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BlastedJWar Romances SweTDockete^of Divorce Courts
An Increase of 50 Per Cent Is
Shown in New York Figures
for 1919 Over 1918
ONCE it was "marry in haste
and repent in' leisure."
Now it is "marry in war
and repent in peace."
That, st least, seems to be the
onaensus of opinion of authorities
on divorce when commenting on the
revelation of William F. Schneider,
County Clerk of New York County,
that the number of divorces in Man?
hattan bad increased 50 per cent in
1919 over 1918.
j Several months ago American
! newspapers were carrying stories
?bout the large number of divorce
juits which have been begun in Eng?
land and Wales. During the new
term of the English and Welsh di?
vorce courts which opened last Octo?
ber the record number of 2,000
eases of divorce was filed, which is
more than double the number which
Merrie England had on its last
Thirty-eight thousand applications
for divorce were made in Petrograd
alone soon after the Bolshevik gov?
ernment announced that divorce
could hereafter be had for the ask?
ing in Soviet Russia.
So the movement is not local, but
the County Clerk's announcement
shows that the city is holding its
own and living up to the reputation
which this country has long held as
the greatest divorce market in tht
\ Church Problem
The man who can speak wit!
great authority on the reasons foi
this increase in'the number of New
York divorces?an increase whicl
he believes alarming ? is Bishoj
Charles Sumner Burch, head of thi
Episcopal Diocese of New York. Foi
nine years, both as assistant to th<
Lte Bishop Greer and as Bishop ol
this diocese, Bishop Burch has beei
interested in divorce in this city. H<
is interested in it because he re.
gards the problem of divorce as i
problem of the Church and also be
cause he has been continuously con
suited by parishioners concerning
their marital difficulties.
"I am very much surprised to
hear that divorces have increased
50 per cent in the last year," said
Bishop Burch. "I am inclined to
reason for this increase in divorce
cases is easy marriage. And yet
there is no state in the Union that is
more careful about making mar?
riage difficult than New York. A
clergyman who marries a couple
without a license in New York ia
liable to stringent punishment, and
I believe that the punishment can?
not be too severe. However, what
I mean by easy marriage is not the
technical ease with which two per?
sons may be married, but the ease
with which they decide upon mar
Bishop Charles Sumner Burch, who blames increases in
divorces on unrestricted marriages
doubt the accuracy of that ' figure
very much, but if the County Clerk
says that there are more divorces
by 50 per cent than last year I am
not the one to dispute his figures.
"To my mind the most important
riage and the lack of thought be?
hind that decision.
The Uniform's Lure
"In this connection, let me say
that probably the greatest cause of
this phenomenal increase in divorce
is the hasty war marriages, of which )
we had so many in the last two j
years. The uniform was a glorious
attraction, and justly so, and de?
parture for France was a strong in?
centive to marriage, but since the
return of our fighting men there has
been much time for the leisure
necessary for repentance.
Restrained by Patriotism
"Of course, another explanation
for the situation is the contention
that many wives who would have
sued for divorce in 1918 but for the
fact that their husbands were in the
military service are bringing suit
now. Patriotism did not allow
many wives to bring action,while
their husbands were in the military
service. However, I do not think
that reason is of major importance.
"The economic independence ol
women may be another reason fot
the increase in divorce. Many more
women are supporting themselves
even though they are married, thai
ever before. Not being dependen
upon their husbands for suppor
they naturally would not wish t<
continue to live with those husband
who proved obnoxious. This argu
ment carries more weight when on
considers that in more than three
quarters of the cases of divorce th
action is brought by the wife.
Alarming, Says Bishop
"If divorces have increased 5
per cent in the last year in Ne
York the situation is particular]
alarming, because of the fact the
New York and South Carolina ai
the two states in the United Stat?
which have the most stringent d
vorce laws. In South Carolina i
grounds whatsoever are allowed f?
divorce, and in New York the on
ground for. divorce is the statuto
ground of adultery. We have ti
highest standard, and if we have i
increase of 50 per cent what mt
be the ratio of increase in good c
Puritan Vermont, where there a
fourteen grounds for divorce?"
"What do you believe is the re
edy for the increase in divorce
"The remedy is a uniform divoi
law -throughout the country on 1
highest and most stringent pla
A uniform divorce law that woi
prevent migration from state
state in search of freedom from
responsibilities of marriage wo
decrease the number of divorces I
throughout the country, but, of
course, such a law must not bring
down the level of New York to the
standard of Vermont with its four?
teen points, but it must raise the
standard of Vermont to that of New
York. Such a law we Episcopal
clergymen have been urging for
many years. I should be in favor
of such a law by Constitutional
amendment, but I think that, if pos?
sible, it should be obtained in an
easier and faster manner. A uni?
form divorce law would not decrease
the number of divorces in New York
City, because we already have a
strict law, and the remedy for the
local situation must come from the
parties themselves. Clergymen can
be of great service in this reconcilia?
tion, and they have been of great
service. In the Episcopal Church
we do not remarry divorced persons,
except the innocent party in a di?
vorce which was obtained on the
ground of adultery."
Must Remain Married
"Then you think, Bishop Burch.
that even though two persons have
ceased to agree they should be com?
pelled to remain married through
out their lives?"
"I decidedly do think so," saic
Bishop Burch. "The doctrine o?
free love, and that is what easy dis
solution of the marriage ties means
is insidious to the last degree an<
has resulted in great moral dam
Supreme Court Justice Vernoi
M. Davis was one of the four la;
delegates sent from the New Yor
Diocese to the general conventio
of the Protestant Episcopal Churc
held in Detroit last October. Jus
tive Davis urged the adoption of
canon forbidding the remarriage b
any Episcopal clergyman of eithe
party to a divorce action, but h
motion was defeated. From h
position on the Supreme Coui
bench Justice Davis is well qual
fied to comment on the increase i
Poverty and Divorce
"The first step in loosening tl
marriage ties is the failure to o
serve the religious obligations a
sumed at marriage," said Justii
Davis. "The chaos created by tl
war also has something to do wi
present conditions. That situath
is the usual sequence of an age of
luxury. I do not think that the con?
dition is permanent. It has been
my experience that most divorces
are brought by poor people and not
by those who are well to do."
The experience of Justice Davis
is corroborated by the records of
the Philadelphia divorce courts. In
many cases in the present term of
the Philadelphia divorce courts it
was found impossible by both par?
ties to meet the usual standards of
life because of the present cost of
living. By mutual agreement it was
Il *? I
Wave of. Marital Unhappiness Is
Not Confined to Manhattan
But Is World Wide
to be interviewed on the reason for
the increase in divorce.
"Judges should not speak through
the newspapers," said Justice Guy.
"They should rather speak to the
public by means of their work."
Justice Samuel Greenbaum is of
the opinion that there is too much
.Justice Greenbaum sqys divorces have increased because the
modern home lacks sanctity
sought to dissolve marriages which
were made unpleasant by the well
known pursuit of love by poverty,
via the window.
Justice Guy, who has handled
many of the large number of di?
vorce cases tried during the last
year in the Supreme Court, declined
materialism in the world to-day and
that the reason for divorce can be
found in that condition of mind.
"The moral side of life is not
looked upon as strongly as it was
formerly," said Justice Greenbaum.
"The younger generation runs
around much more freely. The
home lacks sanctity, and there is a
tendency among young folks to
escape from the ties that bind them.
They call that freedom."
In England, Too
This country is not the only di?
vorce offender. In spite of the fact
that, according to statistics of popu?
lation, there are some 2,000,000
women in England who will have to
go without husbands, the divorce
courts are crowded. It is remark?
able, considering the war casualties
and the slight chance of a second
choice, that so many English women
are willing to let go of so. many
husbands, and it also may be the
reason why so many husbands are
lured from so many wives.
The reason for the large number
of divorces in England, as stated by
; Mr. D. Figur, of the most popular
j and busiest firm of divorce solicitors
| in the United Kingdom, is : '
"The reason we are getting more
divorces is simply because the war
has taught both men and women in?
dependence, and has taught them to
think. Women have learned that
they have an individuality, and that
they can look after themselves. The
men, too, have come to take a
broader view of life.
"The fact is that there would have
been just as many divorces before
the war if people had not been
shackled by lack of initiative and by
fear of challenging the conventions ?
of society. The desire for divorce .
was there, but instead of taking ac?
tion people went on in the old, un?
happy state. Now, after over four
years of separation, many couples
have come to a realization that they
can be happier apart. That is the
situation in a nutshell."
The Federal Census Bureau is
discouraging to ardent lovers. Ac?
cording to a bulletin issued last
August, there is one chance in ten
that fond lovers will ever celebrate
their silver wedding anniversary.
The census figures also show that
the largest number of divorces occur
in the fourth year of marriage, and
that the next danger points come in
the twentieth year and the twenty
fifth year. The compilera are reas?
suring in their insistence that there
are comparatively few divorces
after couples have lived together
for sixty years.
According to Chief Clerk Scully,
who has charge of the Marriage
License Bureau, prohibition has had
nothing to do with divorce.
Forsakes Society for Political Job ? Knows Bolshevism as It Really Is
SHOULD a rich woman hold a
This is the question that
Miss Charlotte Delafield had
to answer before she accepted the
appointment as secretary t? F. H.
U Guardia, the new President of
the Board of Aldermen. Miss Dela?
field is the daughter of Lewis L.
Delafield, of 20 West Fifty-eighth
Street, a prominent lawyer and
member of the Union Club. She
*as one of the "millionaire suffra?
gists" who worked under Mrs. Nor?
man deR. Whitehouse in the last
suffrage campaign and has since
Wen active in Republican politics.
She hustled for votes in the anti
Tammany campaign test fall, when,
? chairman of? the La Guardia
N'oonday Meetings Committee, it
?as her business to follow the
buglers and cast a spell of oratory
?pon the crowd until the candidate
So when Mr. La Guardia offered
her an appointment among the citj
others it seemed like the next
???tarai step in her political career
to*~-there were the people whc
?ned that a rich girl had no right
W a salaried position that some self
?ipporting woman might need.
\ it i? a question that hundreds of
koriiters of wealthy parents hav?
?W to answer since the entrance o?
*?nen Into public affairs, ant
**P*rially since the war gave womer
? taste of the fun of a regular job
Hi*? Delafield answered the
(,B**tion in favor of the career.
littst a girl he deprived of every
a** interesting in life just be
ewa? her father can afford to sup
** W?" she demanded. "Men ar?
*W?mted to offlce because of the!
**ttfteations, not because of the!
**?*ty; why should it not be tha
r *** with women, too? If you loo!
****? ?oettioo from the other angl
you will see how absurd it would be
to regard financial need as the chief
qualification for a position. There
is nothing inherent in a poor man
that makes him a good public ser?
vant?in fact, you never consider a
man's financial rating at all when
you offer him a position. You never
assume that the salary is the chief
inducement in inviting men to pub?
lic office. You never accuse the pres?
ident of being in politics for the
money in it, nor the minister for be?
ing in the pulpit for money alone.
I don't see why the same rule should
not apply to women. We should do
the work for which we are fitted
and which we enjoy, regardless of
the salary attached.
"That is why I consented to ac?
cept this position, although I knew
there would be some criticism and
that some women would feel that 1
was taking the bread out of their
mouths. However, I am glad to say
that? many women have not felt
that way, but have congratulated
me upon my decision. I have had
letters from older members of the
city government, expressing their
pleasure in my appointment and re?
joicing that the day had come when
women could hold political office as
a result of their insight into politi?
Miss Delafield cheerfully admitted
that she had never earned a penny
before in her life, and the arrival
of her first pay envelope would be
almost as great an event as the
casting of her first vote. She says
she has told her father she will live
on her ?alary of .$2,400, and nc
longer wants an allowance.
"Working for the city cannot b?
any harder than driving a motor
car in France," ?he laughed. "Wc
always used to start before day?
light there, becaufje we never knew
when our day's journey would end
and we had to take advantage ol
the daylight to get as far a?s w?
?could before we broke down. Who;
II look around this beautiful Cit>
Hall and my own large, ?sunny office
I remember the hours I spent/or
my back under a truck in France,
?and 1 don't pity myself nearly as
j much as you might think. I went
; all over the northern part of France
?on errands for the American Fund
I for French Wounded, and later I
j was loaned by that committee to the
Women's Overseas Hospital. The
women doctors were visiting many
small villages in the devastated
areas with traveling clinics, from
which they treated the women and
children. I drove the clinic."
Miss Delafield is the kind of girl
|who never hoards her comfort
I when she is working for a cause.
! Some women would have thought it
was enough to have worked every
! day at the La Guardia headquarters
and to cast her own vote for her
candidate on Election Day. Not at
all. When Election Day dawned
Miss Delafield was waiting outside
the door of the little gray painted
shack at Lexington Avenue and
Fifty-fourth Street which was the
political heart of her election dis?
trict that day.
WHATEVER form of gov?
ernment Russia has, the
dissatisfied ones seem to
seek America. Pilgrims
constantly are seeking our shores
for hoped for freedom, even though
the restraint on immigration has al?
most shut the gates to the one-time
Last week another hopeful adopted
the United States. She came from
Russia, arriving here on the Black
Arrow. She is of what was the mili?
tary class under the Czar's govern?
ment, and found living precarious
under the Bolshevik r?gime.
"Many years of my life I lived in
Petrograd," said Mme. Mary Kali
nina last week. "I traveled to many
places with my husband, to all parts
of Russia and in some parts of Si?
beria. But in those days I did not
dream that I should ever come to
New York. Sometimes I can hardly
believe that I am really here."
Mme. Kalinina has brought with
Miss Charlotte ?elajield, the "millionaire suffragist," at her l Mme. Mary Kalinina and her son, who recently escaped
desk at the City HalL She'll live on her salary l from Russia
her to this country her son Cyril, a I
three-and-one-half-year-old person I
of great vivacity and mischief. He
has fair hair and skin and is slight?
ly taller than most children of his,
age. His mother is a blonde, and
has distinct charm and grace of
"Good morning," says the little
Russian chap, that being the only
American expression he knows, and
consequently one which he uses upon
every opportunity. He then began \
a perilous ascent over two trunks in '
order to reach a striped box upon the ;
chiffonier. This accomplished with
out a misstep or a movement that !
was without grace, he opened the
box to several visitors and urged
candy and raisins upon them.
"What am 1 going to do?" re
peated Mme. Kalinina. "Oh, there
are so many things to do in your
country, it seems to me, and I would
be content with anything that was
safe and quiet.
"I have raised flowers and experi?
mented with them in crossing, mak?
ing new lands. I like to work with
orchids best. If I could get some
work of that kind I should be glad,
because I could make it a profession.
I have done many things in the last
few years, and any kind of work that
is quiet I could do and feel glad."
The increase of the power of the
Bolsheviki drove Mme. Kalinina
from one part of Russia to another.
She and her husband lived in Petro?
grad before the revolution. Later
they went to the Caucasus. Last
year he flee! before the rumor that
he was to be imprisoned, and his
wife has not seen him since. She
has not heard from him since last
April, although she knows that he
was in the volunteer army of Kol
"I finally reached Tiflis," said
Mme. Kalinina in reviewing her ex
" -1 '
periences and hardships under the
r?gime of the Bolsheviki. "There I
conducted a tearoom, which was pa?
tronized largely by British soldiers.
They offered me protection, and it
was not until after they were with?
drawn that I thought of coming to
America. The danger to persons not
in sympathy with the Bolsheviki wa?
too great to be risked. With ten
thousand killed in one city recently
simply because of their disagreement
with the Bolsheviki, the danger be?
comes very real."
When Mme. Kalinina was asked
her opinion of the Bolsheviki and
their parlor brothers in this coun?
try her friends of the Travelers'
Aid feared greatly for any answer
she might make to the question.
Their objection was not that there
was a possibility that she might not
know about conditions in this coun?
try and the parlor Bolsheviki. In
fact, she is well informed. But they
were afraid that the "Reds" m this
country might take offense and
might harm the Russian bourgeoise
and her son.
The Canadians befriended Mme.
Kalinina at Tifiis and she said that
she hoped in time to go to Canada.
A number of her friends there are
men of great influence. Of course, she
hopes to make a career for herself
in this country, but if she can't she
will try Canada.
"Anything that means peace and
quiet," repeated Mme. Kalinina. "I
should like to work with flowers be?
cause it would keep me in the city.
I like the country, but would live in
the city because of my son. I want
him to have the best schools and I
suppose there would be no schools in
"But there are good schools out?
side the cities in America," she was
"Oh, then," she said, ?I should like
i to live in a village. I think I should
j be happy keeping a little farm and
I raising chickens."