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5N?/ A HAN
?. By GEORG
S CHAPPELL Wfti/Z%[ Wm HOGARTH, J.
""??gr* ?X r> mam AR[OUS indeed arc the
r^i Vv m pharos of the domestic
S*?h ' '\?^\ fii relation between hus
v"L \ rv/ - t?and ari(l wife which
jfpikj'?ik ?.fa( ^k? we might analyze. We
//k !??* '*?/*l\ bave discussed ?3-otn
''??) YjT\ y U4jVn the male angie family
* ?^ j?? \'?ti3 finances, recreations.
''/ v?a\ *&*& and emotional prob
?/^??~WJMt*vm leTn" without having
more than scratched
? fa '? e ?' this vas! field for investigation,
after ail, is it possible to pursue the
-? '? ? r to advantage?
I hear with my mind's ear a large female
crying shrilly "No!" Furthermore. I
ved a number of protects from ladies
tal en violent issue with some of the
have led me so inevitably to
appreciation of my own sex. The
our minds can never quite meet. Our
is made by conflict. The spiritual
iverage married couple may
that of the beetle, which is guid
course by a scries of collisions.
" i- great beauty in this thought.
A successful marriage, of which there are so
many, is a sublime achievement because of the
hardships involved. There are many, I
know, who would deny these hardships, but I
? v merely cover them up. They wish
married state to appear all beautiful, so
they say it is so, and are bitter in their de?
lation of those who point out its pitfalls.
They sometimes fool" themselves and travel
acre-? the lower plains of life, keeping to the
. ?f highway of convention, where travel is
some of the views "quite
? adventurous spirit w
?eins of romance and imag
? d ffic Such a one. when
mphant into that phase of life
i ? ? . a marriage may be said to be success?
ful, i indeed a hero,
band and wife are heroes, but
esp< the husband. He, as the more ad
- ' i-, is subjeel to the more severe
. Bu1 there iy glory enough for all.
A Yeoman'? Place
Tin ??' er, a sphere in which woman
preme. I refer to the
'1 imc oui ? :' mind we have been t??1?,
n's right beside the good old
ow this assertion makes our aver
? ' '??-day scream with rage.
? by every word ?33(1 act. But let
. it as she will she will inevitably in
her I <r year:? be drawn of necessity to her
j ib mitress of her man's apartment, cot
or cas' le.
Home! What a beautiful word it is. What
ms il conjures up of the family
hered about the evening lamp, the old
- gently laying down the (?odd
p.ook and slipping up to bed with Scott Fitz
I under 1 arm?not really, you under
? d ? ? the others stay to listen to the
erl a th ecture, "Facl
,? I eet," by Dr. Roach, of the Yonkers
pital ' ? everywhere in the
ces of woman's handiwork,
ations, the flowers, the pictures,
tl e rug?. These are all her thoughts.
? a cui :'Viis lack of definiteness
ng, the American home.
B; thai ! mean a definiteness of location,
W( i " be confessed, a nation on the
i ;? ?. ' . \ and? riip Pooch, the brilliant young
-? ?? i ?,??>.
Chinese poet, founder of the Abattoir School,
??ays: "Home is where the harth is."
This is an exaggeration. There is hash
everywhere. True, there are homes every?
where, but not your home and mine. The in?
dividual home is where the wife is. She is
the embodiment of the home. She is It.
Haven't you noticed how, when a couple
unfortunately break up and the wife goes to
her mother, the subsequent legal papers al?
ways say that the husband deserted her? "De?
sertion" is one of the most popular pleas.
"He deserted his wife and family'." Oh! the
scamp?-notwithstanding that she walked out
on him and left the creamed oysters to boil
all over the kitchen floor. But when she
slammed the back door and walked ou!, the
home went with lier. She took it right along.
Truly, if a woman's place is the home, the
home's place is woman.
We are, as I say, on the move. It has been
pointed out by acute European observers that
practically no Americans live in the homes of
their fathers. Each generation pushes on to
something new. The old homestead is sold.
The old farm is abandoned or cut up into
building lot?*. I heard an old gentleman in
Connecticut say with a sigh, "Yes, they're
going ter run the new trolley line right across
mother's grave." Our traditions have, with
few exceptions, failed to take root.
We see, then, that what we speak of with
such deep emotion as "home' is very largely
;;n idea. By that 1 do not mean a mirage.
Ideas are the most real things in the world. It
is an emotional coloring which we apply to
the particular spot, where we are now living,
or, rather, where the wife is living. But the
location of an American home is subject to
change without notice, i am myself at pres?
ent occupying a pleasant little house in Holm
hurst. Aided by several of the largest banks
in the country I have purchased this hand?
some residence. I "own my own home." For
years, as a renter, I argued against this prin?
ciple. 1 pointed out very clearly that, to rent
was to save, that the carrying charges and
_ _ -. ..muni i i?.mi ? ? ?! ???????*
A typical American family just, after they have moved into their new apartment
upkeep m;ide owning a house absurd. Then
rents went through that rocketlike ascent of
a few years ago and, with fear and trembling
and two large, fat mortgages, 1 bought. Now
that I have got, used to getting notices from
the bank without; having heart disease I quite
like the sensation. I can talk just as glibly
from the owner standpoint as I did from the
tenant's. There are times when I actually
feel that I own the house.
But, bless you, does this mean that I have a
permanent home? Oh, dear, no. No matter
who buys the house, it is always the wife's
property. It is she. who sells it. Many a time
have I shivered as my wife looked about our
living room with one eye fixed on the ceiling
stain over the sofa while she murmured: "Do
v >(, unow, 1 believe I'll sell this house.'"
Honestly, I never round our street corner
uithou! expecting to see a large "For Sale"
sign on the front lav n !
Wives, in fact, are the restless ones. Give *
;nan average comfort, a chair to sit. in, a rug
to knock his ashes on and two meals a day
he buys his lunch outside- and I verily believe
he would stay in one spot for the rest of his
lite. Not so the woman. She is ambitious,
she wishes for growth, change, increasing com?
fort and beauty.
Man has his business to develop?he is con?
tented to nave his home remain static. But
home is a woman's business and she likes to
make it grow. If the means permit, she will
move to a new location. I hear occasional ref?
erences to Dingle Ridge, which is a new, very
smart, station about fourteen miles from my
present location. There, are veiled threats to
move in that direction.
"What in the world is the matter with Holm
hurst?" 1 occasionally ask.
I am then treated to a lecture on the dis?
advantages of our 'harming village, its low
altitude and malarial climate, its ever-chang?
ing population and its social impossibility until
I blush tf> think of my low companions on the
When actual moving from place to place ii
out of the question, a wife vents her sur
pressed desires in this direction by rearrang?
ing the furniture. If she cannot be in a new
place she will make the old environment ap?
pear different. This is the urge back of spring
house cleaning?the desire to shift the furni?
ture about to the utter bewilderment of the
Women, then, have the gypsy instinct. How
much more successfully the Romany children
solve their problem. For they take their home
with them. Remark the exquisite quality of
Mr. Hogarth's drawing, wherein we see the
neatly appointed, spick and span gypsy home,
a home which remains always the same and
yet may command a new view every morning.
Contrast this splendid method with our cum?
bersome one of moving ail our goods and chat
tels from ?m?*- fixed home to ????
a horrible sight it is in the sprii . of Vn \?.\
to see great, moving vans, which oui
Hogarth contrasts so <* ? -,-. ?i,,, 2
fortable gypsy wagon-, into
go all our most cherished possession
??locks, our precious ?. hina, oui delicate chain
and-?what is more precious and Importar <
ail?our horn*1 spirit
Th<? Tourh of a Woman's Hand
Here it is that woman magnificently ihm
herself. Impossible though it may -?-,
is actually able to shift the exquisite ip r ?,,
home from one place to another. She T;a,>:
it in barrels, she crates it in boxes, but ????
never loses it. It is her great, her luprml
('?uze. on the alluring interior which then?
Hogarth has created. With what it*
acumen he has caught the very pisonee o'
woman's genius, for here we see the Robitisftm
a typical American family, , after fat
have moved into their new apartment N?? ?
say, and yet already so cozily amiliar, -*???
the old, well known pictures and bits of fut?i.
ture to say "Welcome"; old friends to n-?t
them on the new threshold.
Old friends! Ah, the mag e ? ' those dea?
familiar things, the picture '????? ?hoa?
be without, the standard sets of hooks, thi
regulation furniture. See. how the "B;.
Boy" stands above the man*?-'.: He hat bte
given quite a modern touch since Mr. Dotm
made an exhibition of him in New York. Ay
the Princess Louise descending the stairca?.
not the "nude," heaven forbid! ?and the pb
tograph of the Rialto Bridge in Venice! V<\
could we do without them? Mr-, and gq
Robinson have been in Venice and ha
pictures taken in the Piazza with pigeon?!
over them: just fancy!
And then, in addition to these regular ?3?
rations, are the special, intim?t0,
thing"?Henry's big, comfortable morri3 chit
and his set of the "Encyclopedia Britannic
which he never move? without and never lo?
within. But they give t .ne. And tire bulga*
vicirola! Isn't it a beauty! 1- looks as if*
were about to give birth to a lot of r,e**r rs
ords. And please do not fail to notice Ma
Robinson's pet book end**, the kind that ?lip
fall on the floor, and the dear old lampghafe
with the big fatuliva bird:- oi it, * at - :
give such a note of color to I But'i
crowning touch >s Henry's haker.
Artful Mrs. Robinson! She has given i
central position within easy reach. ?b?
ice is ready and the orange juice :; ?trti*
and in a few moments Henry will begiift
orient himself and will find his way I %
pantry. In fifteen minutes he will sigh
fortably as he absorb? his wife's share of tin
"dividend" which she tactfully refuses-nus
once more, thank-- to the unerring instinct?;'
the home touch, the gentle spirit of restai
permanence will -teal into his ?oul.
Woman! Woman! Who but you could ti*
m the midst of our rushing, migrator* ':
create these grateful oases of comfort r:
rest, gathering up our belongings, --<??*'?:
them, and us. from place to place with
incessant ambition and urge, and yet fw
keeping the sacred fires of Vesta burn i%\
If we husbanq-- seem to sneak out ?:':''
house and leave the business of mo\;,*r toy?
our wives, it is only because we feel our nice?
Honestly, ladies, it is a gift.
Remark the neatly appointed, spic and span gypsy home, a home which remains always the same and yet may command a new view eve
Contrast this splendid method with our cumbersome one of moving all our goods and chattels from one fixed home to another
view every morning.
,v-._. t? * RE teachers
??^ -' *- happy?"
A "Yes, their
?.?yv..^V^r alone. No, if they have
"^^mW ' ' educational ideas."
* So I revised my
f /-s^ ^/ query to, "If teachers
Aga?^ \\< aren't happy, why
?MfX \ \ ui-\'- they and what
>? v?^ S i\\ Can we do about it?"
vV T h e answers were
^5**" The query was sug?
gested by the statement
of Dr William IT. Allen, director of the In
:' ''<? r Public Service, New York < ity,
. unhappiness is the principal cause of the
her shortage. In spite of generous in
salaries in many sections of the
country, in spite of comparatively short hours.
- ? ? ? . ;?' ?days, long summer vacations and
pe? ion systems, recruits will not re
ihools are understaffed.
Dr. Ulen recommends "happiness surveys"
? pi . ?c schools throughout the country to
vi r the causes of tea,?'nets' unhappiness.
?'? nervous lest be be accused
f ! ? . he justifies such an inquirj
on tt thai will no|; i os< much and
annot be the foundation of liberty
unless teachers a'-e happy.
? ng in thrift and the flag? Isn't
. .. happiness never did any one
Oni ? J was a teacher, but slow f am saved,
1 us<" 1 to wonder vaguely why I threw up a
perfectly good job. The subject was too pain?
ful i ;-"?' ' ??' clearly. Other ex-teach
seem to feel the same way. When a
siness and professional women
are talking and sonsi one asks: "How man;
of you have been teachers in your awful past?"
a sort of a muffled ye'?) goes up. They all look
a little sick for a minut?, as if they smell the
schoolroom odor of sole leather, f, ? oil, wet
umbrellas in the c^atroom and artificially reno?
vated air; as if they felt the pressure of sei
comp ?"??)' of an infinity of noises
rat yet sounded; a if they beard ringing in
their ears their own metallic voices, making
By MARY ALDEN HOPKINS
Illustrations by ETHEL PLUMMER
didactic, statements on matters that have never
Then some one hastily asks where some one
else bought her jolly gray pumps or who is
being analyzed now, or if the newest baby
has come, or, oh, anything that isn't pedagogi?
When I lead Dr. Allen's statement I re?
alized that we stopped teaching because we
were not happy. It was as simple as that.
We just were not happy. Wc may not be
laughing little buttercups*-in our later jobs,
but we none of us go back to the schoolroom.
Some teachers stay in. Around 700,000 are
coming and going, mostly women. Those 1
know- r small percentage, 1 grant- -uatiHjIly
tell me that they are happy. Or wouldK(pj if
if. Those "if-" are our concern. Seven hun?
dred thousand, mostly women, who would be
The "it's" that -?and between teachers and
happiness fall into three sets; the general
physical conditions under which work is per?
formed, intellectual constraints innerem in the
system, and emotional inhibitions which are
-' nsed rath' : : ban comprehended.
J.ow salaries were formerly a constant
source of* exasperation, hut salaries have now
been raised. Many teachers who thought that
they would be contented if only they could
make ends meet are astonished to find them
selves s'iii dissat sfied. They ncty- cite differ?
ent reasons for their uneasiness: ("lasses are
frequently too large, clerical work is sometimes
.-?.. g -<??? . old buildings are crowded, dirty and
unsanitary, parents are likely to be unreason?
able, discipline is difficult, some principals do
n it stand behind their teacher- and others can?
not maintain harmony among the staff. City,
and country schools present annoyances
like these in varying forms.
These drawbacks are the ones most fre?
quently talked about; partly because they $re
obvious and partly, perhaps, because they ?an
I??- remedied withoul starting anything. They
are. in my opinion, contributing rather than
fundamental can.?.- of unhappiness. Every
business and profession has cquivelant defects.
.Many employees arc overworked. The boss is
always wrong. 'Customers ami clients arc (be
limit. Why list these ordinary exasperations
when teaching has a unique disadvantage?
Teaching is the only work which must be per?
formed with one's bead in a feather bed ?
They act like the French populace storming the Bastile
smothered in routine, stifled in conformity.
Teachers discus? with calm vigor and lucid?
ity the disadvantages I have mentioned. But
when they begin to talk of the hindrances,
thwarting- ancl obstructions with which they
meet, they cease being ladies and act like the
French populace storming the Bastile! They
want to smash something. The strain of
teaching may come, not from its exertions, but
from its preclusions. ,
"A city school system is too impersonal,"
one woman explained. "It is like the army.
For instance, a33 ambitious teacher, who spent
her last, summer's vacation fitting herself for
special work, was no sooner well started on
the fall term than she was moved to another
school where there is no chance to do that
kind of teaching. Five minutes before the
transfer came she didn't know she was to be
moved. It just happened so."
"The schools are run on the factory system,"
said another. "Your work is cut out for you,
handed to you by a foreman and you work
on a time schedule. A visiting supervisor called
one teacher's attention to the fact that she was
three minutes behind her schedule!"
A school visitor added her mite of pes?
simism. "They never let up on the teachers-,"
she bore witness. "During one recitation 1
saw a teacher interrupted five times by boys
bringing notices and rules and regulations and
requests for her to read and sign. While she
was out of the room for a minute a sixth boy
came in. He thought I was the teacher. He
said to lue, 'A conductor on the Second Ave?
nue 1. wants a teapot.' 'By all mean? give
it to him.' I replied. His errand seemed to
me to have just about as much sense as the
Lack of intellectual freedom is likely to be
touched upon if the speaker has confidence in
her lis!einer. Teachers, it is said, are nervous
I about, losing their jobs, .since they have seen
others, dismissed for political opinions. Even
those who have no
?pinions at all are
( onstant contact with V^A \Y,
minds is "^X'T rr
immature minds is
mentioned as stultify?
ing. A teacher is ex?
pected to mold the
c o m i n g generation
into the likeness of the ^^^^^^^^^^^
passing generation. For these reasons teach?
ing lacks its rightful prestige. "Who's Who,'
finding its pages overcrowded, has dropped th?
educators from its list of eminent IB?? *DC
When these women get to talking about the
intellectual restraints of their profession they
offer no cure-all. "You'd have to pull ?town
the entire educational system," they think?
All right. Let's. And build it up ?**
along the lines 0f those model exper?MSU1
schools that allow for the teacher having"
mind worth using, even though a consid?
erable percentage of teachers prefer dictation
to the responsibilities of freedom, as some dor
feel safer on the leash, t
Now, about, the emotional inhibitions ?
teaching. Folks in general hold that it sfco?
be a celibate profession. For women, that ?
Some cities actually fire women teachers***"
they marry, while other boards stand for?>5
riage, but draw the line at motherhood,
cartoon "Teacher" with a knob of ham
frown and a ruler, as naturally as w* ""
"Nurse" on the magazine cover 'i'm:$ter'
to a fevered hero who wants to marry
the instant he gets well. ?
It is true that girls who teach do not n*^
as many chances to marry as do those
ployed in most other kinds of work. A s***
rapher meets more men than women a
course of her day. while a teacher uses ??
to rely on church socials and the boa1Y,p
house table. She may be pretty as a <J
rose all day long, but what good does W.
her matrimonially? And most comWU*.jL
do not approve 0f her having too good ?
after her day j work is done. ? ., a
"The teaching was no end of fun," ?*?
(Continued on vcae twelve)