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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, August 28, 1892, Section B, Image 15

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2 I 4 > THE SUN SUNDAY AUGUST 28 1892
I
SOSIR NEW BOOKS
s Tha Byanntlnn Kn piv
Ot tho many volumes Included In the Sto
r ries ot the Nations carles Putuams the
most Important 1 the latest entitled The ilu
untie AVujir by 0 W C OllAK This U the
tf first attempt to popularize tho right concep
tion of the cart played by Constantinople In
the hlstoryot European clvlllctlona concep
i tion which materially differs from tho picture
ot unbroken corruption and decay presented
In the Decline and Fall With tho facts and
with the true deductions from them students
m have been made familiar by Flnlays history
published nearly forty years ago and by the
I moro recent work ot Mr Dury which appeared
In 1880 Hitherto however all the handbooks
on the subject have continued to circulate a
commodity which Mr Oman aptly describes as
Gibbon and water I Is on tha contrary i
tho matter and the spirit of 1lnlay und of
Dun which are reproduced In the present vol I
3 r ume Its readers will bo enabled to under
c stand how It came to pass that tho eastern Ro
t man empire survived by nearly a thousand
roar the disruption of tho empire In tho West
a phenomenon Inexplicable upon tho theory
countenanced br Gibbon that the rulers of
Constantinople were a succession of weak
lings and that Its subjectpeoples woro desti
tute of all the virile virtues and had sunk to
c the lowed depths of social and moral deca
dence The truth Is that tho Goths Huns
Avers Slavs and Northmen who wrought
li such havoc central western Kuropo mado
no faUl impression on tha Dyzantlnu realm
c which also repulsed from tho llosporus tho
same Saracens who conquered Spain and pene
i trated to Poitiers In Franco which moreover
i blocked the westward advance of the Soljuk
Turks and would have kept the Ottoman
Turk out of Europe had not the Latin Chris
4 tians committed the blunder ot shattering
their strongest bulwark against Islam by
t seizing Constantinople and dealing a blow to
the Greek empire from which It was unable
i to recover
J I
1l Mr Oman begins his narrative with an ac
b count of tho foundation of Uyzantlum by a
f colony from Hegara In tho seventh century
U C and outlines the history of tho Greek
a t city during tho ensuing thousand years up to
1 A D 328 when the Emperor Constantine be
gan t erect I Now Rome on tho Incomparable
1 lo We need not dwell upon the wellknown
r I acts recited in this Introduction nor on tha
I four succeeding chapters which set forth the
J fortunes of the Now Home In the two cen
turies which elapsed between Its foundation
t and the accession of Justinian A D 527 So
> t far a regards this part of Mr Omans book
we shall only note his explanation of the fact
i 4 that while tho Western Itoman Empire came
I t nn cud with tho deposition of Au
4 gustulus A D 4TIS the Eastern realm
of which Justinian became the ruler
half a century later had withstood ex
r ternal assault and Internal disintegration and
was actually stronger than It had been a hun
dred years before Mr Oman shows that the
main secret of the success of the Eastern em
perors of tho tutu century In holding their
own lay In tho fact that they had dispensed
I
with foreign auxiliaries to u largo extent had
1 reorganized their armies and filled them up
with native troops Lou I who ascended tho
I throne A D 457 was tho first ruler i who
t turned to account the military virtues of tho
mountain of south
1 ft Iiaurlans or populations
ern Asia Minor He added several regiments
of them to tho army of tho East but i was hid
r j soninlaw and successor Zono 474411
Ff himself an Isaurlan born who developed the
t i scheme Zeno raised an Imperial guard from
1 his countrymen and enlisted as many
corps of thom as could bo raised more
1 over ho formed regiments of Armenians and
othor Inhabitants of tho highland frontier of
the East and handed to his
f Eat over successor
Anastaslus an army In which tho barbarian
auxiliaries now composed of Teutons and
t Huns In about equal numbers woro decidedly
j dominated by the native elements It was due
t these salutary reforms which restored the
1 legions to something like their old trustwor
t a thiness that tho Eastern empire in spite of
rebellions was never in serious danger of I
sinking into disorder or breaking up as the
Western realm had done Into now unIioman
kingdoms Ho far was It from encountering
j this fate that Anastoslus whon ho died In A
JJ 518 left his successor Justin tho uncle of
v Justinian a loyal army of 150000 mon u
I treasure of 120000 pounds of gold and an un
r broken frontier to east and wost
r r In the history of the Byzantine empire
r1 I Which covers upward of a thousand years
I there are certain epochs which should be dis
L tinguished oven In tho most cursory review
4V These are associated with tho names of Jus
4 i tinian of Iloracllus of Loo tho Isuurlan of
r tho Macedonian dynasty ana ot Alexius Com
nonus Then ono must glance at the abortive
attempt Of the Latin nations to found an em
pire at Constantinople and at the restoration
of a Crook dynasty which although it man
3 aged t maintain tho semblance of dominion
was during nearly half of that period only a
Tossal of the Ottoman Turks Ro far UK its de
4c fensive services to Christendom woro con
fE cerned Constantinople might as well have
fallen In 1301 as In 14TI It is true hovvevor
t that western Europe was less prepared for the
renaissance at tho former period than at tho
latter
I
At the present time Justinian Is remembered
2it for the Institutes and Pandects that oodltlca
tlon ofthe Itoman law which boars his nauio
t I and was executed at his order But there had
t been revisions of the law before and his
contemporaries were justified by tho event
In supposing thoro would bo others In
the future In his own day Justinian was
r most widely and honorably known as I
i builder and a conqueror The ilo quo of I
J bt Hophfa at Constantinople und the church
only two of this
of San Vltalo at Havenna are
many hundred specimens of his uchlcncmoru
In ecclesiastical architecture 1rocoplun de
voted I considerable treatise to tho descrip
f1 tion Juetlnlana buildings and numbers of
i3 thorn survive to testify to the accuracy of the
y hlctorlan Not merely great centres like Con I
stantinople or Jerusalem are full of edifices
k erected by this Emperor but oven in tho moro
secluded outlying portions of his dominion
any lee building extant U In two canes out
of three referable to his reign It Is also to
j be noted that tho era of Justinian forms < i
landmark in the 6t > lo of Orientalchurchirchl
lecture Up to his time Christian aichltovts
i had been following two patterns I copied trout
old Koman models to wit the round dUI
2 church whoso origin can be traced to the
i Temple of Vesta and thu rectangular church
with antes which was simply an adaptation to
ecclesiastical purposes ot the basilica or Old
Human lawcourt Justinian brought Into UU
for the first time on a largo scale the combina
i tion of a cruciform ground plan 1 and a very
large dome A typo ot this style is I the famous
buroh now Slosiuo of bt hophla which Is it
reek cross MO feet long and 24 broad bay
kg In Its midst a vast dome pierced by no less
than forty windows uad soaring IbU fuel
p above tho lour
H wits however tho outcome of Justinians
t foreign policy which excited tho astonish
ment of hit contemporaries When hu came
L the throne tho custom Itoman ciniirj poi
se sud no remnant of land or of authoilty
c west of the AdriatIc Itwa Ids dream to ro
J unite under his scuptro thu ieiman kingdoms
I In the western Mediterranean which had been
formed out of the broken fiaments of tha
realm of Honorlun nnd to pat at und to the
I pretence by which while he wu iamlnally
acknowledged as Emperor by I tho Herman
c rulers In the west all power was reiilr lodged
V In the hand of thu foreigner who
hlnds tlt fOrll18r posed as
I lilt vicegerents Ha aimed at reconquering
4 Italy North rca and Sp ilnlt not sIo the
I other provinces of the Old Empire lu never
renounced his purpose until ho had brought
r Under his sway all the Islands and alt tho
border lands of the Mediterranean with the
orer
xcepiion of the seacoastot Gaul and of north I
+ J 1
eastern Spain When he died It could be said
with as much truth as n the days ol Augustus
that 10 fa a the absolute security of com
merce was concerned the Mediterranean was
a Roman lake
It Is the custom of school histories to under
rate the magnitude and permaneneo of these
achievements Yet tho enemies with whom
tho Generals of Justinian had to cope were tho
same Vandals Ostrogoths and Visigoths who
had experienced but little difficulty In partitioning
tioning the Wet Tho populous and opulent
provinces which stretched alone the soacoaat
of north Africa had been In the possession of
tho Vandals for more than a hundred roars
When In C33 Bcltsarius restored them to tho
Roman empire They remained Roman until
the Saracens overran thor In 007 In 554 the
lioman Governor Llborlus taking advantage
of a civil war among the Visigoths In Spain
landed In Andalusia and soon captured tho I
groat towns In the south of the peninsula Cor
dova Cartagena Malaga and Cadiz I was
about seventy years before tho Vlslcothlo
Kings of Toledo recovered their lost territory
Down to A D 023 Justinian and his success
ors reigned over tho greater part of tho sea
coast of southern Spain Consider also the
case of blclly conquered by Bellsarlus In S3G
It did not entirely succumb to the Uaraoonsol
Africa until 878 Italy was definitely recov
ered for Justinian by Narses In 13 I Is
true that by 584 the Lombards established a
kingdom In tho valley of the Po and two Inde
pendent duchies In central nnd southern Italy
hut the rulers of Constantinople retained the
exarchate of Havenna and othor possessions
In central Italy until 750 and they kept cer
tain territories In tho south of the peninsula
until 1055 when the Normans transformed
them Into tho duchy of Apulia In view of
these facts It Is preposterous to speak ol the
conquests of Justinian as tugltlo
ill
The worst enemies ot tho regenerated
Roman empire at this epoch were the
Sassanlan Kings of Persia But although
one of thorn Chosroes captured and
innlol Antlnflli thin second city of
n nnn
tho lioman East Justinian succeeded In re
storing tho previous eastern boundaries and
transmitted thorn Intact to his successor I
was during tho reign of Heraollus who was
crowned In A D 010 that tho decisive trial of
strength took place between tho East Itomana
and the Perslansa trial which resulted In an
overwhelming victory for the former but
which loft both combatants exhausted and at
tho mercy of tho impending Invasion of the
Saracens Thoro Is no doubt that an a soldier
and a General Heracllus whoso name Is al
most forgotten deserves to figure among
the greatest military heroes of Itoman
history For tho Persians when ho
conquered them were stronger than
they or their Parthian predecessors
had over boon In seven centuries Tho expe
dition of Huraclius against tho Bnssanlan
monarch who like the opponent of Justinian
was called Chosroes was In spirit tho first of
the Crusades I was tho first war that the
lioman empire had ovorundertaken under the
iromptlngs of religious enthusiasm In 014 1
Persian army had stormed tho city of Jerusa
lem had put 00000 Christians to tho sword
and had carried into captivity not only the
patriarch Zacaharias but what all Christians
regarded as tho most precious relic in tho
world tho wood of the True Cross It was to
recover this relic to recomiuerthe holy places
and in a word to rescue Christendom that
he army Uoracllus went forth At this june
ure 022 not only Mesopotamia Armenia
Syria and Egypt tho granary of tho
empire had been lost but the Per
sians had overrun the whole of Asia
Minor and woro posted at Chalcodon
opposite Constantinople I required six cam
paigns to save the Eastern Roman world and
ruin tho Sassanlan monarchy Tho first cam
paign of Iloracllus cleared Asia Minor of the
Persian hosts not by I direct attack but by
skilful strategy In the throo following years
ho carried the war into Media correctly judg
ing that this move would compel Chosroes to
recall his garrisons from Syria and Egypt
The crisis of the war came in U2i for while
the main Persian army watched tho Emperor
In Armenia a groat body slipped south of him
and marched to the Bosporus At the same I
moment 30000 Avers and Slavs burst over the
Balkans and besot Constantinople on tho
European side Horacllus showed a confi
dence which thocvontjustlflod in strength
ot Constantinople and tho courage of its do
fenders Sending only I few veteran troops to
aid tho garrison of his capital he continued
to attack tho Persians at homo and
aid waste Mesopotamia and edln The
tassanlun King wad now dcspeiate and
In 027 put his last levies in the field They
wore defeated by Uorncllun who seized the
palace of Chosroes at Dastagerd and divided
among his troops such plunder as had never
boon seen slnco Alexander tho Great captured
Susa Flying t Cteslphon but hunted even
from his capital by the Itomans Chosroos was
ultimately seized by his own son and thrown
into prison whero ho died of despair or of
starvation Heracllus had acoom pllshcd what
no other human Kmoeror or General had
achieved ho had succeeded where Crassus
and Valerian had mot with overwhelming dis
aster he had surpassed the exploits ot Trajan
and Hoverus his troops had been led further
eastward than any homers soldiers had yet
penetrated In accordance with tho terms I
of peace which followed every Inch of
Roman territory was evacuated all Roman I
captives wero freed a war Indemnity was
mid and tho spoils of Jerusalem Including
ho Trw Cross were restored I we have
Iwolt at length upon this war It Is not only
vocalise It demonstrates the stuff of which
Santo of the rulers and tho soldiers of tho East
5010 II
ern Itoman realm were made but also because
It had momentous conscaueucus which neither
of tho combatants could have foreseen Four
rears after the conclusion of a struggle which I
had dreined Loth parties of their resource
he Caliph Abu Dekr the successor of Moham
med launched two t armies of Moslem tho
one ngalnst Palestine and tie other against
1ersla The result was the annihilation of the
Ierslan kingdom and thin loss of nil and
Egypt by the Bjvuntlne empire t
I
IV
Tho next striking figure in Byzantine his
torY Ix Leo the Uaurlin who accepted tho
crown in 717 J on tho tory eve of a great Barn
ccnlo Invasion of Asia Minor which was to
culminate In I siege of Constantinople They
who accept at second or third hand Gibbons
view of the inferiority of the llntncl to
the Teutonic conquerors of the West must be
aurzlod to account for tho failure of the On1
neyad Caliph to take Constantinople though
ho taxed all his resources to that end while
ono of his lieutenants at tho further end of
Europe and with only I handful of Arabs
wrenched SpaIn from the VUlgoths and reach
ed the heart of France where It required the
whole power of the Frank under Charles
Maitel to ancM lib progress Hut Constant
mplo It maybe 1 said was fortlllod so were
Murlda Toledo Taragona Nni borno yet the
Iaraecite took those fortresses Tho truth Is
hat oven ha I rabbin of Constantinople could
1ght HI wits repeatedly demonstrated and
here were no Hebrew traitors among them
such as Infested the Vlslgothlo strongholds
The Mohammedan power which fruitlessly
assailed Constantinople In A D I 717 was In
comparably mightier than that to which the
succumbed 145 nnd It Is
city In 15 Interesting
to consider what would have boon the conso
jtienccs to Europe had the earlier attack suc
ceeded The Caliph once planted on the
wcet rn bide of the Bosporus would have
found before him In tho confines of the old
Iloman empiio only three considerable one
titles yIn I tho Avars In Hungary the Loin
bards In thu valley of the Po and the die
eruplt Merovingian monarchy which Fepin of
HoiUtal and Ills descendants had not yet
managed t < > regenerate Under such clroum
tanctk wu cannot doubt that the whole Medi
terranean world would have become Moileu
and that Chrlttlanlty would have ceased to
exist except like Judaism as the tolerated
heresy of a vanquished people That such
wa not the fate of Europe we owe t the
Byzantines whom Gibbon taught us to de
spise and our debt t Leo tho Isaurlan is
Incalculably greater than that which wo owo
to Charles Martel Europe could novor have
boon conquered by way of the Pyrenees Inas
much as the Saracen assailants had to receive
the seat of
orders and draw supplies from
Moslem power In Asia by the Immensely long
and circuitous route through Spain north I
western Africa and Egypt On tho other hand I
what the Turk accomplished after 1463
shows that Europe could easily have been con
quered by way of Constantinople In the frt
quarter of tho eighth century
At thlstmo < D717I tho reigning Caliph
was Suleiman the seventh of the house of tho
Ommoyades He had strained as we havo
said all tho resources of his empire to provide
al
a fleet and army adequate t tho enterprise
whloh ho had undertaken The chief com
mand of tho expedition was given to his
brother Moslemah who led 80000 mon from
Tarsus through Asia Minor to the Hellespont
Meanwhile a fleet ot 1800 sail under the
Vlrlor Bulelmon namesake of tho Caliph
sailed from Syria to the goan carrying a
force equal t that which had marched by
land In tho month of August Leo the hen
ran behold tho vessels of the Saracens sail
Ing up the Propontls whllo their land army
had crossed Into Thrace and was approach
ing tho city from tho western side Moslomah
caused his troops to build a line of
clroumvalatlon from the sa to the Gold
en Horn cutting ConstantInople off from
I communication with Thrace while Sulei
man blocked the southern exit of the Dos
norus and tried though Ineffectually to closo
Its northern entrance also so ns to prevent
any suppllosoomlngby water from tho Euxlno
Throughout the ensuing autumn and winter
tho city was bole urod and with tho spring
all none of successful resistance seemed to bo
cut off by the arrival of a supplemental fleet
from Egypt and of a second large army which
camo up by land from Tarsus and occupied
the Asiatic shores of tho Bosporus Yot even
now Leo did not despair and In tho summer
he took tho offensive His fro ships stolo out
and burnt the Egyptian squadron ns It lay at
anchor A body of his troops lying In Blthy
niL surprised and cut to pieces the Saracen
army which watched tho Asiatic sldo of the
strait Ho prevailed upon tho Bulgarians to
pour down over the Balkans and rout tho
covering army which observed Adrlanoplo
and protected tho siege on tho west Tha
result of these operations was tho retreat of
Moslomah who got back to Tarsus with only
30000 out ot lie 100000 men who had started
him reinforcements
with him or rejoined as
The float fared worso for having bean caught
by a tempest in tho Ecean It was so fearfully
shattered that out of the whole armada only
live vessels got bock to Syria unharmed
Thus ended the last great endeavor of the
Saracens to destroy Constantlnoplo By them
thin task was never again essayed although
for 350 years longer wars incessantly broko
out between tha Emperor and the Caliph Vet
so little have we boon taught by tho purveyors
of Glbbonandwator to appreciate the tre
mendous exploit of Leo the Isaurlan that ho
is remembered rather a the Iconoclast or
breaker ot Images than as the deliverer of
Christendom
V
The Macedonian dynasty began with Basil
r who became Emperor In A D 8U7 Basil
himself Is chiefly distinguished for his codifi
cation of the laws of the empire known as the
Daslllka which superseded the Ecloga of Leo
ho Isaurlan just as Los compilation had
superseded tho work of Justinian Tho Basil
ka of Basil with tho additions made by his
son Leo VI formed the code of the Byzantine
down to Its last days further
empire no rear
rangement being ov er made Tho eighty years
which followed the death of Basil the Macedo
nian wero entirely taken up by tho two long
reigns ot his son and grandson Leo tho Wise
and Constantine Porphyrogonltus tho later
being so called because ho was born in tho
Purple Chamber tho room in the palace set
aside for tho Empress So tar as foreign wars
and dangers t the empire from without wore
concernedthose eighty years wero the most un
eventful and monotonous In Byzantine his
tory Thoy witnessed howovor u remarkable
intellectual revival the two rulers themselves
beIng professional men of letters to whom wo
are Indebted for some of the most useful and
interesting works In Byzantine literature In
heir reigns took place the culmination of tha
zantina t renaissance which had begun un
der the quickening Influence the political
and social reforms of Loo the Isaurlan Tim
darkest age in Byzantine llturaiy history was
from 0 to 750 a period from which wo havo
hardly any contemporary annalists poetry
save the lost Heracliad of George of Pisldln
and very little even of theology On the other
hand by tho end of the eighth century writers
became far moro numerous and In the ninth
century wo can traoe tho existence of I large
Horary class Including a few really first
rate authors among whom should bo
particularly mentioned the patriarch Pho
tius whose breadth of culture was
astonishing and whoso library catalogue
II tho envy of modern historians A curious
feature of the Byzantine literature of this
epoch was the epics or romances of chivalry
a they may properly bo culled Theso were
written toward the close of tho times of tho
Macedonian dynasty and a type of tho class
Is thn eplo of Dleenos Akrltae which celo
brates tho adventures of I hero who lived in
the latter halt of the tenth century IJIgenes
was a mighty hunter both of bears and Sar
acens who sloped with tho fair Eudocia
Ducas daughter of theGenural ot the Capita
doclun theno whom he carried off In spite of
her father and seven brethren Pursued by
tho Irato family ho rode them down ono by
one at vantage points In the passes but spared
their lives and was reconciled to them at the
intercession of his bride Tha story Is evident
ly in tho tame vein as the tales of chivalry in
western Europe most of which however be
long to 0 considerably later period
Between A U 1 WOO and 100 art followed much
the same course as literature in tho Byzantine
empire It wan in a state of decay for the first
century and a half and tho surviving works of
that time are often grotesquely rude Forsheer
bad drawing and bad execution nothing can
be worse than the coins of the seventh and
eighth eenturlosa Freakish or Visicotlilo
piece could scaroply be moro unsightly The
tow manuscripts which survive from that
period display I corresponding though not an
equal decline In art Mosaic work perhaps
showed less decadence than other branches of
decoration but even In this field seventh nnd
eighth century productions mo very rare
In the ninth century everything under
went a wonderful Improvement The
old classical traditions of painting Iho
again In the best manuscript Illumi
nation of the period Many of these
illumInated manuscripts might hao boon ex
ecuted In tho fifth or oven in tho fourth cen
tury to closely do they reproduce tho old Ho
man style It seems that the Iconoclastic
controversy stimulated painting Persecuted
by the Isaurlan Emperors the nrt of sacred
portraiture became supremely rosjooted by
thin multitude An early ulso astite middle of
the ninth century the minor arts of mosaic
silver works and jewelry woio observed to be
n a flourishing condition There is ono other
point In tIm history of tho Byzantines In the
ninth century to which attention Is directed by
our author This Is tIm unique commer
cial Importancu of Conetuntlnoplu ut the
epoch All other commerce except that of
the empire had been swept off thu seas
IJY the Saracen pirates In tho preceding
mndred roars the only communications
between eastern and western Christendom
being kept up under the protection of the By
zantlno navy The Oriental products which
found tbelr B to Europe all passed through
tine warehouses of the Bonporus I was East
Iloman ships which transacted all the trade
Except few Italian ports such as Amain
and the new city of Venice no Christian town
In the western Mediterranean teems to have
cs o
loll ed even merchant vessels In Mr
Omans opinion this monopoly of European
commerce was one of the greatest elements
the strength nf the Byzantine empire Ho
thinks that tho subsequent concession of free
trade to the Venetians dealt an irreparable
blow to Its financial resources
il
I Is beyond question that the notion of
Alexius Comnenus entertained by most peonle
who deem themselves well educated Is de
rived from tho portrait of that Emperor In
Scotts Count llobort of Paris Curiously
too although that novel is on tho wholop tho
feeblest and least trustworthy of tho authors
productions tho particular figure of Aloxlus
Is In tho main outlines correctly drawn Hero
Is the picture of hint by Mr Oman based on
the studies of Flnlay and Dun who a wo
hae said approached tho Investigation of
ByzantIne annals In a spirit very different
from Gibbons Alexius was a man of cour
ace and nullity but ho displayed ono of tho
worst types of Byzantine character Indeed
he was the first Emperor to whom tho epithet
Byzantine Its common and opprjbilous
senso could bo applied He was the most ac
complished liar of his ago and while
winning and defending tho throVio committed
enough acts of mean treachery and sworo
enough false oaths to startle oven tho cour
tiers of Constantinople Ho could tIght when
necessary but ho preferred to win by treason
and perjury Yot as a ruler ho had many vir
tues and it will always bo remembered to his
credit that hu dragged tho empire out of the
doopcst slough of degradation and ruin that It
had over sunk Into Though false he was not
cruel and seven xEniperors and usurpers
living unharmed In Constantlnoplo under his I
sceptre boro witness to thu mildness of his
rule Tho tale of his reign sufTlcl ° ntlv bears I
witness to tho strange mixture of moral ob
liquity and practical ability In his character
Tho Importance ot tho lulo of Aloxlus his
tory Is recognized when wo compare the situa
tion in which ho found tho Byzantine empire
with tlmt In which he left It When usurped
tho throno in 1031 his position was dtffluult
nnd perilous as that In which Loo tho Isaurlan
was placed in 717 lo had to fuco at ono and
tho same time tho assaults of tho Soljuks in
Asia Minor and those of a now and formidable
foe tho Sermons whoso Invasion of his west
ern provinces was contemporaneous with their
conquest of England Tho dominions ot tho
Sol uk Sultan at this time extended as far as
the PropontN aud included tho city of Nlcaa
close to tho Bithyulan shore and only seventy
miles from Constantinople As for lie Nor
mans alter wresting SicilY from tho Saracens
they hal stripped tho Greek empire otCalabria
and Apulia and in Juno 10S1 fifteen years
after tho vIctory of William tho Conqueror
at Hastings they crossed thu Straits of
Otranto thirty thousand strong and laid slcga
to Durazzo on tho Tplroto coast In thin first
twelvemonth they inflicted a crushing defeat
on Alexius took Durazzo and descended Into
Thosfaly but by the close of 1083 tho skilful
strategy of tho Emperor resulted in tho dis
persion of tho invading army and when
Itobert Gulscnrd died In 1035 tho danger from
the Normans pl sod away I was through
tho extraordinary sagacity evinced in his
dealings with tho Crusaders that Alexius was
able not only to avert the fate which overtook
Constantinople at the hands of the western
nations a century later but also to recover a
largo part of Asia Minor from tho Scliuks 1
has triumph brute
ever diplomacy won a over tJuto
force It was in tho long and tedious negotia
tions by which the Byrantino
thl 11yzlntno emperor
prevailed upon all the leaders of the
Crusade from Godfrey of Bouillon down
t tha smallest baron to swear him al
legiance Characteristic also was the course I
which ho pursued in the succeeding campaign
While tho Crusader wore plunging through
Asia Minor dealing shattering blows at the
Turks Alexius followed in their at
Colowed rear a
tufa distance picking up the spoil which they
had left By the time the Franks had entered
Syria lie B > 7antln s had recovered so much
territory that the Turtish frontier In Asia was
rolled back 200 miles Instead of tho Seljuk
lying at Klcxa ho was now chased behind tho
lilth nlan hills and tho empIre had regained i
all Lydia and Carla with much of tho Phrygian I
highlands So hard hit were the Seljuks that
for well nigh 0 hundred years they wore re
duced to light on the defensive Thus It camo
to pass that tho end of the reign of Alexius
was delIvered from tho dangers which had
overshadowed Its beginning So much
strengthened was his postiou that when In
1107 the Normans under Bohoniund of
Tarentum tried to repeat thu feats
which Hubert Guiscard had accom
plished In IDS1 they were beaten off with ease
The renewed vitality which ho had Imparted
to the oraplro survived Alexius for ut bust a
generation Under his son John the Good
the onlyByzantine ruler of whom no detractor
has ever said on evil word the Greek frontier
In Asia continued to advance ut the expense ot
tho Turks Johns son Manuel was also suc
cessful In defending tIm frontiers and main
taining tho prestige of tho Eastern empire
Ho overran Hervm invaded Hungary to t
whoso king hu dictated terms I of peace nnd ho
beat off an invasion of Greece br tho Sicilian
Normans In a naval engagement with thin
Venetians ho was victoi ions and drove tho gal
leys of the Doge out of the Jgeun TIm one
severe defeat which hu experienced through
carelessness thin hands of the Seliuks does
not seem to havo resulted In any loss of terri
tory When ho died however In 11BO the
good fortune of tho house of Comnenus and
of tIm Byrantluu empire passed away
vur
Historians have agreed that tho greatest
crime oer perpetrated against Illntlon was
tho sacking of Conblaiitlnopluln 1JOt by tile
loaders of tlio Fourth Ciutadu and thu
10lders 11 lllo InJ tl par
titioning ol tho Kaslern empire among the
representatives of Iiitin nutlonn I Is truo
that In rjtll Michael PaleologUf who hud
mado himself ruler nf tho small Greek State
In I Jilt litii lit grandiloquently I called I Ito Em I
pire of Nlcica ncuvored possession of Con
fctantlnople Hero his descendants reigned
until 14511 and to nn unobservant reader tho
record of tho Paleologl looks like thin natural
continuation older lantlno history But
tho truth I Is that in tin Interval tho Uyrintlpo
realm had undertone I fatal transformation
As regards tho external signs of chance it ii I
obvious that tho lands subject to Mllmcl
Pnleologus were much moro limited In extent
than thoso which had oho > eil thu Greek prudo
ce iorsi f the Latin usutpma In Europe four
great blocks ot tomtory had been loft for
ever First was I slip along the southern
elope of thu Balkans In northern Thrace ana
Macedonia whloh had I fallen Into I tho bunds
of the Bulgarians and become completely
Hlnonlr Thlh U I hut district naiv known to i
us UK 1astorn Itouinclu The second piece of I
dismembered territory is represented by Al
bania Iblid l II I tlo t lst I 01 ohl JOrantiuolamN
which Michael novor rocooru I must no l placed
Greece proper now dhl dod between the 1rank
princes of AchnU and tho Frank Dukes of
Athens I U I rite that lie Palcologl retained
I considerable elli oof Peloponnesus nnd wore
destined to eventually encroach upon their
1iaiiklBli npjhb r Lastly must bo men
tioned thu islands nf the Egoan of which a
largo majority worn < hold either by thu Vene
tian Government or by the Venetian ad
vontuiors The great difference In respxctof
territory howocr between lie Binplre uf 1JOI
and tho empire of 1Ml was only DUO of
the causei which crippled tho realm of the
Palaalogi TIm wholo fiscal and administra
tive machine of government bad been thrown
Irreparably out of gear Than again tho com
mtrclal decline of the empire had bccomu Irre
trievable The Palfologl wore never able to
reassert tho old dominion over the SOlS which
had modu their prodeceanois the arbiters of
the trade of Christendom Tho Latin con
quests threw the control of tho trade of the
Bosporus Into tho hand of the V notUn who
hud < desire to make Constantinople their
oue central O rt but were just as ready to
trade thru the Syrian and Egyptian ports
From 1201 onward Italy rather than Con eta a
Ji
tlnoplo became the centre and starting place
for all European commerce and the grout
Italian republics employed all their energies
to preen tho Greek fleet from recovering Its
old strength I should bo added that lie
emperors who succeeded each other on
tho restored tlirono of Constantinople wore
without exception men moro lilted to lot i than
to liold together an Impoverished and ex
hausted empire After tho decisive battle
gained by tho Ottoman Sultan Murnd I In
front of Adrlunoplo In 13U2 tho Byzantine em
fire became a more head without a body and
hero Is no doubt that tho death stroke might
then have boon dealt which was to bo doferrod
for ninety roars As we have said tho last
1nloolocl sank Into tho humble tassel of the
Ottoman ruler whoso realm encircled them
and Ito duty of defending Christendom do
olvod on tho Servians and Hungarians who be
tween thor sturdily discharged It for 150 yoars
The solo service rondorod to civilization by
the Btruntlno oraplro during Its last ninety
years of nominal existence and
Inll oxstencodnd no one of
course would underrate tho servicewas hat
It acted as the custodian of ancient literature
and rut until Italy was ripe for tlio Inheritance
M W II
Hlavrnioun fttvr Novel
In Tlif HVtrJer by Mr R L STEVKNROV
Scritmeif we hMO not onlr lie latest but
Ito tlOIost of tho writers performances In
tInt field of prdso fiction It la true hint on tho
title page there figures tho union of an Amen I
cnn collaboratoi Mr Lloyd Usboutno and It I
Is I possible tmt tho artist may have been In I
debted to him for some of the raw material
notably tho account of an astonlshlnc Ameri
can commercial college and tho iranscrhit > of
San Francisco life In tho speculative crn Intho
workmanship however wo detect no traces
of any other hand than Mr Stevensons and
even as regards tho substance of the nar
ratUo It Is plain that tho chapters deal
ing with Edinburgh and student life In
Purls with divers modes of existence In Now
Houth Wales and with tho Islands of tho Pa
clflc are drawn from his personal observe
ion So rnmnrLnllliv lnlna1 iirn Mti > nnA
ton romnrlhln Inlnn1 ur I punO
and variety of i the scenes and Incidents tlmt our
credulity Is somewhat htruluod by tho nssuran
ton that wo are reading tho record of one
mans experience The hero of tho narrative
nlrrto
Is scarcely old enough to have seen so much
nnd studied it BO thoroughly though It may
bo that more than one middleaged hut much
travojled Uljsses may bo mot with among tho
nnoSialous characters encountered amid the
strange adventurous sensuous existence that
mon lead In the South Soap
As regards class this novel Is I story of
crime mid Its detection In respect of struc
ture It Is an autobiography prefaced with I
prologue and capped with an epilogue About
tho choice of subject and form tiioauthior tells
us something In tIle concluding paragraphs
The genesis nnd growth of Tho Wrecker
Is wo aro Informed that ono on board
tho schooner Equator tho nulhorslt Is
not Mr Stevensons fault that wo do not
credit lie alleged plmallty of author
ship heard Eoeral stories about tho
solo of wrecks The subject tempted thor
and they sat down to discuss its pos1 >
billties Whit a tnngto it would make
suggested one if 1 tho wrong crow wore
aboard Hut how to got the wrong crow
thoro I havo It I cried tho other
tho soandso affair I seems that not
many months before and not many hundred
miles from where the schooner Equator wa
then sailing a proposition almost tantamount
to that which forms the pivot of this narrative
bad been made by a British skipper to some
British castaways The central situation 1mev
lag boon found tho plot wo are Informed was
outlined before tlio authors turned in The
question of treatment required longer dis
cussion for the aim was to avoid tho Impres
sion of elaborate unllfollku mechanism made
by thu ordinary form of police novel
or mystery story Tho conclusion was
reached that the end might be attained
I tho tale were gradually approached
sccjo of tho characters introduced beforehand
anti the book started in the tone of
In1 bool a novel of
mminors and experience In thin way tlio
rnstory might seem the outgrowth of real
life With this purpose in view the two prin
cipal typos that of tho American handy man
of business and that of tho Yankee merchant
sailor are dwelt upon at some length and the
same effect of realism is contemplated in the
Introduction of some secondary figures and
Incidents not directly connected with tlio plot
With dollcht lul candor Sir Stevenson acknowl
edges lint nfl < r thIs method of approaching
and fortlfi Ing tho police novel had been labo
riously planned It occurred to tho uulhora
that It hal been Invented previously by somo
onto clo and was in fact tho process adopted
by Charles Dickons in his later work Thoro
is however a marked difference between
thin mystery htoiy of Dickens or for that
matter I of Gaboriau and that oxom
idlllod In Tho Wrecker II thin majorltyof
Uickensrt novels nnd in all of Gaborann
love Plays a considerable role whereas what
huts been called tIm master paslU of time
modern woild might as well bo nonexistent
us regards tho purl assigned to It in tho book
before us or Indeed In any of Mr htoventons
production Either Mr Stevenson feels no
mriulo to depict tho complex and romantic
passion which Is to the sexual instinct what
the flower is to tho root or bo wishes to
demonstrate that tho power of making a story
Interesting without an infusion of iota mak
ing did not polish with Defoe and Godwin
I Is surprising In how many places Mr
Rtoonsou fIOIS to bo equally at home Wo
can ouch for tIme accuracy amid vividness of
the scenes in the Latin Quarter us woll as
those in Filseo Dret llurto hate not more
faithfully delineated the onu norllonri JIHrcr
lie other When wu bInd ourselves In the
South tims or In Now South Wales or In
Edinburgh I tIm nnirativo still beats the marks
of thorough knowledge and Keen insight
The whi ole book Is 1 PCI mealed with tlio humor
which be i not only tho t m > st diverting I hit thu
deepest ot mturpioliii and which la Mr
itovonsons most characteristic gift I in In
deed by humor thai ho IB separated by lie
whole diameter of nitlstle nature from for In
stance Mr Henry Jnines Time highest emo
tion which tho latter can ullelt In the reader is
that of calm satisfaction seldom If over does
he provoke a smile As you read Mr Mevcn
MM on tho other h uul when you are not held
breathless bycmiouily or alarm iou are al
most always smiling and at times bunt Into a
loud laugh Thorti aia few things of Murk
TwalnH funnier than tho description In this
novel of Muskegoiis Commercial College
whero bon tier tinlncd to become stock
brokers and pioducu brokers by gambling
vith counters in a mlmio stock exchange
Then uguln them Is nothing moro side split
ting Intho Tnn tie la Vie as ItiiMnit than thin
experiences of Mr titnvensons hero In tlio
Latin Quintet uflor his supplies Wore cut off
through thn failure of lilb father Two of these
incl < ulls art RO delicious that omubt ho I al
lowed In reproduce thorn Dodd tho horo
had biun sent tl t Jarls In learn to ben sculp
tor anti tvo aro told that alter being Known
upon Ills IWI resouicui bo was still tiLde fur a
time to get t credit fun u midday meal at a cab
mans iuting house un thu oubr boulevard
Dodd explain I s that I Supper I wan supposed
lot lore t iulre I hitting I I clown nlghlly 1 to hoi i dull
cab table of some I ileh acquaintances J lunar
rangomunt was extremely III contiidortd My
fable credible enough ut list and so long
as roy clothes were In good iidiir
mutt bno seemed women than doubt
ful niter my ejit became fiar d nboit tho
eUes ii nil my boot began to cnuojk and
pIpe along Iho I rsttu hunt lIon Tho allow
alice of Oflo meal a day bouillon though suita
ble enouuh to the flute of no llnumni agreed
poorly with my stomach hIlt restaurant was
a place I bid often vlsltod experimentally to
taste the life of btudunts then more unfor
hate than mvs lf mind 1 hail noei In those
days colored It i without disgust or loft It
without nausea It W4s Etunso to llnd my
self sitting down with avidity rUIng up with
latlifactlon and counting the hours that
divided me from my > return to ouch a table
But hunger Is a ar magician and so soon
ns I had spent ray ready rash and could no
longer fill up on bowls of chocolate or hunks
of broad I must depend entirely on hut cab
mans eating hou o and upon certain rare
longexpected lougromomboiod windfalls
In the shape of LatIn Quarter loans not meant
to bo repaid
Of course howeter patience anti trustful
ness have their limits cou In th keepers of a
cabmans rating house Mr Uodd reconU
that eventually n Hhado of change In hIs ro
ccitlonat this ordinary marked the begin
ning of a new phase In my dl tcss The 111flt
dar I told myself It wan but fancy thin next
I made quito sure It was n fact the third In
me 10 panic I stayed away and went for forty
eight IIOUIH fasting This was an act of groat
unreason for the debtor who stays away is
but lie more remarkoJ and time hoarier who
misses n meal Is sure to bo accused of lull
tidily On tim fourth day therefore I re
turned Inwardly < iuaklng lime proprietor
looked askance upon my entrance tlm wait
rorses who woro his daughters neglected my
wants and sniffed ut thu affected joviality of
my salutations last and most plain when 1
called for uUsr such as was being Kied to
all tho other diners I was bluntly told there
were no more It was obvious I was noise tInt
end of my tether ona plank divided mo from
want and now I felt It tremble
It was now evident hint as a sculptor Dodd
would starve In Tails and ho camo to the saute
conclusion thoU Bwallowlng his pride ho must
become a sculptors workman IK proceeded
therefore to tho atelier ot his old matter a
certain distinguished wielder of the elilsi1
by whoso oxanudo and Instruction ho
had been iiuipqetl to profit and who
had once done him the honor In tlio
da > B of his opulence to parluko of a
dejeuner Toward tIme end of this repast
which had boon bountiful the master hut let
drop somo gooduaturud words of commenda
tion touching hU young hosts masterpiece a
statuo of the lonliiH of Munkeggn which
through his fathers Influence ha4 been or
dered lor lie State house of u Western com
monwealth H was consequently without any
misgivIngs to his nuallricatlons that Dodd
reluctantly proceeded to doff the frock coat of a
gentleman and approach amt In thu woikmang
tunic Ills reception in the musters ate
lier I calculated to onllghten not only
amateur artists but also amateur men of
letters who conceho that because some of
their unpaid contilbiitlons have found their
way Into print they can easily cam a living
with the pen 7ifin this little Dodd 1 crlod
lie master and then as his eye foil on my di
lapidated clothing I thought I could porceho
bin countenance to darken I made my plea
in English for I know if ho Worn aln of any
thing It was of his achievement of hue Island
tongue Master said I will you take mo
in your studio again but this time as n work
man I sought your faster nan Immensely
icccli said he I explained to him that I was
now an orphan and penniless lie Uiooc his
head I havo better workmen waiting ut ray
door said he far bettor workmen ou
used to think something of my work sir I
pleaded Somesing someslng > iV ho
cried inoiigh forts Min of a roeoh man not
enough for an orphan Ilesldes 1 sought you
might learn to bo an artist 1 did not sink you j
might learn to bo a workman
A favorable turn In tho tide having diiited
Dodd to Sans 1raneisco ho becamu an orna
mental H gn partner for his friend Ilnkeiton
the tjpe of an allround man of business
Among the lattois countless dcJees for lInt
abstraction of dollars was n schomo described
in his advertisement us Imkortuns Hubdorac
dary 1icnlcs soon shortened by popular con
sent to the Dromedary Of tbeso unique team
boat excursions Mr If Loudon Uodd late
of tho Kcolo tee Beaux Arts was muda
manager and honorary steward TIme follow
ing paragraphs give but a glimpsaot lira ex
perience In this capacity Ily8 oclock any
Sunday morning I was to bo observed bv an
admiring public en tho wharf This garb and
attributes of sacrifice consisted of n black
fiock coat resetted its pockets bulging with
sweetmeats and Inferior cigars trousers
of a light blue a silk hat like n reflector
and n varnished wand A goodly steamer
guarded my one flank panting and throb
bing flags fluttering fore and aft of
her Illustrative of the Dromedary and
patriotism My other flank was covered
by the ticket ofllce strongly held bra trusty
character of lie Scots persuasion resetted
hIke his superior and smoking a cigar to mark
the occasion festive At halfpast having as
lured myself that nil was well with the free
luncheons I lit a cigar myself and awaited
time strains of tho Tioneer Band I had
never to wait long They were Gorman and
punctual and by n few minutes after the half
hour I would hoar them booming down street
with a long military roll ot drums sonic score
of gratuitous asses prancing nt hue head In
bearskin hats and buckskin aprons and con
spicuous with resplendent axes The band of
course wo paid for but so strong in tho
San Franciscan passion for public maKijucrndo
that thin asses as I say were all gratu
itous pranced for the Jove of It
anu cost us noinmg mint theft ninciioon
Tho musicians formed up in the bows of iiy
steamer and struck Into u skittish polka tho
asses mounted guard upon thin gangway and
thin ticket ofllce and presently after In family
parties father mother and children in Ilia
form of duplicate lovers or in that of solitary
youth the public began to descend upon UK by
lie earful at n time four to bK hundred per
Imps with a strong Gorman Ilaor and all
merry as children When the o had bo MI
shepherded on board and thin Inevitable be
hated two or three lund gained the duck amid
thin cheering of the public the hawser wan
cast off and we plunged Into thu bay And
now behold tIme honorary stovuud In tho hour
ot duty and glory too mo circulate amid tIle
crowd radiating affability and laughter lib
eral with my SvootmoitH and cigars I
bay unblushing things to hobbledehoy
girls tell shy young persons this Is I the mai
ned peoples boat rcguislil nk the absliait
od If they are thinking of their fcvvcctho uK
offer paterfamilias cigar am Mi tick with tlio
beauty and grow curious about the t age of
mammas jouiigost who I ns uio her gmhl
will 1 be a man before his mother < > i perhaps i it
may occur to me from thu sciifil le epi > ssloti
of her face that she Is a person of good coun
sel amid I ask her earnestly U sItu 1novs any
particularly pleasant place ou thu Kiticelitu or
ban lUtiud coast for thu scone iii our picnIc Ii 1
always supposed to bo uncertain Tlio neL
moment I am back at my gidd Udlnazo with
the joung Indies wakening laughter as I go
and leaving I In my wake nppli IIMI i i comments
of Isnt Mr Dodd n funny gentlumanr and
Oh I think lies just too lib e
Although the narrative sIll I < in lie heart of
th e 1aclllc and although itt twice icturn m
thither I in lie coo isouf it I t nit llnd crylittlo I i t
about the scenery and blue characteristics of
native life in Iolynesln JIihi J It a little dKip
pointing because hinting boen for hlmsolti
dwelling I piice I In amou t tho author I > pecul I
iarly qiinlilhed to bell us it hint wu want to hear
Hut for tho applleitlon to Ocuunlca nf u tho
faculty for landscape di lUing and fur the
Mudy nf chaiactiir cud ininner which wus so
tignally i demonstrated in m lie authors car
lluxt writings no shall hno to wait for other
books which dcuihtlus will bi presently
forthcoming In the pru int vulumo there Is
onls thu following brief dc crlptlon of lie out
ward aspect on rt WI titers nfl itntuoo Ii of
Till ohao tliuVreu h capital of tbuMivriuo a > i
archipelago I Ihu tnids I vut are told
blow ctrong nail itiually the surf roared loud
on thin Milnglo hach and the fiftyIon
gi hinomierttf liar I Ii at carricitliullugand t Inllu I
smite of Ilnnco about tbe islands of tbii canni
bal gioup lulled at horm orinus under IrUon
Hill I Tho clouds hung low and black I 1 on the
surrounding umphlthcatre of mountains ruin
hud fallen earl br in i the day leal tiopie rain
a waterspout for loUnce and tho t green and
gloomy brow of the mountain oils still uomued
mill many silver threads of torrent Jut lucia
hot und healthy Islands winter U but a name
The rain bad not refreshed nor could Iho
wind Invigorate the dwellers of Talohsej
J
away at one end Indeed Iho commandant was
directing blimp chnngrs In tlio residency
garden beyond Prison lull amid lImo gardener
being all convicts had no choice but to
continue to obey All oilier folki slumbered
and took their rest ieohu the natIve
liieen In her I rim house under the rustling
hal Imme the t rehi ill e 0 ommUsarr In lilt bn
lugged ofllclal re ldeiiLo the I merchants In
their dese led stunt nnd even lImo club ser
vnut In tho club his head fallen forward on
the bottle counter under Ito inaiiof the tverla
and hit canils of nay oflloers lit lie whole
lunatli of tho shoronldu street with Its scat
toned boa id houses looking to tho sea hi f
gnat oftul shade of palms and green jungle ot
puraos no moving llguro could bo scout Only
at the end of a rickety tIer that once In the
prosperous ihiyft of lie Ameilenn rebellion
was used to grotto undur lie cotton ot John
Hart there might hat ii been spied upon a pile
of lumLor the famous tattooed vvhlto man time
living curiosity of Taluliit > His eyes were
open tai Ing down lie bay lie raw time moun
tains droop as they approached tho entrnnoa
and break down In clllts the surf boll whit
round thu two sentinel Itlots ami between
on lie narrow blghl nf blue horlion Vnpu up
raise the ghost of nor pinnacled mountain
tOte Hut his mind would tithe no H ountot
theio familiar feature as he dodged In and
out along thu rentier hue of sleep ami wak
ing memory would serve him with broken
fragments ot llm past blown faces and white
of sklpi or and shipmate king and chiefwould
arlsii before Ids mind nnd vanish he would
recall old oyngos old landfalls In the hour
of tIn vtm bo I would hear again tho I drums
beat foi n matioatlng festival pcrhap he
would summon up I thu t form ot that t island
princoss for the love of whom ho lint submit
ted his bothto tInt tmiiel hiindsot the tattooar
and now sat on tint lumber at thin liter crud of
TalihiH > so HtrangKii llguruot n European
One glimpso now ot a Hcolehmiin manlfottlr
drawn from life the heros maternal grand
fiithet u HtonomaHiin who mutate a fortune br
vroctliiK build I I mugs which combined u minimum I
of outlay with a maximum I ol show Ho 1 had a
notion tlmt t his grandsons experience nt lie
Jvleilu llcnnr Arlt would tiuallfy him to bo
come an architect a toim fvnonymous In his
vocabulary with lioUNohulldor of the typo with
which ho was himself familiar It never oo r
cuired to lie hero being an American to be
ashamed of hlsgiandfather although the lat
ter as wu havo said had been a working mason
and had risen from the ranks rather by shrewd
ness than by merit Wu are told that la
his I I nppcinmcu speech and I manners ha
boiebroad nun ks of his origin which were gall
antI wormwood to itt y Uncle Adam His nails
in spite of unlous fiipeuinlon were olten la
conspicuous mourning his I clothes hunc
about him In hags and wrinkled hike a plough
mans Sunday coat Ills accent was rude
luoad nnd dragging hike him nt his bout and
oven when he could bo Induced to hold till
tongue his mere presence Inn corner of thts
drawing room with Ills opanalr wiInkles hti
scanty hair his billeied bunds ami tho cheer
ful crnfllness of hU expresfilon advertised tha
w liolu gang for a selfmndo family My aunt
might mince and my cousins bridle but there
was no getting over hit solid physical fact of
thu soueinason in lie chimney corner
This worthy Hoot took a great fancy to hIs
American grandson and liked to have thus
young man accompany him in his walks The f
purposeot those excursions was not to seek I
iintiiultles or to enjoy famous prospects but V
to v ilt one alter another a series of doleful
suburbs for which It was tInt old gentlemans A
chief claim to renown that ho had been tha
sole contractor and too often the architect
besides I have rarely soon a moro shocking
exhibition the bricks scorned to bo blushing
In time walls and thin elates on tho roof to have
turned pale with shame but I was careful
not to communicate those impressions to the
aged artificer nt my sldo and when lie would
direct my attention to some fresh monstrosity
perhaps with the comment Theres an Ides ot
mines its cheap and tasty and had a craand
run the Idco was noon stole and theres j
whole doestrlcts near Iceglo with the Roathlo j
adeotion and that pluntb 1 would olvlllr 1
make haste to admire and what I found par
ticularly delighted him to inquire Into the
cost of each adornment It was after our
heros evacuation of Parts which as wo bays
seen he found untenable that these excur
sions took place and it was on one of these
occasions that his grandfather made him a
present of fOOO and urged him with this
capital to settle down In Scotland and pursue
the business of a builder and contractor
Hero Is his bit of lowland Scotch In
which Ito proposal is unfolded See
here then Jeannles yin Am going
to ghoyo a sotoff Your mltiier was always
my farlte for A novor could agree with
Aadani Alike ye tIne yoursel theres naa
noansensoabootse yovea lino naytoral idea i
of builders work yoo boon to Franco where
they toll mo thoVro grand at thin stuccy A
pplondld thing for coiliiiH tint stuccy I and Its
n allrnblo illguUn too A dont boliova
Items n builder in Scotland has used moro
stuccy than mo Hut ns A was tayln If yoll
folllo that rude with thin capital that Am
goin1 to give ye jo may live yet to bo as rich
asmisol Ye sot > yo would have always had
a share ot It when A was gone it appear
yoru nocdln It now well yall get the loss u
is only just and pioper
None of Poos stories has a moro skilfully
constructed plot than that which Is evolved In
the book boforo us It Is iiiiestlonablowliothor
any reader will guess thu secret of The
Wreck before the author Is ready to explain
it Wo haxo cuofully molded casting any
light upon the mystory beyond thin hint given
in thin massage quoted ut tho outset from time
epilogue When tho t veil is lifted it will un j
cover horrors enough to satiate the most y
bloodthirsty dovouiors of the police novel
lint although wo art far from underrating
tho faculty of arousing mind sustaining cu
riosity this as our evtracts will domonstate
Is I tInt least of time authors moor Its which have
novor been exhibited on so largo a seals or
bo uiroctiuly ns In tint present novel
The Mont Illnnc flbfcrtalorr
lluttlle t tMniliti TiiHtl
It may bo remembered that M Janson the
vellUiijivn dlnUon tf f tIme hoimiIout Observa
tory and member nt tho French Institute I who
lust year made tlio ascent of Mont Jliunc In
older to examine thu t prnetknhllUy I of time
h In nio for establishing an obhurvatory them
finding that ut forty feet below Ihu nurture of
thu snow there was no solid bed of rock for
foundations of u building conceived tho Idea
ol constructing ono which could ho i kept la
Its iila < i > by time snow itnidf Hu accord
ingly formed an association to which
PrlncB Roland I Bonapirte M Ion bay
M iiplmel 1 lllhchollsheim Count da
Oreflulhu und Baron Me Hothsihlld were
liberal subscriber nnd lie fundH thus obi
talnod were sIlent In tIn construction un op
hunatory which alter haUng been put up la i
thu grounds of tltti Mouton establIshment
bus been taken to pieces iignlu and sent at
to Cliamounii I from which plao It will I
taken up to tho summit of tIme mountain ai
put toi thur under thu Hiipervlslon of M
Ciimtiiii thu wellknown expltiwr who uccora
met ruled M lt h I < m taint in I liU journey through t
Central Asia and over I he Pamir I Into I India
Tho new observatory ii l of timber and is
about 2i fiot In height being divided Into two
compartments or storied surmounted by a
sitters filalform with nn Iron balustrade and
a wooden scaffolding for tin reception of this
various muUorological Instruments Jitter s
tint heMiril roms In each lompnrtmiiit or a
story foi lie I use upnii Iho h onu xldo nf tlio f
director I it id t bin staff und upon tho t other nl
tiiurlotK and their guides Inse rooms will
hiipnnidd I i I with I i barrack furniture and with 1
small fclov UH for heat Ingind < onklng purposes
tliu I t fuid I used at llr > t hutting s Ill Ii runt o Tha
two stinicti uomrnunliitu with each other br
iii litmus of t a spiral Maircaii i t vvlille I t it ore Is
is ii rum bitit ladder with n trapdoor t giv
ing I t IUPUH to I thn b t room for the gulden
iMililitlui I I I IH provided or bv iiiwinhO tubes t
whllo i i i thu tyi titiuwig itt the h upper stun with
ibiible t framework and doubli I panes of giiuas
afTord MOWS In I Vii I iou s duoclluns i among
oIlier toward Cliamouiilx vvilb vvhkli It U In
tended to cummunliln by menus uf scouts
pluirical slgimU xvhiii the atmoHphurn Is sum
cb > ntlyiiiiitr All the timber has u thick cuat
of fireproof I itch lit and iadi plucuof m woo I In
iiumburei nn as to fmilltalu thi observatory a
be mig uiilly I put loelliir t n work which will I
b I coin itlotith hy lie t cit II of hits eoi I tar
It rHiualtii of con r > i lube huun bother the
building will I us M linssen anticipate ye J
main In its placo by the tlmtdo nrweis uf f ist l
ting the plunks vhhh ore to form limo wslli t
down some distuucv lute the Imrdeaed nuow
1 ccs1

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