday, the 16th, the gover
ment rested its case. Amidon w
j convinced that the defendants wot
| be found guilty, showing that e
i dence had been fount! that the I. '
i W. had relations with the Kussi
During the trial, Amidon had bi
accused by Socialist papers, such
"The New York Cal.'," of being
the power of the oil interests, si;
Amidon's office is in Wichita, '?
seat of many oil compani
Nobody had been certain ab?
the course of defense to be tal
1 by the I. W. W. counsel, but eve
body was surprised when Mo
tested his case without offering ?
testimony on his own side, althoi
it had been expected that thirty
more witnesses would be called.
fore resting his case Moore as
for the discharge of twelve of
defendants on the plea that the i
dence had not shown their com
tion with the conspiracy. This
overruled. Each side presented
arguments, and the case went to
jury on Wednesday, the 17th.
During the trial the jury prob?
knew less about what was going
in the outside world than anyb
else in the L nited States. The
of the coal strike was kept se
from them, and everything regar?
labor disputes, radicalism, profit
ing, or any related subject was :
out of the jury room. l'ranl
Campbell, the Federal District cl
was the censor, and went over
day's papers with a pair of sei?
leaving only eight short sloriei
the front page of "The Kansas
Star" on the 11th. In spite of
length of the deliberations, the
diet was reached on the first b?
: as the amount of evidence to be
j sidered caused the delay.
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