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&tu? Doric ?ribtme
First to Last?the Truth: Newa?Edi
Member at the Audit Bureau of Ctrculttlont
SATURDAY, JANUARY 10, 1920.
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The Rights of the Five
? To justify its action it is neces
aary for the Assembly to establish
not merely that the excluded mem?
bers are Socialists, but Socialists of
the kind who advocate the use of
violence. The theory that guilt can
be imputed is not defensible. Messrs.
Sweet and Adler must furnish evi?
dence of personal guilt, something
they have not yet done.
The friends of the excluded As?
semblymen present the action as im?
plying a flat denial of the free right
of citizens to organize political
parties to promote, by parliamentary
and constitutional measures, what
they deem to the public advantage.
As to this they may quiet their ap?
prehensions. There has not been
and is not to be such denial.
Technically the Assembly has the
privilege of expelling whom it
pleases, but if it exercises this pre?
rogative in a way to defeat funda?
mental American principles the elec?
torate has the power to elect an As?
sembly of different ideas. The Con?
stitution guarantees "the right of
the people to assemble and to peti?
tion the government for a redress of
grievances," and a political party is
an accepted device for the assem?
blage and crystallization of ideas.
Our friends the Socialists are
adepts in propaganda. They are
naturally making the most of the op?
portunity the Albany episode affords.
Already the welkin rings with the
charge that un-American reaction?
ists have set up a censorship of
parties. And it is painfully evident
that Messrs. Sweet and Adler have
given plausibility to the accusations.
Any one who proposes to over?
throw democratic institutions by
force and violence has, of course, no
right to be a member of a lawmak
ing body?commits perjury when he
takes an oath to uphold the Con?
stitution. But if he has such ideas
h? is a criminal anarchist, subject to
indictment, and his conviction should
precede a denial of other rights.
To judge in advance of trial is not
good Americanism. The Assembly
ehows that it recognizes this, and
that perhaps it was hasty, by prom?
ising a speedy hearing.
The hearing should obviously be
conducted with a due sense of humor
and proportion. The platform of
the Socialist party does not read
well, but it is Jio new thing to have a
platform somewhat hectic. Who of
us would have imputed to him as a
personal fault all the verbal assaults
he has countenanced in a platform?
A Socialist plank writer may be con?
ceded the privilege of sloshing
around a bit.
Are the Albany five guilty in fact
of urging the employment of revolu?
tionary violence? If they are, if by
fair proof it is established they are
for revolution through force, then
ttteir seats are properly vacant.
Otherwise not only should they be
admitted to the Assembly, but it may
be confidently predicted that they
* will be. The people,'subject to the
limitation that traitors ani the
champions of barbaric might are not
eligible, may elect whom they please.
Compromise Is Compromise
Under the heading "Mr. Bryan
Is Right" The Brooklyn Eagle, a
newspaper whose relations to the
Democratic party are historic,
strongly condemns the President's
Jackson Day letter. It rejects his
no-compromise advice and likewise
his plan to throw the ratification
issue into the campaign, which nec?
essarily means a postponement of ac?
tion for a year.
The Eagle, clinging to hope, con?
strued the no-compromise letter of
December 14 as not necessarily
meaning the President would reject
a compromise if offered. But candor
compels it now to recognize that the
President "is plainly against com?
promise." In December he had no
compromise to offer; now he indi?
cates he will accept none.
The issue is before the Senate.
Will enough Democrats free them?
selves of Presidential dictation to
famish votes needed for ratifica?
tion? Will they be joined by enough
Republican Senators to make up the
required two-thirds? On the one side
?f the Senate chamber it-may be de
?Mtaded that the no-compromise pol?
icy of the President be,r?>pwri?t/d;
on the other side it may be fairly de?
manded of the Republican ratifica
tionists that they shall not present
their reservations as finalities.
A compromise is a compromise.
The public has no liking for the ob?
stinacy of the President. It will
scarcely have a greater liking for
obstinacy on the part of Senator
Lodge and his associates. The rati?
fication of the treaty is wanted?
wanted so much that Senators of all
kinds and qualities may be asked to
yield some of their personal ideas.
The Only Candidate
The Jackson Day letter comes
close to making President Wilson a
candidate for a third term nomina?
tion. It does more than that. If
its advice is taken to heart by the
Democrats of the Senate and the
Democratic National Convention, it
makes President Wilson the only
logical Democratic candidate.
The President stands for uncon?
ditional ratification?is unwilling to
accept arty reservations. He con?
cedes "interpretations," but mere
interpretative declarations would,
of course, represent only an expres?
sion of opinion. They would have
no more legal weight than the
Supreme Court attached to the
McEnery resolution, passed as an
"interpretative" addendum to the
treaty with Spain in 1899.
Mr. Wilson is practically alone
among the leading advocates of
ratification in demanding that ratifi?
cation be unconditional. He is at
odds with a large majority in the
Senate, with the League to Enforce
Peace, with nearly all the com?
mercial and religious bodies which
have taken an active part in the
agitation for speedy ratification.
He is opposed by a practically
united Republican party and by
very powerful elements in the
Democratic party. If the Demo?
cratic party is to .make uncondi?
tional ratification the "paramount
issue" in the Presidential campaign
of 1920, who Accept Mr. Wilson is
eligible for leadership?
Senator Underwood, Senator
Pomerene,_ Senator Owen and Sen?
ator Hitchcock .are now all com?
mitted to compromise reservations.
Mr. Bryan favors reservations. Mr.
Lansing's attitude toward the treaty
and covenant is dubious. So is
Colonel House's. As for Mr.
McAdoo, Mr. Palmer and Mr.
Daniels, all Administration legatees,
they have had no association with
the treaty. They couldn't well
stand for election on the "para?
mount issue," having issues of a
domestic character on which they
would greatly prefer to run.
The Jackson Day letter therefore
comes very close to committing the
President to a third successive can?
didacy. It doesn't renounce the
mantle of leadership. It tends, on
the contrary, to bring about a situa?
tion in which the mantle cannot be
There is a pathetic echo of an
old illusion in the President's refer?
ence to his speaking tour last fall.
He says: "I have asserted from the
first that the overwhelming majority
of the people of the country desire
the ratification of the, treaty, and
tny impression to that effect has
recently been confirmed by the un?
mistakable evidence of public opin?
ion given during my visit to seven?
teen of the states." On his tour
the President spoke rarely in favor
of the sort of ratification which he
now demands. The people whom he
i addressed undoubtedly favored rati?
fication, but few of them have ever
been able to comprehend why ratifi?
cation with reservations is not
preferable to unconditional ratifi?
When the President read what is
now the Senate reservation on
Article X his auditors at Salt Lake
City applauded vigorously. They
I couldn't imagine that he was going
to denounce this modification of
the covenant's terms as an at?
tempt to "cut the heart" out of it.
The One Hope of Aviation
Aviation in America is headed to
?ward extinction. Through neglect
and indifference at Washington tht
I situation has become desperate, anc
I only prompt relief measures can
| rescue it from disappearance. Amer
| ica's rightful place in the world de
i velopment of aeronautics, a primacj
?that belongs to her by right of in
I vention, was long since lost. It is
?as a last effort to regain what has
, | been lost that our aeroplane manu
i facturers are now holdirfg in Chicagf.
j the first Aeronautical Show evei
held west of New York and that ir
i; March next they will hold the seconc
: annual show in this city.
The number of new aeroplane?
built in this country since the sign?
ing of the armistice can almost b(
I counted on the fingers of two hands
! Only 4 per cent of the vast aero
?nautical industry built up througr
the needs of war remains. Tht
achievements of the past year were
accomplished with machines built
under the war appropriations.
Upon the sub-committee of avia?
tion of the House Committee or
Military Affairs and upon Congress
rests a grave responsibility. There
in only one remedy, and that is an
immediate emergency appropriation
to tide over that period that must
elapse before Congress can devise a
constructive program under the sep?
arate department of aeronautic*
that it is hoped it will shortly estab?
lish To ?refuse this appropriation
is to decree the disintegration of the
American aeroplane industry. It is
much to be hoped that the money
will be forthcoming to keep alive
this dying industry, born of Amer?
Are Pigs Who?
The conflict between poet and
grammarian is one of those many
wars?just how many there are is
now plain to all?that never end.
Not for nothing were John. Milton
and William Shakespeare wabbly on
the "Who vs. Whom" question. Of
such free and easy grammar is all
great imaginative writing; and
against the grammarians stand by
instinct and to the death not only
poets but all who are of an imagi?
native and bestirring mind.
Naturally, therefore, we find Wal?
lace's Farmer, organ of Iowa and
the sacred animal of that great
ttate, arising to protest against that
old strait jacket of the grammars
which would restrict the relative
?'who" to persons and the relative
"which" to beasts and inanimate ob?
jects. Says this outspoken upholder
of the free tongue:
"Now, it should be plain to every
right thinking person that to refer
to that wonderful cow Tillie A'.car
tra, for example, as Tiliie Alcartra,
'which made the remarkable record,'
is a violation of courtesy and gooa
taste to a shocking degree. Any cow
that has made such a record is en?
titled to be spoken of as a 'who' and
not as a 'which.' Who would refer to
Perfection Fairfax as a 'which' in a
Hereford gathering, -and survive to
tejl the tale?
"Beasts and inanimate objects, in?
deed! The persons who devised that
grouping too obviously never had the
pleasure of friendly relationship
with a horse or a cow. The use of
'which' !.n speaking of the scrubs and
razorbacks of the olden time may
perhaps have been excusable, but
that time is now long since. We'll
be hanged if we will be forced to
speak of a boar that sells for $25,000
as a 'which,' and the grammarians
bo hanged also!"
A reason for this nonsensical rule
classifying beasts with washing ma?
chines, pianos and tin pans is sug?
gested. Our grammarians "have
been born, lived and dried up and
blown away in towns." Hence their
narrowness of vision, it is urged, and
very likely. But we think something
less than justice is done to usage and
even to the grammarians in the
Farmer's attack. The rule is often
taught strictly/ But most gram?
mars concede a large option in
the matter; and usage is as free as
Tillie Alcartra's tail in fly-time. The
distinction is wholly modern in
origin, for one thing, as a Shake?
speare concordance will demon?
strate : y
"Like a drop of water . . . ? ,
Who, falling there to find his. fel?
low." ?Comedy of Errors.
"A brave vessel,
Who had, no doubt, some noble crea?
ture in her." . ?The Tempest.
"Nothing so certain as your anchors,
who do their best office."
?A Winter's Tale.
Or, if it must be ancestresses of
the regal Tillie, here is Gilbert
White, in "The Natural History of
Selborne," writing as" recently as
"If strange dogs come by . . .
she [a doe] returns to the cows,
who, with fierce lowingB and menac?
ing horns, drive the assailants quite
out of the pasture."
And even to-day, since the dis?
tinction was invented, not only per?
sonified objects, but the dog, your
friend, and the ship you love, and
the motor car that has taken you
.through a slough, are all "who" if
your heart tells you so. That was
and is and ever shall be the way of
English, let the grammarians rule
as they will. Shall a pig be admit?
ted to this sacred height? We own
to being not altogether convinced of
the $25,000 price tag which Wal?
lace's Farmer cites. But we own
also to having only a casual acquaint?
ance with the pig?save after the
packing plant has separated him
from his soul. What is good enough
for Des Moines on this point ought
to be good enough for the country,
we gladly concede.
Exit the "Pork Barrel"
Mr. Mondell, the leader of the
House, has served notice that he will
oppose the passage of any "pork bar?
rel" bills at this session. The twc
i chief "pork barrel" measures are
i those authorizing river and harboi
. improvements and the construction
, .of public buildings. Since there arc
? rivers and harbors in many Con
. gress districts and there are sites in
I nearly every district hungering foi
postoffices and other public build
i ings, these two bills offer the av?
erage Congressman a tempting occa
i ! sion to prove to his constituency that
he is keeping an eye out for "the Old
Flag and an appropriation."
The unfortunate habit has grown
up in Congress of considering an ap?
propriation extracted from th?
Treasury as a triumph to be boasted
of back home, where a sizable pack?
age of Federal currency is to be put
into circulation. It is hard to make
one favored locality realize that it
must eventually pay its quota foi
similar favors done to all other local
j ities}. The narrower vision is fol
: lowed instead of the broader vision.
While the Treasury is full to over
j flowing it is hard to combat this
| spirit of locality log-rolling. Even
| now that the Treasury is empty, the
I River and Harbor committees and
the Public Buildings committees are
again preparing to play Santa Claus.
But Mr. Mondell and other econo?
mists have now an argument against
such extravagance which cannot be
ignored. And as soon as the budget
law goes into effect they will have a j
satisfactory weapon with which to
repel the assaults of the "pork barrel
ers." The power to make authoriza?
tions and appropriations will event?
ually he centered in each house in
one committee, and perhaps Con?
gress may come to see that it is wise
to impose a limitation on ifs own
right to increase appropriations be?
yond the amounts carried in the esti?
mates and to forbid appropriations
not estimated for.
Then the "pork barreler's" occupa
will be gone. The executive depart?
ment will be strictly responsible for
the sums spent on public buildings
and river _and ? harbor work, and
Presidents will never again threaten
to veto "pork barrel" bills con?
structed not "to meet public needs
but to maintain the local pres?
tige of Congressional appropriation
Fighting Mobs That Ought to Learn
To Be Human
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: The "money maddened mob," or
"white collar slaves," or whatever one
calls the cowardly crowd of strap-hang?
ers who fight and pull to pile into
one train, regardless of whom they are
hurting, is becoming one of the serious
questions of the day. This morning, in
a Hudson & Manhattan tube station,
one of the brutal attacks by so-called
"hard-headed American business men"
certainly proved that more than their
heads are'hard. A young girl was
dashed aside by some nickel snatcher
and thrown against a post, badly in?
juring one arm. The man who did that
trick certainly must have been aware of
it, and I suppose a certain sense of vic?
tory must have thrilled him through the
During the war I served in France
with an infantry regiment, and in my
rambling conceived a^ fairly good idea
of the way people live in France and
England, and, judging from what I saw,
considering the plight of the country
after four years of warfare, I should
say a special corps of men should
be sent to Europe to study and return
to teach our people to act like human
beings in public. At least, consideration
for young girls and women could be
I know that merely writing to you
without offering some means of relief is
not what is termed constructive criti?
cism, but it does give me a chance to
work off some of the rage and offers a
thought for to-day.
New York, Jan. 8, 1920.
Two Votes for Mr. Hoover
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: I rise to suggest the name of
Herbert Hoover or our next President
?a man of action, a man who has ac?
complished great deeds; above all, a
Such a man we need at the helm of
our government to guide us through
the uncertainty of these troublesome
Let us have men of ability in all
important positions and make the sal?
aries high enough to attract them.
Start with Mr. Hoover at the top, and <
?let us' see if men of similar caliber
can be found for him to work with.
They can be found. Will you help to
find them and start things moving by
supporting Mr. Hoover?
A. T. DWIGIIT.
Red Bank, N. J., Jan. 7, 1920.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: I feel confident that you will
agree with me that Mr. Hoover dis?
played marvelous wisdom as well as
marvelous business ability as the Food
Administrator of the United States dur?
ing the late World War. As you doubt?
less remember, he almost immediately
won the full confidence of the Ameri?
can people?East and West, North and
South?and never lost it. He never
failed in a single instance to elicit
prompt, yea, loving, response to what?
ever he called for?b? it food,*clothing
or mohey. We had bo much confidence
in hla ability, his wisdom and his
transparent honesty that we seemed
to regard it as an honor to be "Hoover
ized" by him?as we called his irresist?
ible calls for more help and self-de?
Is he not just the man for our ?ext
President? The country needs just
now for that exalted office not a great
lawyer, not a great orator, but an ex?
ceptionally great administrator. To
my mind Mr. Hoover is just the man
we need. He is far too modest to
"bid" for it himself, and with his
marvelous record it ought not to be
necessary for him to make a single
move to get the nomination by accla?
mation at the next convention of the
Republicans. And Massachusetts^
brave Governor should be made his run?
ning mate?a good team. DET.
Canterbury, Conn., Jan. 7, 1920.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Let me thank you for myself
and hundreds of others for your splen?
did editorial in Tuesday's Tribune on
our beloved and illustrious American,
Theodore Roosevelt; also the wonder?
ful reproduction of the beautiful pic?
ture, "The Long, Long Trail," and the
last letter of our Great Heart.
I hope you will reproduce the same
collection every year as a reminder to
American citizens of what we owq this
* noble character.
CLARISSA T. WILLARD GUILER.
New York, Jan. 7, 1920.
A Bumper Month
(From The Baltimore fJewe)
The railroads lost only $04,600,000 in
November; which, compared with past
performance?, isn't at all bad.
The Conning Tower
Inserted at the Request of the Contrib?'
Dear Boas :
In case there still may be a couple
Or three or /our1 Contribs ?who haven't
About the Contribunion's plan? to bup U
You kindly slip a waiting world the word?
To them who might perchance allow domestic
Or business ties to pilot them away
Next Wednesday night? from the Hotel
We've only got this trifling bit to say:
When this here Bunch of Brains is brought
(Have you been in The Conning Tower
It doesn't matter what the Day* or Weather ;
It doesn't matter if it's Dry* or Wet.
The quips that sprightly flit across the table 1
The smiles that spread from auricle to
The laughter and the ladies I ... We re
To give a full description of it here.
Have you been near when Benchley gave his
Or listened to the famous Weary roar?
If not?or otherwise?we may expect your
Staid dignity to roll upon the floor.
Can you imagine Freckles, scrubbed with
Pretending he's divorced from movie dope?
How grand to watch the gustatory habits
Of Freddie! Oh, what joy to see the
And how about the Daughters of The
Kalona, Heloise. and all their flock?
They'll all" be present at the Waltham
. To watch the extra watch that Smeed
And, what is more, you'll gaze upon as witty
A gang as ever made a party gay.
To wit and viz. and namely : this Committee
That loads7 the Contriband of F. P. A.
?Not more than that, at any rate.
2No chocks received after Monday.
?So long as It is January 14.
?This Is called to the attention of Mr.
Bliss Perry, who thinks there is no Batire
left in America.
?Neither can we.
?Ves, Ruth will be there.
'And, believe us, it'a some Job.
"Oust" is the only headlinese word
for it. "Huge Blunder by Sweet, Say
Ousted Ones," "Hylan Deplores Oust?
ing of the Socialists," and "Ousters
Wrong, Says La Guardia" were on
page 4 of yesterday's American. . .. .
;"0 Ousters, coine and walk with us,"
?the Walrus did beseech.
The Book Borrowers
Who has our score
Some day the Department of Justice
may decide to guide the literary taste
of the nation. When that time comes
we shall lose, in the raid on our
library, the shelves we most cherish
those devoted to volumes of poetry
' which the D. of J, may consider sub
'yersive of the noblest standards of
prosody. Until that feared day comes,
however, we shall be proud of our
collection, the largest we ever have
seen. It includes, besides the work.
of J. Gordon Coogler, Julia A. Moore,
and James Byron Elmore, the poems of
Mary Ann O'Byrne; "Sprigs of Poetry,"
by Norris C. Sprigg; the poems of
Dell Hair; and "School Room Echoes,"
by Mary C. Burke.
The Diary of Our Own Samuel Pepys
January 7??To my jewelers, and pur
chas'd two watches, and so to my
office, and Mistress Janet como to
luncheon, and went away early, and
then Mistress Marian come, and I
walked up town with her, and then I
upon an omnibuss, wearing my new
gloves? which kept my fingers warm;
but it was not a cold day, so it was
no test. Home, and found H. Ross
and Mistress Jane for dinner, a fairish
dinner, too; and Jane sang some songs
with sweet lucidity.
8- Late at the office, reading how my
Lord Woodrow standeth out for the
.treaty, and Mr. Bryan opposeth him.
Mr. Sweet, at Albany, hath caused five
Socialist members of the Legislature
to be excluded, a foolish, intolerant
piece of business, it seemeth to me.
Nor do I think the deportations wortn
the_coal in the ships. Some one should
write a merry comedy about these
things, but the burlesquers do but
write the same old jests about prohi?
bition, and all they write of anarchy
or socialism is whiskers.
9?-Slaving at my scrivening all day,
and to Mistress Adelaide Hughes's for
?dinner, and thence with my wife to
hear Misa Loraino Wyman sing.
The Major Pond who has "broken"
| with M. Maeterlinck is not the same
Major Pond who managed the lecture
tour of Mark\Twain, and who, as is
told in Ellsworth's "A Golden Age of
Authors," "broke" with Mark Twain
because hef? the Major?wanted to do
most of the lecturing. This Major
Pond, we believe,"is his son?
"When a man stops drinking he be?
gins to think," says the'Rev. G. Camp?
bell Morgan. He does begin to think,
but a study of what a man who has
stopped drinking thinks about shows
that he has the alcohol libido. It is
| only we who never have tasted the
Nasty Stuff that can think of higher
"At no time in the past," writes Ed
Howe, "have we Americans been as
wise in public affairs.as we are silly
now." The paragraph could be im
' proved upon by adding "tf" to it.
The per capita wealth is now $55.89,
! and if any one wants to match double
or nothing, we're ready.
And, of Course, There's Tower, Mich.
Sir : The ladies of The Tower are well
i represented on the map bf the United
? States, what with Kalona, Iowa ; Ruth,
Ark. ; Alice, Col. ; Adelaide, Penn. ; Frances,
N. D. ; Elizabeth. N. J., and Annville, Ky.
I (The last named town is probably the theme
of the well known chorus of the same
Of the merer peaple, as Daisy Ash ford
1 might Bay. there are Jack, La. : Irwin, Calif.,
and Archie, Mo. I find Chicot. Ark., and
; Nal. Ala., but there's not a sign of J. O. L.
"The American Press Humorist.*!,''
i writes Bub, our topographicul expert,
; "might convene at Clever. Mo., or
?Motley, Minn." And the Gilbert fan?
shouldn't overlook Mikado, Mich.
Speaking of towns, there are Minus,
Ga., and Plus, W. Va. F. P. A.
THE BEAM IN OUR OWN EYE
(Copyright. 1930, New York Tribune Inc.)
OVER $78,000,000 TAKEN IN 1919 BY ROBBERS, SAFE BLOWERS AND HOLD-UPS IN
THE UNITED STATES
THE INTELLECT STAGGERS AT TRYING TO COMPUTE THE AMOUNT OF RANSOM
PAID TO HAT CHECKERS AND HEAD WAITERS
OVER 56,000 KILLED THROUGH RECKLESS AUTOMOBILE DRIVING IN THE UNITED
STATES IN 1919
V/OI-IDER WHY THEY
MAKE SUCH A ROW OVER
A LITTLE PTrCEfc LIKE
Our Backwoods Town
The Case for New York ?s
Stated at Length
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: You have an interesting article
in The Tribune of January 1, in which
a curious comparison is made between
the State of California and the City of
New York as to the relative use of elec?
tricity. The statement is made that the
annual consumption of electricity in
New York City is only $1.14 per capita
i and that in California three years ago it
i was $30 and is now estimated at $40.
' Just what the real point of the com
| parison may be, as between a eity and
a state, is not at all clear; and the
conclusions adverse to New York City
are quite fallacious.
Comparing state with state, by th?
latest authentic figures, those of th?
United States Census Bureau for 1917
we find that in California the centra
station revenue from current was
roughly $38,000,000, with a populatior
of 3,800,000 in 1918 estimated, or less
than $10 per capita. In New York State
with a population estimated at abou
10,700,000 in 1918, the central statior
income from current sold was slightlj
below $80,000,000 in 1917, or about $88
On this basis the showing is very fa
vorable to New York, when it is remem
bered that California is the land o
cheap and abundant water power, to sa;
nothing of lavish supplies of oil am
natural gas, available for makini
cheaper electrlcty than the average Ne\
Yorker, dependent upon costly coal, cai
possibly secure, least of all when sup
plied by himself or a municipal plant.
But this is not half of the story. Ii
1917 the electric roads of Californi
earned $34,000,000. Those of New Yor
State earned not less than $138.000,00(
| spent mostly by greater New Yorkers i
: five-cent fares. Hence, it would at one
! appear that on the Coast they spent i
the last year on official record $73,000
000 for electricity, whereas in New Yor
State they spent aa much as $218,000
000. This makes the average for the tw
leading items of electrical service con
bined as somewhat less than $20,per caj
ita in California, as compared wit
something more than $20 per capita i
j tho Atlantic seaboard state, where th
| electric trolley systems are notorious!
underpaid for the enormous service the
render the public.
Aside, moreover, from many objectioi
to any comparison between a city r
mote from sources of energy of any kir
and densely crowded with the che*
dwellings of poor foreigners, and a ri<
agricultural and auriferous state who
very wealthy people are scattered wi
special regard to cheap power resource
there are several other consideration
of which a lew may be noted. Californ
hardly know? what artificial gas i
i New York City and State enjoy lar?
? and cheap supplies of this still very us
, ful and dependable commodity. The p
j capita consumption of such gas, whi
! notably checking the use of olcctricil
carries with it no criticism or detrime
to New York; on tho contrary, it is
prefixisting condition much to our a
Another point as to the relative I
?quality in the number of houses wired
is that it is nobody's fault or short?
coming. California is a very new state, j
with very few old buildings of any j
kind. New York is a quite old city, ;
and is exactly in the same class as
Philadelphia, Boston, - Baltimore.
Charleston, Richmond, New Orleans
when it comes to the wiring of ancient
houses built before the modern elec?
trical era. It is relatively a difficult
and expensive thing to wire an old
home, even if of wood. On the other
hand the new electrical domestic con?
struction in all these older cities is
remarkably large, and overwhelmingly
general in such new-old cities as
Chicago, Brooklyn and Bridgeport. No
ncv/ house of any ?pretensions in New
, York City is erected without electrical
! wiring; quite often the gas pipes arc
, not put in or fully connected. This is
even more true of new office buildings
One paragraph In your editoria
would imply that New Yorkers suffei
in comparison because California?
have a better rate. Now as a matter o:
fact the average rate paid in Californii
for all the energy sold in 1917 was jus
about 1% cent per unit. In New Yor!
State it was very close to two cents
which is remarkably low relativel;
when it is noted tr??it in California th
water power generating plant' wa
nearly twice as large as that of steam
I whereas in New York State the steal
I power plant, in spite of the utilizatio
of mighty Niagara, was not far shoi
of twice as large as the water powe
Of course, in neither state is the avei
age rate thus exhibited the dornest:
or retail rate. Evidently, the centn
stations in California can general
much more cheaply than those betwe?
j Dunkirk and Montauk. All the centr
j station plants of greater New Yoi
have to use expensive coal, and tl
managers get a sharp knock on tl
knuckles from every side for uaing i
j ferior coal iiwsuch emergencies as
coal strike and shortage. Transmissi<
and distribution in California are u
der notably favorable conditions; tho
in greater New York exceed for cost
ness and difficulty those of any oth
part of the Union. Some day we m
rival Californian conditions by gen?
ating at the mines, but by that time t
miner will insist on absorbing all t
? gain from using the wire instead of 1
i rail. He is headed that way now. C
i chief hope in lowering rates is to
I crease consumption as you urge, 1
! all the New York City central stat
| managers have their wits "and energ
bent in that direction, under the vi
lance of Public Service Commissions
Your laudable editorial indorsem
of the value of electrical service we
appreciate keenly. It helps along
cause, and the coming of the ?
Beautiful, for the promotion of wl
Ljust as much capital, energy, bn
[and enterprise art- expended in good
Nov.- York as anywhere else. All !
and done, and despite such unfortui
animadversions, New York City remi
by far the most intensely electri
area of its size in the world.
THOMAS COMMERPOED ?^ARTI!
N*w York, Jan. i, IW,
- -, , re
A Debt of Honor
The State's Duty When It Pun*
ishes the Innocent
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: According to your Sunday paper,
a nineteen-year-old Brooklyn boy, who
has served nearly a year of a tout\
years' sentence in Sing Sing for rob?
bery, is to be set free at the instance of
District Attorney Lewis, because it hal
been discovered that the lad is entirety
guiltless of the crime.
Just set free, that's all, with th?
stigma of a prison sentence clinging M
him and a year of his life wrongfully
taken from him by the state. After a
year in the blighting, doprcrrHrrg nt.
mosphere of a penal institution, of
forced association with hardened crim?
inals, crushed by the disgrace, embhV
tered by the terrible injustice, be is t*
be set free?that'B all.
Set free to pick up the tangled ikeli
of his broken young life as best he mayf
to forget, if he can, his horrible exp??
rience. ?Who is to blame him if he mockl
at the "justice" which mocked hi? in
his helpless misery, and now in confess?
ing its ghastly error offers him no
recompense for his sufferings, no restl?
tution for what it has wrongfully takafi
What if this boy of nineteen had been
your boy; what if this helpless victim
of laws that work but one way had bees,
youf What if he does not belong to yoq
or to me? Can we evade reaponslbilitf
for a wrong that has cried to Heaven %
be righted these many years?
Public opinion, your opinion and mint,
translated into active protest, can 1?
duce the enactment by the Legislaran
of this state of a law which will pro?
vide proper and generous recompense tl
any man unjustly incarcerated in anj
penal institution. The state should net
only pay for the time of a mar. ma?
tyred by a miscarriage of justice, but it
should undertake a sacred duty to repab
his broken reputation by making a oui*
able acknowledgment of its error, orol
the name of the Governor of the state.
The state cannot take one dollar^
worth of my personal property witheal
paying for it, but it can take years of I
man's life, disrupt his home, his busk
ness, load him with ignominy and dl?
grace, and then simply say, "We a?|
sorry, it was a mistake."
This complacent attitude of the ?a*1
toward injustice perpetrated by *M
state is a heritage of tho monarchies!
dictum, "the king can do no wrong." ?
has no place in the jurisprudence of i
free people. It is. a hateful, undem#j
cratio, un-American doctrine.
Let New York lead the way for at
the other states, in passing a law whidj
will acknowledge its legal and huma$
obligation to make full restitution f?|
any legal blunder which steals an innd
cent man's liberty and his good nam?)
just ns it does when.it takes the samj
man's cow or a foot off his back yare;
And let the state b.'gin with the P<**!
lad?William Carty is his name-?n'1
about to be unceremoniously tossed b?cj
into society. You, I. the state, all 4
ua, owe that boy a debt of honor, and \
should be paid. JESSE H. NEAL
New York, Jas. 5, 1980. i