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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, July 14, 1895, Image 2

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ojfjr jrjfir HOOK
I
iu41bI
What mty be termed the enc ofhuar
1 book of Bnddhlim hM ben condensed In I a
t f mall volume entitled T lorpcl of JJuddM b I
4 a 1ABfc CARDS Tho Open Court Publishing C I
l p Chicago We are assured that the bulk of the
t content of this volume Is I derived from the old
ljuddhlat e non the mOlt Important pugeu
T having been copied literally from tranalatli
1 tf the origin text Borne pawagta Indldlr
rendered rather freely In order to make them
1 Intelligible t WiMlerti minds other have been <
arranged still others have been abbrovlat
The author arerf however that hl panel cnn
t tain nothing but Idea for which prototypes can
t b found somewhere among accredited flud
5 dhlst tradition For those wliowl to tract B the
i Uuddhlsm here outlined to ltd fountain head a
luddhlsm
t Sf table of reference baa been l added which mill
i eaten the main sources of the various chupte
t Of course lluddhlim like Christianity Is now
1 and long ha beet split up Into Innumeral
it Cecil and these sects not Infrequently cling to
telr sectarian tenota as If they were the
rpaln and most Indispensable fcnlures uf theIr
religion The present book follow nono of the
4 F cectarlnn divergencies but rcvcrU to tho prl
1 1 niary position upon which It la I contended that
J 4 all I true IluddhlsU may stand as upon Iummun
around The original feature of thu column ii I
I I k the arrangement of the gospel of liuddha In a
arrnlomen
c 1 harmonious anti B atematlu form The antbors
j aim has been to treat hla material In much the
atne Rm way aa he believes that the author of the
I Fourth Uoapel of tho Now Testament treated
I 1 the then current nrnmnls of the life of Jcs
of Na7areth With the vlow of giving some
i Idea of the content of this Interesting cot
Dilation we almlt mark frt the ten com
i i innndmenta of tludd hlsm the sermon on charity
I the prohibition of miracles and the Injunction
s concerning the conduct of Gautamas dlsrltil
toward women Wo shall then glance at some
L f I of the parallel and stories by which the found
of the religion sought to bring home his teach
toga to the popular mind
iJ
1
j Before pronouncing the ten commandment
Huddhn pint ell out that nil acts of living crear
i turn become bad 1y ton thlnl and by nvoli
1 ing the ten things they become good There
are In other wordi three Blue of tho body tour
i sins of the tongue and three ring of the mind
The three alns of the body nro murder theft
r and adultery the four flns of the tongue MO
It I Ing slander utilise and title talk the three
I abs or tho mind are covetnusncs hatred and
f error Such being the thlici to be avoIded
t I Uuddha promulgated the following commnni
t melts Kill 1 not but have regard for life teal
not neither do ye rob but help everybody tn I
b mauler of tlm fruits of his labor Abstal
1 from all Impurities coil lead n Life of chastity
L Lie not but bo truthful and uneak the truth
J t t with discretion not to as to harm but In 1 loi
h log heart and vvl tly Invent not ell report
j neither do ye repeat them Carp not but look
t for the good sides of jour fellow being
t ao that ye may with sincerity defcn
f them against their enemies Swear not but
r peak decently and with dignity Waste not
I tho time with empty words but speak to the
l purpose or keep silent Covet not nor envy hut
If rejoice at the fortune of other people Cleans
1 your heart or malice cast out all anger spite
fJ and Illwill cherish no hatred not even again
your slanderers nor against those who do you
I 4 harm but embrace all hivinic beings with Kind
j ness and benevolence Free jour mind of IF
Ii r norunce and be anxloua t learn the truth es
t peclally lu the one thing that is needful Jest
you fall a prey eIther to skepticism or to error
bkeptlctsni will make you Indifferent and error
J 3 tylll lead you astray so that you will not find
I 4 the noble path that led to life eternal
1 hero came once upon n time to Buddha a rIch
i l man named Anathaplndlka and said I dwell
I i t at Shravasll the capital of Koaolo a lam
ri1 abounding In produce and enjoying peace I
L j wish to found there a vlshara 1 Buddhist con
I I i trHt llbfn m lo a tit eMlt
1 accept ILS The records tell us thai Buddha aw
1 Into the mans heart and perceiving that un
i selfish charity was the uiov Ing cause of liii otTer
t heiccepted the gift and sold 1he charitable
t man Is loved by all his friendship Is prize
highly In death his heart ii I at rest and
full of Joy for he sutlers not from re
I pentance be receive the opening flowe
t of hli reward and the fruit that ripens from It
t l I Jlard It 1 to understand Hy giving nnny our
j I I food weget more strength by bestowing cloth
t I Ing noon others wegnln more beauty by found I
Ig abodes of purity und truth we acquire great
h treasures The charitable man boa found the
fi I path of salvation He Is I like unto the man who
plants a iiayllng curing thereby the shade tho
r llowers and the fruit In future years Even so
i t the result of charity iven no is tin Joy of him
who belDJ tnone that nro In need of assist
J ance We reach tho Immortal path only by con
1 tluual nets of kindliness ana we perfect our
soul by compassion nnd charity
= ln I the India of the sixth century I Co miracle
I working sits pn lalcnt nnd ole of the Hud
dhlstdtsclples were tempti todt clare that they
as well as the Ilrahmanf could work mlrai I les
Yt read that inoiaot the
c rea tut ihernioy seasons certain
I l1hlkshu Build hM mendicant frlnr were stay
I In the Vrljl terrltoiy during a famine Om
of the bhlUshua proponed to his brethren that
they should prnlsi one another tn the house I
fe holdertot the village saving This Milkalu I
I 4 ha sent lie has seen celestial visions and thai
<
j j bhlkshu possestca Bupernaturai glfta ho car
work miracles Tbe vlllagera said It li
t lucky very lucky for us that such saints art
j t pending the rainy benson with us bo thoy
r gave willingly l and abundantly and the hhlk
1 hus prospered and did not suffer from the
1 famine When the leI I Ono heard l he told
1 hit beat beloved Antanda to cal the bhlkshu
together and he asked them Tell me 0
i lihlksha when does a bhlkthu cease to b
I bhlkshu 1 fchnrlpulra replied An ordained
disciple must not commit any unchaste act
f The disciple who commits an unchaste act Is no
longer u disciple of the bhakyamunl Again
1 an ordained disciple must not take anything
except what has been given to him The disci
I pie who takes anything b It BO little as a
I pennys worth U nn longer 1 disciple of tho I
bhakyamunl Lastly an ordained disciple must
r not knowingly und iuillgnantiy deprive any
harmless creature of life not even an earth I
I worm or an at Jbo dlaclple who knowingly
and malignantly deprives any harmless crea I
I lure or his life Is no longer a iliacpie of the
1 Pbakyamunl These are thu threo great prhl
bltioua Then the llleused One addressed the
bhlkshus and Bald here U another great
I prohibition which I proclaim unto youi An or
dained dlaclple mutt not bat of any super
human perfections The disciple who with
cvii Intent and from covetousness boustaof a
superhuman perfection b It celestial Ie
I Ions or miracles Is no longer 1 die
I elpo of the bhakyamunl J forbid you
O llhlkshua to employ any spells or BUP
i I tillcatluQc for they are useless mince the law of
lUrnm governs all things He who attempt
ti Iirform miraet haj nol understood thodoo
tfltiu or the athagntn ttiu Pcfact OiieJ
ii
J la I wall known that In Iluddhlsm the strictest
ChOII U enjoined upon the ordained dl clpea
Out of tio tnt dealing with the subject runa I
ak flow The Ihlksbus cal to the Hleited I
4 Cnb nnd oiked hlmi O Tathngal our Lord
and Maaurl What conduct towuid women do I
you prescribe to the ahranianan lucvtic who
I hove renounced the world lliu llksiolUne
rupliidi liuard against looking oil a nnuiati
I I you oee I womau Ut It le though you uw
It and have no conversation with i Lee I
after all you mutt sal with her Ut It be
v > ill a pure heart and think to jonrelf I
aa a Buramana will lite In this sinful world
j aa the spotless leaf of the lotus unsoiied by the
I luud In which It grows If the woman b old
regard her a > your mother If young ns your ils
f I tct j I v cry youug as your child The thrauiana
who looks at a woman U a woman or touch
t1 I her as a woman baa brokiu hit vow and U I DO
t lopger a dlaclple of the UhakyamunL Great Is I
t 4 t1e power of lust with men and It 1 to be feared
L I withal take then tho bow of earnest pane
r varancc and the sharp arrowuoint of wUdom
3t rn m
k t Ulr
Cover ou head with a helmet of right though
and fight with fixed resolve against the five de
sires Lust becloud a man heart when It is 1
confused with woman beauty and the mind I
dazed Better ta with redhot Iron to bore out
both your eye than encourage In yonrselv
leninal thought or look upon a womans form
with lustful dealro Better fall Into the t
germ mouth or under the sharp knife of the ex
eonllonar than to dwell with o woman and o <
cIte In yourself lustful thought A woman ol
the world U anxious to exhibit her form or
Shaw whether walking landing alttlnic or
iileaplna Kvtn when represented as a picture
she desires t captivate with the charms of her
beauty and thu t rob men of their Bteadfatt
heat How then ought ron t guard yourself 1
Hy regarding her ten and her smiles aa ene
mies her looping form her hanging arms and
all her disentangled hair as tolls designed t
I restrain
entrap mana heart Therefore say
tho heart Olio It no unbridled license
eventually admitted
Nevertheless women were evenual a
mIne to tho brotherhood of Dnddhlat disci
ples and nunneries a well aa monasteries are
till found In Uuddhlst countries This came
UI
about as follows Yoshodhara who had been
abut 1
the wife of lluddhn before ho renounced the
world thrlco requested of him that she might
be admitted to the Sangtm or brotherhood of
disciple b but her wish was not wanted In the
end however Irnjapatl the foster mother of
tho Blessed One In the company of Yanhodhnra
ali Ilelle many women went to the athagnto
unit entreated him enrnettly t let them tAko
the vows and b ordained na disciples ot
luddha Seeing their zeal for the truth tho
lleatad One could no longer resist and he ac
cepted them na his disciples Prajapatl was the
first woman Hint became a disciple of liuddha
and receh td tho ordination aa 1 bhtkshunt
II
The teachings of Duddha like those of Jesus
were often propound In parables According
to one of the acred texts the Idea of that
method of exposition came to him In this wle
I have taught he thought the truth which
la I excellent In tho beginning excellent In the
middle and excellent In the end U Is glorious
II < Its spirit nnd glorious In Its letter Hut
simple a It Is the pvoplo cannot under tanllt
I must speak to them In their own language I
L S f h h
must tuinpl my inougms 10 inoir inuuvnii
They arc like unto children and Inv to hear
tales Therefore I will tell them stories to u
plain the glory of the dharma the Buddhist
code of rlghlennsnesa or tho whole system or
Buddhist doctrines I they cannot grasp
tho truth from the abstract argument
b > which 1 have reached It they may never
theless como to understand it If It 19 I
Illustrated In parables Twentyfour or
Iustrate
these stories aro set forth In this volume
but we tan reproduce only a few Let us
luar first the parable of the man born blind
rtuddhn related upon one occasion that there
Wi a man born blind who paid I do not boo
hove In the world of light and appearance
There are no colon bright or sombre There 1 Is
no sun no moon no stars No one has witnessed <
these things The mans friends remonstrate
with him but ho clung to his opinions What
you say you see objected are Illusions I I
colors existed I should be able to touch them
They have no substance and aro unreal In
those days there was a phjalclan who WH
called to ace the blind man and ho mixed four
simples and cured him of his disease Th
Tathagata sid Uuddha la the physician and
the four simples are the four noble truths
At another time Gautama narrated the story
of the burning mansion here was It seems a i
wealth householder who possessed a large but
old mansion its rafters were wormenlen its
pillars rotten Its roof was dry and combustible
I happened one day that there was a small or
fire The householder ran out of doors and saw
the thatch nil ablaze lie was horrorstricken
for he loved his children dearly and knew tbt
Ignorant of the danger they ware romping
about In the burning mansion The distracts
father thought to himself What shall I do
WflirUtn13nV6fr the danger If I run In t
catch them and to carry them out In my
arms they will run away and while I
might save one of them the others will perish
In the flames Suddenly an idea came to
him My children love toys he thought
If I prom Iso them playthings of wonderful
beauty they will listen to me Then hi
shouted Children come out and seo the ex
< Ulslte feast your father has prepared for you
Here are toys for you finer than you have ever
aeen Come quickly before it la too late t And
10 I from the blaring ruin the children came
out at lull speed The word toys had caught
their minds Then the fond father In his Joy
bought them the most precious playthings and
when they saw the destruction of the house
they understood tho good Intention of their
father and praised the wisuom which had saved
their lives The Tatbagala added Buddha
h kno s that the children 01 the world lovo the
tinsel of worldly pleasure he therefore de
scribes tho bliss of righteousness endeavoring
thus to save their soula from perdition and
verily ho will give them the spiritual pleasures
of truth
IV
Wo pass to the parable of the lost son There
was wo are told a householders SOl who went
away Into u far country and while the father
accumulated Immeasurable riches the son be
came miserably poor And It came t pass that
the son while searching for food and clothing
came to the country In which his father lived
The father saw him In his wretchedness and
knew him although he was ragged nnd brutal
ized by poverty and he ordered some of hlH
servants to call him When the eon saw the
palace to hlch he was being condui ted hu
thought I must have aroused the suspicions
1 powerful man and he will throw mo Into
Prison Full of apprehension he made his cs
ape before he hud seen his father Then the
lather sent messengers after his son and he wns
I aucht and brought back in spite of his cries
and lamentation Thereupon lila father ordered
I his servants todcnl tenderly with his son and he
appointed a man of bin sons rank und education
oimploy tho lad na a helpmate nf the estate
And the lad rejoiced at his new lot From the
I window of his palace the father watched hla
con and vhen ho mw that lie was honest and
Industrious he promoted him hlghernnd higher
ACer many years he summoned his Bon and
ailed together nil his fervants and made the
secret known to them Then was the poor I mart
xttHllngly glad and fullof joy at meeting his
father lluddhaa comment U I that Iltlleby
little must tho minds ot men bo trained fur
higher truths
Very beautiful are the tales of Vasavadntta
the courtesan and of tho Indian despot whodhl
hat which list id did to Uriah the Hittlle
huy are too long to quote however nnd wo
must confine ourselves to one more extract from
these parable tho story of the woman at the
well An old Iluddhlst tradition runs that
uandn the favorite disciple of liuddha hav
mug been sent b > the Lord on I mls lon passed
b yn well near 1 village and seeing Prakrit a
girl of the Mntangn caste he asked her for wo
jrln drink 1rukrltl laid Oh Ilrihman I
1110 too humble nnd mean to give you
uter to drink du not ask any service
of f me lest > your holiness b contaminated for I
so of low caste Ananda unaweredi I oak
nut for caste but for water and the Matanga
girls heart leaped joyfully and the gave An
and tudrlnk Ananda thanked hernd went
Aar but the followed him afar off Having
heard that Ananda was ndlsclplu ot Clautnma
lie girl repaired to the lllebscd One and cried i
Oh Ixird help me und let mo live In the place
where Aiianda thy dike Iple dwells to that 1 ma >
e him aud minister unto him for I love Aiun
di ilio iileasetl One underato lbs motLns
or her heart anti he said i Irukrltl thy heart h I
ill of love but you do not understand your
own sentiments I la I not Ananda whom
you love hut his kindness Receive then the
klntinesi ou halo Been him practise toward
you and In the humility of your patience prao
se I toward others There la I a very great
merit In the generosity of a king when he Is
kind to a slate but there Is a greater merit In
the slave when forgetting the wrongs which be
lute he cherishes kldnes and goodwill to
all I mankind lIe will Cease to hate his oppress
4
W I r
THE SUN SUNDAY JULY 14
and when powerless to resist their
or ao even pwele t lt
uanrpaUonawlll pity their arrogance and aupr
cllloua demeanor niecaed art thou Prakrit
for though you are Dee you ehitl b
come a modal for noblemen and noblewomen
cme You are of low caste but llrahman bal learn
a boson from yon Hwerve not from the path
of rlghteouanea and Justice and you wilt out
shine the glory of queens upon the throne
V
Is there In Buddhism I counterpart to the
Christian doctrine of the Trinity 1 The question
affirmative In a
must be answered In the mrmatve
council hold by his disciples alter Buddha hail
council held for the purpose of
passed away I counci ourple
propounding his doctrines In a pure and uncor
rupted form one of the most eminent of his fol
lowers Kafhyapa arose and laid You have
spoken well 0 brethren Neither la I there any
conflict of opinion among ua on the meaning of
our religion For the Illossed One possesses
three personalities and every one of them Is of
equal Importance to ua Thero Is the Dharma
Kayo Thor la thu Nlrmnna Kayo Iberf la
the Bambhoga Kaya liuddha Is the allexcel
and Immutable
lent truth eternal omnlpreseltAld
this Is the SambhogaKa > a which body la In a
state of perfect bliss liuddha Is the allloving
the beluga whom
teacher nasumlng the shave ot blnls
ho teaches this Is I the Nlrmana Kaa hla ap
pnrltlonal body Uuddba Is the allbleaecd dis
pensation of religion ho ia I the spirit of the
Satigha and the meaning of tho commands
1111ha
which he his bit us In his sacred word the
Dharma this la the llharma Kayo the body of
the moat excellent Lord
Even the few abort excerpts from this book
which we have been nbln to present will suffice
to show that the two greatest religions of the
world exhibit many striking coincidences In
their philosophical b Is a well as In the ethi
cal applications of their faith although their
modes of systematizing these In dogma are
radically mon different It la I the compiler belief
however that while a comparison of the many
noteworthy Agreements between Christianity
and Buddhism may prove fatal to n sectarian
conception of the religion of Jesus It will In
the end only help to mature our insight Into the
essential purport of the teachings of tho floe
pels It will bring out the nobler Christianity
which aspires to bo the cosmic religion of uni
versal truth JI W H
The Htory or Core
A book of singular usefulness to American
politicians anti wrltern on political aubJerU Is
Tle American Oiriorrw by JOBKPII WEST Moor
Harpers In this large octavo olume of nearly
six hundred paces we have a consecutive clear
and concise though not of course exhaustive
account of the Federal legislation of the
American people from the colonial period to t
the close or the third session of tho FlftJthlr
Corgresn The treatment the subject proper
docs not begin until pAlO lOs when the author
describes tho organization of the new constitu
tional government In 1780 The first chapter I
of the nature of a prologue and alms to recount
succinctly the successive English settlements of
the countr And the events which led to tho
meeting of tho Brit Continental Congress Dur
Ing the next six chapters tho history goes on to
the doIng
describe the movement for Independence <
logs of the Itn olutlon and the construction and
adoption of the Constitution In the course of
the ensuing narrative the origin and growth or
parties the memorable act of Presidents and
Innumerable other matters pertaining to the
brand and diversified field of American politic
arc incidentally discussed Interwoven wit
the main thread of the narrative are copious ei
tracts from noteworthy speeches and debates
all of whIch have been gathered from tle ol
tidal reports We should add that there are
appendices containing a number of important
documents Including the Declaration of Indc
penitence the Articles of Confederation the
Constitution of the United States Waahlngton
Farewell Address the Emancipation Proclama
tion and lists of the Presidents of the Contl
rhi SUV5pJ5l2 t11 pro tempore
of Representatives There Is also that India
pensablo accompaniment of such a voliime a i
full Index
tullndex
L
As a rule we have found the assertion mae
In the preface Justified that the author is ac
curate in his statements of fact and Just In his
and Hero and
comments on men measures ant
there of course an objection may be made to
the language In which an event is described
Thus on page 170 we read that The Alien
and Sedition laws which had been vigorously
enforced by President Adams had driven many
of the foreignborn citizens Into the ranks of
the Democratic Republicans Although those
laws were signed by President Adams ho hail
not been a zealous advocate of them and they
were very sparingly applied Undertaking on
pal 04 to give an account of our sources of in
formation concerning the debates In the Phila
delphia Convention of 17H7 the author Bays
Copious notes of the debates wero taken by
Jamej Madison for his own use and many
years afterward these notes were published
by the Government together with the official
records of the Convention Chief Justice Yates
of New York and Luther Martin of Maryland
two of tho delegates also made reports of the
proceedings which were printed Mr Moor
might hav added that HufuH King likewise left
notes of some of the discussions in the Conven
tion which have been recently elven to the
world It might have been well moreover to
mention in the chapter devoted t the subject
that the Philadelphia Convention WaS not au
thorized by the States sending delegates to It t
Formulate a new plan of government but only to
make Indispensable changes In the existing
rtlclesof Confederation thatof the four
ichemaa presented t wit the Virginia plan the
iouth Carolina plan the Hamilton plan and
the New Jersey plan the latter alone which
was advocated by William Patterson recog
ilzod the limits fixed by the mandate under
which the delegates acted Ho proposed
hat Congress should remain a single body and
hould represent the States each of which was
t have one vote There was to be an Executive
Council for the management of the atlalra of
the Government as Is now the case In Hwltzer
land and there seas to b a supreme Judiciary
The one great deficiency In the Articles of Con
federation was t be remedied by giving Con
gross full power to regulate commerce to ra ae
money by taxation and to enfOrce Its requlal
loua There can bo but little doubt that such a
1lan would have been workable and we can see
that under I we should have avoided the grave
ilschlefa attending the election of a President
who for tour jean Is Invested with Dowers
uverelgn vastly exceeding those of a constitutional
I
Mr Moorehas condensed some interestIng data
regarding the Congress of the Confederation
out hs omits to reproduce Oouvernenr Morriss
assertion that It contained 1 great many rascals
It L la well know that each State compensated
its own delegates and that the compensation
varied according t the section of the country
from which delegates might come The author
points out that It never exceeded 20 a day and
ipentea which BUm was paid by tha State of
Virginia but thla of course la wore than
a member of Congress gets now Tho Presl
dents of the Congress of the Confederation had
line houses provided for them at the places
hero Congress mot and hal largo sums of
money allowed to them for servants and hUe
Ijuiti store home of the Presidents drew aa
mooch as il 70001 year and none kept house
on less than 10000 We scarcely need remind
the reader that at present when rent and food
staples are much higher the Sleeker of the
house of Representatives and the President pro
stupor of the Senate receive but 8000 a
rear There la another difference namely that
most of the members of our House of Itepre
nutlves and many of our Senators are poor
men The delegates to the Congress of the
Confederation on the contrary were generally
very well to do and quite often very rich plant
era merchants and lawyers They were
nearly alvvnya men of ability and cultur
and of experience In the political affair
ot hair btaies As under the Article
1
r
each State could nnd seven delegate t
Cog and no more I follow that ninety
one mao up the full number Out the del
gate attending at any session seldom exceeded
twentyflvo or thirty Reminding us that for
Imo year preceding 1713 the Congress of the <
Confederation met In Independence hall In
Philadelphia the author recalls the fact that
the spacious apartment In the first story wh
It sessions were Leld was rather plainly fur
nished There wo no attempt at decoration
except that on the walls were hung large en
gravings of Washington and other eminent
American soldiers I and the printed broad side
of the Declaration of Independence which had
been signed In that very apartment Arranged
In a semicircle In the centre of the floor were
thirteen small mahogany table covered with
green cloth At each of these tables Slt
during a session the Chairman of a State
delegation while the other member or
the delegation occupied comfortable ma
hogan chairs In the rear of the room The
Prealdent of Congress tat at a largo desk on a
low platform In front of tho tables and near him
was seated the Secretary of Congress Tho del
egates sat with their hAl on after the iiannr
of the llrltlsh Parliament They were usual
richly attired Indeed HO arc told that some ut
them were exceedingly gorgeous In embroider
satin coat and small clothe and rufllad shirts
adorned with precious stones They were dig
nlfled very courteous to one another and polite
In debate Long B > corhcs were I seems the
rule and MOO of the delegates were noted for I
their ability to talk for hours Conspicuous
among the members of this body were Madison
amonl
and Monroe of Virginia The former Is described
as a chubby rosyfaced nweettemiwred young
Virginian of talents who after graduation from
Princeton College had goao Into Congress
in 1780 well equipped for legislative du
ties After his term of three years during
which he was remarked for lila sound judgment
and extensive knowledge of English history
and constitutional law he vacated his eelt
returned to Virginia and became a very active
member of her Legislature Subsequently Mad
Ison rcfntercd the Congress of tho Confeder
ton and served for two ear Ho was rather
slow and grave of speech and had a very mod
est way of expressing his opinions jet none or
the noted orator of the day could equal hi
M a clear Impressive debater Ho had 1 cain
face which was seldom ruffled with passion
and keen blue e el He always wore plain black
clothe and never pondered Ida hair Ills
estate In Virginia known n Montpcller Ielde
him a large Income and ho ranked among the
wealthy planters of that Commonweal
lames Monroe of Virginia who A seven
years younger was a student In the College ot
William and Mary when the Revolution began
Leaving his books he Joined the patriot Army
and served with credit for several year attain
log the rank of Colonel Subsequently he 1
studIed law was admitted to tho Virginia bar
and entered political life He was sent from the
Old Dominion to the Congress of the Confedera
tion from 178 to 1780 Monroe waa tall and
well formed quiet and dignified In manner and
simple in dress Ho had little talent n an
orator or writer but his sensible views upon
public qutstlonn his spotless Integrity and rare
devotion to duty mode him an Influential man
In Congress and elsewhere
III
I Is well known that the Government for
whIch the new Constitution provided was organized
Ized In New York but It Is hard for the present
Inhabitants that city to realize that one of the
main reasons for the subsequent removal of the
federal capital t Philadelphia a tho con
larntlve lack of good hotel and bonrdlnghouc
Island New
accommodation on Manhattan 1laod I
Yorkers Indeed had dono what they could to t
arrange for the proper Installation of the new
Federal Legislature and Executive When it V9
determined to transform for the new Congress
the old City Hall which stood In Wall stree
t the head of brood where the SubTrc surj of
and which bad
the United States now stands
been erected of brick and stone In 17QO
bel iork sub I
nf iV > r ° JUiS merchant n >
crlbed 2lt ion Lno purpose of reconstruc
lon and the work was put In the hands of
Major Pierre Charles IEnfant a Parisian en
ineer and architect who had como to AmerIcA
In 1777 and who subsequently designed the
city of Washington Mr Moore quotes from 1 i
contemporary publication a description of the
old City Hall after Its transformation smut
adaptation to Federal purposes The basement
we are told was Tuscan pierced with seven
openings massive pillars in the centres sup
porting four Dorio columns and pediments
The frieze was so divided as to admit thirteen
stars in metopes These with thu America
eagle and other insignia the tablets over the
windows filled with thirteen arrows and olive
ranches united were considered sufficient to
mark tho building a designated for national
uses Entering from liroaft street the vlsltoi
found himself In a plainly furnished sure
rom flagged with stone This was always fret
to > the public being usually thronged during the
sessions of Congress From this public room
entrance was gained to the vestibule leading to
the room of Representatives The latter apart
lent was paved with marble aa was also the
Senate Chamber on tho right The Represents
fives Itoom wan both spacious and elegant b
gtll feet by SH In Its dimensions and 36 feet
t the celllnga It was octagonal In form the
side being rounded In the manner of niches
whIch gave 1 graceful variety to the Interior
Time windows were large and placed 10 feet
from the floor all of the walls blow them b
InK wainscoted and Interrupted by the four
chimneys In the panels between the windows
were carved trophies and the letters U
S In a manor ramie cipher surrounded
by wreaths of laurel The Speaker chair
6 placed on a dais opposite to the
great entrance door while the members chairs
were ranged In two semicircular rows On
either sIde of the Speakers chair were narrow
galleries for the accommodation of spectators
but their capacity did not exceed 2UO persona
The Senate Chamber was 40 by 30 feet and the
height was only 20 feet though the calling b
Ing arched this defect was not especially no
ticeabie Three windows were placed In the
front and as many In the back wall Those In
front opened on an opening gallery IS feet deep
which overlooked llroad and U all street The
decorations of the Senate Chamber
decoratons were ae
verolT simple They were mainly pilasters or
al order Invented by Major LEnfant The
marble used was from American quarries the
selection being mado In the belief that the atone
s equal In shaded and polish t any European
specimens Resides the halls of Congress there
were committee room spacious lobbies and a
guan on the floor above for It was then
the custom for the regular army t protect the
building and Ua occupants On the whole we
are assured that the Senate chamber and the
hall > of Representatives provided by the mer
chants of New York resented an exceedingly
handsome appearance with fine mahogany
desk and chair national flags In festoons and
large paintings The chairs of the presiding
oflicers had rich silken canopies over them
IV
The tint Congress decided to give the Presi
dent an annual compeiuatlon of lUiOOO the
ePresldent 5000 the Secretary Foreign
AtTains now culled Secretary of State ISOO
and I the other Cabinet once SI 000 I time
saute Congress the compensation of Senators
and I Raprtsintatlvoawaa made 0 for each day
of the session It remained at this figure until
1817 with tin exception ot three yearn In one
ot which 17081706 It wa1 a day and In two
ot which 118161817 It was 1500 year Tray
ellin expenses In going to and returning from
the places where Congress met ware allowed a
therateofthirty cents mile From IHl7tolH53
the compensation was Sib a daywlth an allowance
at 40 cents a miA for travel In IH5fi was es
tabUshed the system of annual compensation
which baa continued to the present tme For
ten year 3000 a your was allowed with 40
cents a mile for travel From the 4th of Marcn
mie 1rol
1805 to the beginning of the term of the Forty
second Congress In 1871 compensation was
11000 a year with 20 cents a mile for travel
On the third day of March 1873 the last day of
its existence the Fortyiecond Congress pa < aed
an act lucreuUig t the compensation of members
r I i
W1 iiFi
I
4 1
1805
from 15000 Ut 7600 a year the Increase t b
retroactive and t date from March 4 1811
The Inoreaaa of the salarIes t 7600 wu
not disapproved to any serious extsnt
by the Country because It was believed
b many persono that M the Con
gretstnen had relinquished the franking prlyl
lene a larger compensation should be Riven them
to meet the greater expense caused by this re
llnqulshment I A the retroactive clause ot
the Salary act that aroused Indignation It was
universally considered disgraceful thing for
the member of the Fortythird Congress t
vote themselves the Increased compensation
from the beginning of the Congress two years
before the passage of the act So fierce was time
storm of public reprobation the salary grab
that many of the Congressmen who hal drawn I
from 1000 to 94000 of book pay restored
tbo money to the Treasury while of the oilier
who braved opprobrium and retained the money
many were relegated to private life The Forty
third Congress on Jan SO 1R71 repealed t th
Salary act so fa as It related t members ot
Congress
V
One of the mot Interesting thing In the book
before na la the contemporary account of t thin I
behavior of tho llrltlsh force which captured
and devastated Washington In 1B14 Amen
cans who read It will not fall to contrast the
British treatment of their kindred beyond
tea with tIme singularly gracious all chivalrous
way In which at the same period Englishmen
comported themselves toward Frenchmen who
had been for centuries the enemies of their
nation It will b remembered that when t
allied armies occupied Paris it I was Welllngt
who prevented Hlucher from blowing up the
Pont de Jena It was veterans from Welllr
tons army who composed the British troops I
under Oen Rosa that In August 1814 began a I
march across Maryland to the city of Washing I
ton They were unreslsted until they reached
the Tillage of liladensburg five miles
from the Federal capital Here their
march was stopped bv ion Winder army
mostly composed of raw mliltlo tilimberimig
about 7000 Tho British after a short
abut Urllh Arer engage
ment scattered the mllltln who broko In confusion
slon and ran for dear life The whole liritish
force then advanced toward the hill which
NIance tard bi com
mantled the turnpike to Washington and i on
which In charge of Commodore Joshua Barney
were about 000 sailors and marines with soy I
oral email cannon An old report of tho battle
thus describes what followed Barney reo
served his fire until the enemy came within a
few yards when I discharge of round anti
rap shot left tho front rank struggling II
death A second time the English veterans ad
vance a second time their front ranks fell like
grass before a scythe Tho British then le
the road and approached from another direction
by fording the creek at the time very low All
the socalled American troops had left the
Commodore and his brave phalanx Still he 1
stood his ground against an overwhelming
force composed not as the author of the
account says of tho veterans of Wate
10 but of the veterans of the peninsular
war Although simultaneously charged
on the rieht and left Barney repulsed them
several times with great slaughter H re
ceived a ball In his thigh which was bleeding
profusely At the same time his horse tsas
tilled under him To add to lila chagrin the
mushroom militia had run off with his ammi
iltlon wagon On being surrounded by the
enemy he ordered those to retreat who were
orere tole
able t do no Ha was carried 1 few
yards by three of his officers and
then fell from loss of blood Two or i
the officer were ordered to conduct the retreat
treat of his gallant men The llrltlsh left eight
ot their killed and wounded on the bnttleflel
who had fallen through the bravery of tho
American soldier and marines Had time militia
and his band the
ought like Harnev ocean they
vould have repelled the tot nnd saved tho CM
tal from desecration the llrltlsh arm eu
ered Washington early In the evening Aui
n ants miu u inrt in tnti fl ul the av
tol The soldiers fired a number of volleys Into
the windows of the harbor ot Yankee Demo <
racy a Admiral Cock burn called the bulldlni
and then marched into the wing used by time
louse of Representatives Cockburn was escorted
carte to the Speakers chair by Jen Roes and
with a fine assumption of legislative dignity
ailed the assemblage to order amid bolster
ons laughter and cheers iHo demanded that the
building should be burned All for It say aye I
h e shouted There was n unanimous affirms
Uve response and the order was then given 10 I
apply the torch The soldiers stripped the Con
resslonnl library of Its books and pictures and
piled them on the floor of the HOI A fire was
started which quickly acrcad to the Capitol
and In Irs than an hour It was In ruins Th
residents house and other public building
were also fired After destroying a great dea
f private property belonging to their kindred
beyond 0 the British silently retreated the
next night went aboard their shins mid sailed
way
VI
Among tho extracts from the utterances ot
American statesmen which are quoted by Mr
Moore perhaps the moat memorable are a pas
sage from the speech made In tho bonate by Mr
elwter In March IHno anti nn excerpt from I
a speech against secession by Alexander H
tephena The gift of prophecy was upon Web
er when he said Secession PeuceabU
eeccssionl I Sir your ayes and mine are never
destined to Bee that miracle The dismember
entof tbla vast country without convulsion I
Time breaking up of the fountains of the great
deep without ruffling the surface Who
I BO foolish I beg everybodys pardon
as t expect to Bee any such thing
Sir he who seesthese Status now revolving
In harmony around a common centre and ex
pel > t see them quit their place and fly
oft without convulsion may look the next hour
to ace the heavenly bodies rush from their
spheres and Jostle against each other in the
realms of apace without causing the crush ol
e universe There can be no such thing ns a
peaceable accession Peaceable accession I an
utter Impossibility I the great Constitution
under which we live covering this whole coun
try la It to b thawed and melted away by se
ssion as the snow on the mountain melt
untler the Influence of a vernal sun dl > appear
almost unobserved alt run off No sin No
sin 1 I will not state what might produce time
disruption of the Union but sir I see
aB plainly aa I sue the urn In heaven
what that disruption must produce I roe
that It mum product war such a war
as I will not scribe In itt 1 twofold
character Almost equally noteworthy was
the protest mode com ien I years afterward by
Mr A H Stephens against what be denounced
U8 thu monstrous folly of secession Ho tire
dlcted tlat the Southern State I timey accedeo
trl the Union would hays their slave
wrenched from them by the vindictive de
onu > of a universal eumni Ipatlon which mar
reasonably be expected lo follow He asked
what the South had to gall by secession and
all Wo lao always hail the control of tho
geuerah Government and can yet have the con
trol If we remain In It and aro as united as we
he been We have had a majority of the
tsllents chosen from the huulb an
well aa the control and management of
monet of those chosen from the North We
have had sixty yearn of Southern Presl
den lU to their twentyfour thus controlling I
the i Executive Department So of thu
Judges of tho Supreme Court we have had
eighteen from the South and but eleven from
the i North although nearly fourfifths of the
JudIcial business has arisen In the true States
yet a majority of time courts has always been
from the South This we have required so aa
to guard agalntt any Interpretation of the Con
stitution unfavorable to ua In like manner we
have been watchful to regard our Interest lu
the legislative branch of government In
choosing tha President pro tern of the Senate
we have hud twentyfour to their eleven
Speakers of the house wo have haa twenty
three and they twelve Although the majority
of the Representatives from their greater
population have always bean from the North
yet we have generally secured tha Speak
Sr and ha to a great extent shapes
and controls the legislation of the country Nor
hare we bad lee control over every other do
partment of the general Government Attor
neyOcncral we have had fourteen while the
North ban had but five Foreign Minister we
have had eightysix and they but fiftyfonri
while threefourths of the buslneca which do
mends diplomatic agent abroad is I clearly from
the free States from their greater comnuerrial
Interests jot we have had the principal em
hassles so as tosecnro ho world market for our
cotton tobacco and sugar on the best possible
term We have had a vast majority of the
higher offices of both army nnd navy nithoimgim
a larger proportion of the soldiers and ailtfra
were drawn from the North Equally so
of clerks auditor and comptrollers fill I
Ing the Executive department the records
allow for time last fifty leon that of the three
thousand thus employed wo have had mono
than twothirds of the same although wo Imave
but onethird of time white population of the re
public Them is of course no doubt that li
the Southern States chosen to remain In thin I
Union they would have continued to control
the Federal Semite and would In nil likelihood
have returned In 18HJ a majority of the house
of Representatlv Hy a fusion of tho Ioug
Ins anti llreckenrldge Democrat they woimltt
havo been utile nt any time to elect a Chmiof
Magistrate They could have always fall
back upon their right to subdivide Texts and
greatly Increase their representation In time
Senate under a clause of the treaty hereby the
Texan republic became a member of the Union
a
VII
An historian of Congress must not of course
suppress facts In the Interest ot Indlvldua
Wo have a right to expect from him history
and not whitewash Let ua taat Mr Moores
trustworthiness on this score by noting what i
has to say about Garfields connection with the
Credit Moblllera ncandnl about the Mulllg
letters Incident and about the IllnlneConkll
controversy Let us say at once that the au
thor of this volume la iiotonn of those persons
who imagine that a politician la indicated
because after he has fallen under grave ccnsu
or suspicion ho Is placed In a high office through
the efforts of a political party Of course
If It Is time fact of election that con
dilutes vindication then James A Garfield
was vindicated but James fl 1 Illnlno was not
inrflcldn connection with the Oakes Ames and
lImo Credit Moblllcr mustier Is succinctly no
counted as follow James A Darfield of Ohio
was another of thin prominent accused Congress
men The committee found In his case that he 1
had agreed to taku ten shares of Credit Moblll
Block but had not paid for them On Jan l
1808 there was a dividend on the stock of HO I
per cent In Union Pacific bonds AaGarfleli
Block Blood In Amess name the latter received i
the 80 per cent dividend In bonds sold time
bonds paid for tho stock that he was carrying
for Garfield and hind a balance ot 320 The
report of the Poland committee said This
Bum was paid over to Mr Garfield by a check
on tho bcrgeantatArms Mr Garfield then
understood this sum was time balance after
paying for the Block Mr Amos received
all the subsequent dividends and time
committee do not find that since time payment
of time 329 there has been any communication
between Mr Amos and Mr Garfield on the snl
Ject unlll this InvcRtlcatlon began The Po
land committee which was made up of three
Republicans and two Democrats professed 1 it
self unable to find anything In the conduct or i
moth es of any of time members of Congress who
accepted Credit Moblller stock that called for
any action It could nol however refrain from
adding No member Congress ought to place
himself in circumstances of suspicion so that
any discredit of the hotly shall arise on his atm
count It la of the highest Importance that the
national Legislature should be free from all
taint of corruption nnd It Is of almost equal
necessity that time people should feel confident
that It Is so In a free Government like ours we
cannot expect the people will long respect the
lana If they lose respect for the lawmakers
Let ua now turn to SirS MUIUKHU letters and
Mr lllalnes connection with them The authors
account of this Incident la not exhaustive but
it mentions some facts omitted by Gall Hamllto
In her recent biography of James G Blnlne 1 It
ivlll be remembered that In April of 187
while Mr Illalno was engaged In a canvass for
ho Presidential nomination by the Republlca
National Convention his political opponent
nado n serious charge against him It was
asserted that he had received as n gift f7500
worth of tho bonds of time Little Rock and Fort
Smith Railroad Company and that these bond
lad been purchased from him nt a large over
valuation by the Union Pacific Railroad Com
iany which In this Indirect way had sought
10 recompense him for services to the rail
road corporation In connection with cer
thin legislation An emphatic denial of
the accusation wee made by Mr IlUlne but his
opponents In the House of Representatives sue
eedcd In procuring nn Investigation of tIme
barge by the Committee on the Judiciary Th
oinmlttce summoned as a witness James Mul
ganof Boston the confidential bookkeeper of
Jacob Stanwood the brotherinlaw of Mr
llaine Mulligan bad In his possession certain
letters written oj Blame to Warren Fisher anti
ther persons Interested In the Little Rock anti
Fort Smith Railroad Mr Moore remarks that
these letters ware supposed to be very dam
King to lilftine This Is a very perfunctory way
of dealing with the matter The letters wen
not only supposed but known to be damaelng U
lalno for the reason that one of them ended with
the Injunction Hum this letter while another
convoyed to the correspondent the assurance
that he Illalne could be counted on owlni
to his official position In Congress not to be a
pad head lu the enterprise It la certain that
Inlne himself considered tt of vital Importance
to gain possession of theme documents for the
uthor of this book points out as soon as Mull
gnu had reached Washington Rlalnn obtained
the loiters from him In what Mulligan claimed
to i be a dishonorable manner This episode
which la suppressed In lull Hamiltons account
of the affair Is thus described by Mr Moore
lie reminds ns that Eppa Hun ton a member ol
in Judiciary Committee rose In the House of
epresentatives and made a statement ol
the nay In which Mr Illume had secured
the letters from Mulligan Mr Hunton
said that Mulligan bad stated to the
committee that Mr Illalne had come to him at
time hotel In Washington where he was staying
ani bad urged him to give up the letters even
going down on his knees or almost d > wn and
sayimmg If you do not deliver those letters to
e I am ruined and my family dlgr ted
ulllgan refused to give up the lottens aud
thmeim Illnlno askid If he might read them At
first Mulligan objected but Ilnallj upon n
hiletige of honor from lllnlnu that he would n
turn tho tellers they were given him to rind
lie road Hum over once or twin ami returned
tietmt Auuln hu entreated Mulligan to give up
time letters ottering him a better poxltlon than
ie 1 was holding u Consulship or some other
gool political tulle e Hut lo m nil I lie offers Mull
get saul nu and left the room Hlalne followed
him lo his apartment und said let monad
these letters again On plrdiio of his
imontr to return them the letters were given to
iiiaiime a aecond tune Ho looked them over for
II whIle ai d thru tnld Mulligan imo smas going to
keep them Mullein bccamo very much ex
kitetl hu illaliu Kpt time letters and went
itwa with them In his lsCe5iUtm llils vas
nMory that Mr i limit I I > n told on the llor of
time Housu of Reprint Hires and Mr Hlalne
ill ting tin t re and neirlni It Ifcrtd in lonlra
iittllt or i n lunation JIIK I nbv iniul U a
hart uf tie turi uf tIc Mulllgim chair that
ommgii not toh Hi brut omHiiel I by 1 Hilti ss lii
ruiher ll i t 3 mil I i 5 fair tii mid 1 mrvur us
tl r Mnnru i liiiiieiul I in do Hint IB toon as It
was kncmn that Mr Dial luuasn > t nominated
lt tho Republican Nath > ml Convention which
met at Cincinnati u few days after the above
ocemrrence thu Judiciary tommlltee dropped
this Inveatlgutlou and neverraumed It
VIII
We find on pate 450 a condensed but accurate
desvnlptiomm of the memorable legislative r n
itre between Mr Illatua and Mr Conkllc
which occurred tn the Iblrlyninth Congress
and I w hlch made them anemic for life In the
house of lUptMcnUtlvea un April at J86tl
ISaw e
while a bill to reorganize the army of the United
states was under consideration lr Conkllnf
moved to strike out the section providing for i
continuation of the llurcau of tutu Irnvnsf
MarflhalOonernl lie spoke In severs terms ol
the management of thai bitri nit during the wni
by Kli Try who was at lU lieail and laid
Mv objection to this section la that It create
an unnecessary officn for nn Undeserving publU
servant Mr lllnlne answered Mr Cunkllng
and warmly eulogIzed Clou Fry Mr Conkllnj
mada tlls rejoinder to Mr Iltaluei re >
marks If then Fry Is reclined to de
pending fur vindication upon the gentle
man from Maine hu Is to lie commlsi
ruled ccrtnlnly If I have fallen to the nece
Itvnf tnklnglissona from thul dontlcnian In
the rules uf propriety or right ntd wrung lod
help me Mr 1 H1iiln taut this ivinark Uic n
swuggor nnd the mnturnetit over On Ui
30th ot April Mr Hlalne obtained lt > nve > to rend
In the lloun n letter ho had receh td from len
Fry defending him elf fniu vvlinl ha eiillil
ciiliiiniiloiii iittiii ck on mo In the letter try
atntcd Unit tolikllng had received a fee ol
1000 for acting as a temporary Culled States
Judge Advocnto In cerlaimi vases in the Stato ol
New York concerning soldlirawhu had deserted
from the nriny while at thin Celtic time he wo
drawing u salary na n member nf Congress This
itntemetit brought Conkllng to his feet and he
made along and passionate speech about lbs
mailer Ho said some MiicAotlo things about
thin gentleman trim Maine and when hue
had finished Mr Illalne responded an followsi
As to the gentlemans cruel sarcasm 1 hop
ho will not be too severe rime contempt of that
largeminded gentleman Is MI willing his
haughty disdain his grandiloquent swell his
majestic suporcminoiit overpowering turkey
gobbler strut has been so crushing to myself
and nil time members ot thla House that I know
It was an act of temerity for me to venture
upon n controversy with him Hut air I know
who la responsible for all tills I know that
within the last five weeks aa member of
this House will recollect nn extra strut has
characterized the gentltmans bearing It I is
not his fault It Is the fault of another
That gifted and satirical writer Theodora
111 ton of the New York JtkJcpendent spout
some weeks recently In this city HI
letters published In that paper em
braced with many serious statement a little
Jocose satire a part ot which was the assertion
that the mantle of the late Winter Davis had
fallen upon the gentleman from New York
The gentleman took It seriously and It has
given hla strut additional pomposity The rc
semblance Is great It Is i striking Hyperion to
a satyr Thorsltes to Hercules mud to marble
a dunnhlll to a diamond a singed cat to a
Bengal tiger n whining puppy to a roaring
lion Shade of the mighty Davis for
give the almost profanation ot that Jocose
satire The author of this book conclude
his outline of the incident by observing
that Illalne and Conkllng wore then both
young man both impetuous easily provoked to
anger courageous and ambitious of leadership
In the Republican party Thla paltry collision
of two bright Intellects which should have
been laughed at and forgotten In a few hours
engendered a bitter feud which lasted until the
grave closed over them and cast a shadow and
a blight over tbolr lives Ills thought to huv a
prevented each of them from becoming Presi
dent of the United States Thenceforth cat h
always worked against the other in the political
Held Their friends frequently attempted to
reconcile them but always In vain Mr Moore
recalls that when Judge David Davis left tie
bench of time Supreme Court of the United State
to become a Si nator he mode several Ineffectual
ttlempls to bring Blame and onklliik gethcr
One day the two relentless foes accidentally
met In Davlss committee room In the Cat Itol
It was an occasion that ho had lung sought coil
lie was delighted Now look hen ho mid
In tits hearty familiar way ns time distinguished
men blood ulunt before him you two fellows
have been enemies long eunuch and Its time
you made up You are both good friends of
mine anti you ought to bo good friends of each
other Now I want you to shako hands and Ill
bless you Illalne and Conkllng evidently
touched by the sympathy and sincerity serin
ton Davis wtiom they honored nnd loved
actually did shake hands and speak for limo first
Imo lu many years but they were not recon
cued They never recognized each other again
jttnnr KRAUSRopfs PROJECT
The New Institution lie I to Provide lee
the Tralnlnic ol Youthful Jew >
When Rabbi Krauskopf of Phladelphla vis
Ited Russia last year for the purpose of looking
Into the condition of the Jews there he became
deeply Interested In a model farm near Odessa
which the lust Czar had permitted a number of
his Jew lah subjects to establish The farm had
then been In existence for three years and was
flourishing In a satisfactory way It had been
supplied with nil the necessary Implements of
agriculture The houses had bean built and the
rabbi examined the training shops In which
there were class rooms At that time the farm
consisted of but 100 acres of land It was cul
tivated by forty young Jewish boys and girl
taken from an orphan asylum They were as
the rabol says taught practically and tachni
cally the art and aclence of farming garden
Ing stuck raising and dairying
Rabbi Krauskopf was greatly pleased with
the Jewish model farm In Russia Ho saw two
score of young Jews of both sexes at their labor
in the fields and In the dairy and In the burns
and In the farm shops and the sight of them
gave him new hope for the Jew In Russia and
In America Their labor was of tba most useful
kind their success tn It was all that could b
desired and there was good reason to baIley
that the product ot their Industry would suf
fice for the maintenance of the farm
It bad been through particular favor that ths
concession of the 100 acre ot land was sit
cured but If the project were a success other
conceKSlona the kind could perhaps be ob
tained and thus time Jews might finally be ra
1 loved from one of the moat aerious disabilities
mder which they Buffer In Russia here are
Russian laws which render it almot Impossible
for anv Jew to come Into the ownership of
land but who can any that the Czars mind
would not be turned If he were made aware of
the existence of a prosperous agricultural
colony under Jewish control
blnuo Rabbi Krauakopf returned to this coun
try from Russia he ban been filled with tba Idea
of establishing her a model farm like that near
Odessa fur time training Jewish youth In time
arts nod sciences that enter Into modern Hrmltiir
and In the mmmc of lh m < hutilcul and other ep
pllnncoawhlch within recent years hava bnu
rendered available tor the service of Amer
ican farmers lie has begun hilt travtla
about the touiitry let luring upon the sul
sect he has eHtubllxhed a Model Farm
riuid bo tins secured the promise of
helu from akllltd ugrltiiltuiUu nnd fr ia
financier the direction ot affair Wul l lei i
triikted ton toinptleiit faculty IIS own en
tlmislmsim over thu linijict Is limited I mil I i by I 5
lowers itnd tber is l not a more em rii tlr hit Iii
her of thu rabbit ate In I tlm m United I Mmtr In I
exec illon of thi > project may be looked Yr
u ibin aihortllmi
Tho arm la lu his l nf much grouter extent than
Its protoiyi e in Odi vsa I n thi country t here
UnoHuch Iron bio its tin ruin In Rims a about I Hie
procuring i of f land by Jews mid mi ana i lint
lees than 1000 acres is iloslnibte fir > tii sn rl
can expurlimnt which will I pr hah eh I ion
dm ted In Pennsylvania un New Ieroey Fann
ing machinery fur miprrlnr lu any In llmaia
wmI be und here und farm products ot all kind
vvll h 1 hi rmm ark Vt cit as H till as pmMIlt
Itnlibl i Urnnsknpf l Is I nt at nil dlHinuritged by
tlm failure of the mi ml ltst Il h air i ulturul I
espcTiinunlB thai lucy I > o i inn l < m this iiiun I
try hot I nun biii > y Juwldi eonln of
ne Ii ri ace whiikniw ni Hum of fniiu work
who liiul nivi r li < ltie I i il 1 nr lot l untie alit
moil nf whom hudliei n > ir UMirtrs in
Hli iliimi i In hi i ur 1 nii by young
piopln IMIH uinl > rk ho Vi hi trnliiia
1 ir tlmi wnrK to K Ii I I h I hey urn ti Jtif i
CI tlier me nnei t it l al i a I
lie liii Mnriainid I hit In inn tI
nun uf tin m ii mint I undid from h
iirpliin itsyliiius uiul othi i ili llullol i t 11 I l > ru
tMli In Hu li > f Unix Yr t > nilliyr 1 li
inilims i uf ItiMbtu i p irentuwi Ale iiuintiu i ia
tie eunmltry mill an Hwa ixiuus I i e r I
upon any dull > lifi ih > h gives 1mm I < 0 f I
tilcnks In I HI i tit tlineb ihw I Jew ni ro ti c i I
nt Hit i 11 i unit it hi I as > nt li un nllovielhT il > r I
fault thai MI i the piriiHl ut Hu di i MMI I
lln y liivvuforsititt n thv vnH of the no i t > I
habit KMiikoni C is i lit omil y a mm 1 a I
Uii i of hu yn uci I but h I tt ices iris I
wrtUI ilien i fit the It A h I ynuuia i a I
I rintd at Hitmoilflfitriii t l ie y wil H i I
C ellmtly tin d hi Bays i > m u n as 1 5 I
I vndtntiit I ir ihenkilculiurnl t I ioiutawl ti o I
suet > lu hsi l founded on a Itrtte I tcau in Am r c I
It laliltiipuiinu that thor n > u i MWII be a t t I
lungoln the iiniluHlt nt AMHTkiiii far f u v I
Hid that the bi inesii of raising cruiM a 0 I
carried on by ornunled rol < mj o who an ii < > I
lull use of all eiemtitlo guiicmi anti Inc hu I J I
4 > iliaiicc rtdtLlng thu cui in pruduvliuu I
II I

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