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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, July 12, 1896, 1, Image 2

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Ji ?i THE SUN, SUNDAY, JULY 12, 1896. H
B;( JEPTHS OF THE HEAYKNS.
B ' tTOJHr JJT RETEALIXO TIIEM.
Hvi Wltk taajLariraat Teleeeoaeo It Is Possible
.-Bfif tv to aher Kara of I.laht That Ltfl
HDH A Tkalr tioaree Lobs IWroro the Pxra
W, Mite est Xcrat Win Ilnllt,
HflB'Vv a v090" progress which has been made
Bfl.'rpi lsvahiC study of the heavens, the photographlo
Kjkr pt baa played a moat Important part. In-HEnf-flr
dead, the focllltlet which the resources of
aaaBaraffi'lv BnotonTaPnT have placed at tho disposal of
BaaVSnKfT' " Mtronomer are every day Increasing.
aaaaMKBel'r ? '"" "er methods of observation are In manr
ataaVKnW " RraduaUy tlng displaced by the more
aaaaaf atKtiU' Boovrata and far more comprehensive meth
H Ifl "V1 oda which the camera offers. It has been as
aaaaV (1 t i rtdl n do not think that the troth of
fli, Ji tha assertion will bo questioned, that the ad
atmt'lB F l vanca 'n ! aitronomera art, which la dne to
JK,K .' I tha Introduction of the photographic plato
h' . into tha obterratory, ! not less far reaching
HKl tXl in it effects than the advance which was in
aaH E ?' BtumraUd when Galileo first turned his newly
bH H '" -,f " talaaoopa to tho sky. and thns wonder
aaH. ill ''" f' 'nH'aB3iented tha ipoce-penetratlng power
aaal KtH " . n,unJln vision.
B i II I1 Almost tha first feature which will strike
B 1 if i ' obserrer who la examining: a (rood photo
awl Id '? -' rnlii ot 'dercal depths la that, though
aaaa III M aT be hardly any part of the area pre
aaH III V ' "atd which Is quite free from stars, jet
aaaal 11 ' ' that they are distributed with very great lr
BaaH X II ? regularity. In tome regions the stars nre ag
sbB sllv V reft-atad. in countless myriads; indeed, in many
sbB III I Pfcrti of the heavens they He so closely packed
sbB lllf'?( ' anat the Individual points can hardly be dls
SaB llPi- '" tiurnlshed separately. Ordinary observation,
sbH 111 $ ! n w'Ul tDS un,,0'e lrs prepares ui'in a
sbH 1 II kf Bieasuro for this striking irregularity in stellar
III p. distribution.
sbH ft U '' v 'uu ot often dwelt with admiration on
saBf-tll ' Uukt glorious etollar glrdlo which we know as
saHr i II 'I ' lkT ay. It la a mighty zone of stare
sbHL-I'II "' 'C rOQn(ltna our solar system. Indeed, a Jtut
bbD'EIi rt' timateof the relation ot tho sun to other
sbVc L-it K Oodles in the scheme of the universe would ro-SaaW-
i" 1 11' 8" our Sreat luminary merely as one nf slml
SaaWrll , ? ar 'tars aggregatel In countless myriads to
H-fll 'li" form the Milky Way. From the peculiar
bBt li'l 1 1' f nature of the stars In the Galaxj . as th Is system
SaW'tll V'Y 'oftn called, It Is quite obvious that these
SaVr'BII 1 ) wonderful starry clusters have some bond of
Br 1 1 Br connection batween their component parts duo
saHjmllr ' Probably to a common origin. To renllze the
Br-iflll "' eP1"nor o' til9 Milky Way we have to re
Saw'vllt " n,mDr that minute as the Btarn of which It Is
Ef jj composed may seem from where we are ultu-
B Sir ''ted. yet each one of those stars Is In truth
BbBI I It- - BDn'n'C w'tn tne independent brilliancy of a
Saaarl I A ' .?&. It might have been thought that it
Ha I (mi would be quite impossible for an object so Tast
'Jijj I ! p ' ond so bright as our sun to display no ereatcr
HaTi' 'f'.'tt'' pl'udor than that feeble twinkle which Is all
Hfs I '.J p thai reaches us from one of the stars In the
Bg I-' j-i Milky Way. Here, howe er, the question of
Hf Itr dUtinoe la of paramount Importance.
ft I .4 J. ' ' "10 san whlch shines In our skies were to
HP- I V vrltbdrawn from our neighborhood Into the
HJx I i depth of space, if It were to be carried to a dls
Ht ' I ', tanoe as remote as Is that of many of the stars
HTj 1 L ' which we sea around us, our great luminary
m' I P i woa'(' tavo lost all Its preeminent splendor,
Hk; I J and would have dwindled to the relative in
H? ' ; I i- slgnlflcance of a small star not nearly so
H .1 ' f Jtiright as many of tbofe stars which shine over
Bv i 'l ? 'i- OQT beads everylnlght. I do not. Indeed, say
IV I I - f that each and everyone of the stars In the
Has L I "' i 'ky Way Is as large as our sun: no one who
tW Hi 4 nnderttood the evldenco would hao the hardl
mi't w & - J 00 to af&rm so gigantl: a proposition. At
7 WW -p toe same time I should add that I do not know
B'y : Jany grounds on which such a statement could
J bs certainly contradicted If any One did affirm
jK ?" It The probability seems to be that, though
Vj many of fho stars in the Milky Way mayre
l ft"' temble our sun In lustre or dimensions, yet there
.f. are in that marvellous group suns lesser and
? Lb ureater in nearly as many grades of magnitudes
: K- as there are objects In the Galaxy Itself.
''' The problem of determining the distance ot
CTMU :"rliA-?i 4?m tne ear one "bloh taxes tho
H i t:S highest resources of tne observing astronomer.
" H t l " the m,lllon' of the cli'ial bost there
fe. f ro hardly 100 stars whoso distances have
j H ijceen measured with accuracy by those sur-
MU '& toying operations by which alone this prob-
? ' 'em can BtcnratelJr solved. We are. how-
" R ' T6r DOt qnite dMtttQte ot methods by which
VLB ?-5 x -we can in some degree estimate the remoteness
atl Krie' other stats, even though their distances
"".( VifiVitlr De'BO Breat as to elude entirely all the
Vyytnore direct methods of measurement. Sup-
BIB I I' Dose that a star were Just bright enough to bo
' Wli I 1" visible Jo the unaided eye, and then suppose
WVJU I' that particular star were to be withdrawn to a
f' T1 i-btnnco. ton times as great. It would still re-
, H'i, maln risible to us by the help of a small tele-
y H J to ocopc If the star were withdrawn to a dls-
Lv l"100 10 times as great It would still gen-
i IF C erallr remain within tho ken of a large tele-
i' J J ' Bcopo. When, therefore, our large telescopes
- V" S - Wveal millions of stars, which seem Just on
Jp-. "i t verge of visibility. It Is plain that those
, J & . tars. assuming that they are Intrinsically as
Ji ! j bright as the stars wTilch can Just be seen with
El j - J J'theeye. must be at least 100 times as remote.
f r ' should also be observed that a star as
I ttlidtl1" Slrluswould still be v iIble to the
i Tvt T mulr eye' "ongh, of course, onlj as a verj
t" iF '" h Maa11 P,nt' " " were translated to a distance
;tJB , te' times) as great as that at which it Is now
i a $! lalfuated: If Slrlus were at a distance 100 fold
al'l ' 'Vtreater than that it which It now lies It nulil
Mil d ea" o found within the range nf a telescope
Hi ,of moderate power. Indeed. If Slrlus were at
J?)t t O-dletnnce 1,000 as great as that by whlrh It Is
tj.WI' lFjatpresent separated from us. It would still
iJj'jWi j J,,BoHiavB passed beond the ken of our mlght-
. if. .mV telescopes. We have thus sound reasons
ftB f for our belief 4hat somo of the stars which wo
fc ( If can.' see through our great telrbc-opcs are at
hil j'leiist 1,000 times as remote ns SlrlUB.
y f; I pecent researches made by Dr. Gill and Dr.
vlarB ,; - Elk'ns at tl10 CP ' OoodJIope havedemon
Vl ' ktrtod what tho distance of Slrlus amounts
VH i jtolylt' has been shown that the rajs from
W 5 Hlrina. travelling as they do with the stupend
i "j'uifpeed of llghtt namely, at the rate of 180,-
, f, $,mHes each second, would nevertheless re
'g fartlrenot loss than nine years to traverse the
SX I ic jAtsUnc between that star and our system.- In
if: ( "5 T'other words when wo are looking at Slrlus to-
aW ' ' '' P&','lt " d0 not Me l,mt ",Hr a " '" Bt Pre'"nt,
K - i - r'Otwe aeo it as It was nine years ago. The
m 5 , yvlliht which reaches our eyes tonlght must,
ft- H&Hjafaet, have left tlvo star nine years before,
fti i 5l'WoTiav8 already slinwn that there Is good rea-
6-''l'rV I' tmJcr the belief that there are itturs which
fe iJ feffeM "" Visible in our great telescopes, not
V 1 rK withstanding that they -are- 1.00(thirs fur-'
S 'i1the' froni.us .than tlfo brlllUiiV Slrlus'. It
I'B't ?',1'0WB by a lino of rrasonlne.'whlch It seems
I -M-ii M Impossible to question, that the light of snrh
I E'r'' if5 ' mU9t nlve occupied a period of not less
I M ill fP a "00 7trs in Its Journey to the earth.
ll V 1 4$ consequences ot such a calculation are In
feu 1 iyf'niome'ntous. It is pjaln that we do not
fi 1 l-mV wch 3tar" " rne are '" nl"lt. hut as they
U tJliaVw1' when our earth was 0,000 years younger.
J jS AB 'Tha 'light from such stars which Is now enter
al a4ll'lu',-'"'ll!,t' "' tne clJfe ot "''" unrara'"ed
1 WllHivvpj baa -occupied all that long Interval in
MII egpssjiur the abs which intervenes betneen
IHj Btlje'eolai 4ytm and the awful stellar depths.
I ttffBf I 'T1' v '(me has been required for the Jour-
i 'f!lHi',1,nonr,t,l',tnln: the fft0t t,mt t,,e "K,,t
I SKvlfHR' Weeds. on its way with a velocity which would
I HS-IlBr'eTr'' " evru tlm-s around the earth In a so--I,
HfP.f TH'- Iuded the stars might have totally
1 Hg'H fHJJ.'ceased to exist for the past 0,000 years and
BHfW'lR'WO should ?tl!l find themshlnlng In their place.
I IvWIH" n0tU "" the "Ka whlcn wa on Its way to
II iHTi',M' at tbs "C1 ' tne Htar' extinction had
I W'HwUl oor eyes would the tidings of that
I a$ I wRxWRctloa have become known to us. We
BUffirMl Mare looking at such stars as they existed long
aHarjFv WJ" tll eTllel'' period to which any records
Hlafl J Mf buman history extend.
HaWal'l I 4bF Wo can "lu,tr,e t,ie aame fcubtect In an
aWHsall M o'oer way Suppose that there were astronc
aHflBfBlpen 'nlhoJe remote stars, and that they were
HHf ''equipped with telescopes enormously more
Pi Bv ower'ul ttn ny te,rscoP"s which we have
PHiWlKiTercoijttrncted. fiupcoje that notwlthstand
HHI Kng'the vast distance at which they lie they
Hw Biadtha meant ot scrutinizing carefully the
BKl Etatnrea of this earth. In what condition
HH I Kroold pur globo be presented from their point I
LB I i
-hhU i
hhBI jI a -
aaaaaaWyawabaaaaaaaa1aaaiZaaaiJi'riS''' ''r" --' '" i
of view? These distant obterrers would not
eo any traces of the cities and the nations
, that now exist. Britain would appear to them
aa a forest Inhabited by a few savages, and
North America would bo the homo of the bison
and the rod man. They wonld look down on an
Egypt in whloh the pyramids had not yet been
built, and they might survey the sites of Baby
lon and Nineveh long t re those famous cities
had b en reared.
Dcsldes those sidereal objects of which wa
have spoken there are ot course others seem
ingly as numerous as the sands on tho sea shore.
No spectacle which tha heavens display is more
Impressive to the beholder than that of a glob
ular cluster, in which thousands of stars aro
beheld packed closely together within the
limits of his field of vlow. Each of those stars
Is Itself a sun, the whole forming a dense
group of associated suns. Indescribable, In
deed, must bo the glory which would shine
upon a planet whloh was situated in such a
system. It seems, however. Impossible that
pianots in association with thousands of suns,
such as aro found in a globular cluster, could
possess cllmatlo conditions of sufficient con
atanoy to meet the requirements of orgauto life.
For the development of life practical sta
bility of climate would seem to bo eatentlal.
Such conditions could, so far as we know, only
be secured In a sjstem llko onr own, which is
controlling by a single sun around which tho
several planets revolve. In such a case there
would bono disturbances to the regular mo
tion of each planet, except those trifling ones
which arise from the attraction of tho other
planets equally beholden to the central lumi
nary. Out a planet primarily attached to one
of the suns belonging to a globular cluster
would be so much disturbed In Its revolution
by the attractions of tho other surrounding
suns that the movement'of the body would In
all probability be too irregular to bo com
patible with any stablo climatic conditions.
The vicissitudes of climate with which we
dwellers on the earth are familiar would seem
as nothing in comparison ivith tho vicissitudes
of climate In a planet belonging to a system
of several suns. It would seem that occa
sionally tho planet must come to near to ono
or other of the attracting suns that If any llfu
had existed on such a planet It wonld neces
sarily be scorched to destruction.
Besides these globular clusters, the heavens
contain many other associations of stars nr
ranged In striking groups. We may mention,
for Instance, the famous cluster In Perseus,
an object of Indescribable beauty, which, for
tunately, lies within the reach of telescopes
of comparatively moderate power. There
are also many clusters bo distant that tho
stars aro hardly to bo discerned separately,
in which ensu the object looks like a nebula,
and the resolution of tho nebula, as It Is
called that is, the perception of the Isolated
stars of which the nebulous-looking object is
formed becomes a problem wnlch can only
bo solved by tho very highest telescope power.
It has been conjectured that these dim and
distant clusters may be associations of stars very
llke that Milky Way which is relatively quite
close to the solar system. It may. Indeed, be
the cose that a sidereal group like the Milky
Way would. If transferred to an extremely re
mote part of tho universe, present much tho
same appearance In our telescopes as one of
theso nebulous clusters does at present.
Magnificent as are all the sidereal systems
dlsplaved to our observation, wo ought still to
remember that there Is a limit to our vision.
Even the largest and most brilliant of suns
might 1eso remote as to be entirely beond
the ken of the greatest of telescopes and the
most sensitive of photographic plates. Doubt
less stars exist In profusion elsewhere than In
those parts of space which alone come within
range of our Initrumcnts. As space Is bound
less. It follows that the regions through which
our telescopes have hitherto conveyed our
vision must bo as nothing In comparison with
the rjalms whoso contents muot ever remain
utterly unknown. Innumerable as may seem
the stars whoso existence Is already manifest,
there Is every reason to Relieve that they do
not amrrart to one-millionth part of the stars
which occupy the Impenetrable depths of the
firmament. Itontnx Ball.
or.V3 of ar.rr.n.iL cuaboub.
arther Teats or tha srtem or BtOea with
Pockets Alone the Bore.
WAsnuoTOK, July 11. It Is announced that
a new trial of the Haskell multicharge gun will
soon be made at Ssndy Hook. The Board uf
Ordnance and Fortifications has furnlshel the
sum of $3,885 for the material reauired for
twenty rounds, and- this should bo encueh. If
everything works well, to give the gun a thor
ough trial.
The Haskell, or. aa It used to lie called, the
Lyman-Haskell gun. has been before the public
for many years, and has been the subject of
liberal appropriations from Congress. As Its
name Indicates, its purpose is to employ several
charges of powder In firing projectiles. For this
purpose several chambers, or pockets, are con
structed along the bore of the gun, and the
:harges stored therein explode lu succession lie
hind the nrojictlle, thus accelerating Its ve
locity nn to the time It leaves the muzIe.
Thu Initial charge Is of slow-burnlnp powder,
and the others of quick-burning. The theorj
Is that the coarse-grained powder, having tlrt
overcome the InertK of the shock, there will
lie a gradual accumulation of Cpower and ve
locity as the other charges explode. In ad
dition. It Is held that a much greater aggregate
amount of pmvrfer can thus lie applied without
increasing the maximum pressure on the gun.
A largor and heav ler projectile con also lie used.
In the Army Appropriation bills approved
June 30, 1882. and March 3, 1H83. Congress
provided money for trying a tMnch multi
charge gun on the !!akell svstem. It nas
ct and finished at Reading, Pa., the Mldvnln
company having furnished the steel, which was
Ixired anil rifled ot the West Point foundry.
Cold Spring. The cast Iron of tho gun taiiiu
from l'enns)lvania and New England. It was
constructed with four powder chambers nlnng
tint bore in addition to the one at the hrieih,
Aid In such a was that a charge of IN pounds
could be used to rtatt tho'prniectlle from the
breech, and SB pounds In eaih of the four pock
ete, thus making a possible total of 130 pounds,
As this would tie several times the tcrt Ice cluirgu
'of an orrtlna- gun nf that calibre. It was lie
lleved that the result would be to furnish nn
enormous velocltv with compounding energy,
range, and penotratiOn. and that It might revo
lutionize the system of gun construction.
It turned out, however, that on Its trial the
steel tube cracked at the thlrt -third round,
and the cast-Iron casing at the flftv-third. so
rendtrlng the piece unserviceable for further
experiment. The Hoard of Ordnance officers
who conducted the trial reported ailverotiy to
expending more money on the proposed system.
Tho Emllcott Board of Fortifications also re
ported that wlille the multicharge principle
hod been, very promising, jet such great mi.
nrpvement in orninary guns tor velocity and
p en,erg had been mnde, that It had "set aside
' that which at one tlmo promised to lie a uwfiil
invention guns manufactured on the multt
charge principle, such as the Haskell and
Illpley. The Hoa il cannot recommend the
manufacture or purchase of either of the-e
guns. From Information which appears to
have been curcfull complied, nnd laid before
tho Board, the Haikcll multicharge gun would
much exceed In w-ot and cost a slnglo-chargo
gun of the same pu-y?'."
HtHI. many offliers were dlpiswl to give tho
H)Mem a better trial than it had had. and at
length tho Hoard of Ordnance allotted the um
oC 85,000 for an 8-lnch ruultlchargo, high
power gun. There had Is-en very striking ex
periences w Ith a rifle barrel of about .33 calibre,
when the projectile undera breich charge alone
penetrated fifteen Inches of sprue o plank nailed
together, and forty-el.-ht Inches of this spruce,
togotherwlthafoot of oak, when two accelerat
ing chambers were oli-o loaded. Thedi-sl e to
test the application of this principle to heuvj
guns will account for the various rccomroencls
tlons of the Hoard of Ordnance nnd Fortifica
tion, and for Its liberal appropriations, lnclud
ing the one now to lie expended.
It mo be well to note that the Hunt 8-lnch
gun. which fallen under a naval test. Is nultJ
d ftereut from the Haskell gun. although It em
pins a a twofold powder charge for the same
purpose of getting greater velocity and conse
quently less shock. It therefore Is to be classed,
probably, among multichargo gnnr. Hut In
stead of containing nocketM, It has a refliforce
cartridge. In which a small Inner charge starts
the projectile, while the outer or main charge,
which Isseparsted from it, then accelerates the
projectile. Cant, f-ampson reported that ho
found he could obtain higher velocities in an
ordinary gun weighing only half as much ns
the Hunt gun, without Its complicated car
tridge: and accordingly that gun, which had
been made under an appropriation of Congress,
was turned into an ordinary rifle. Iteverting to
the Haskell bjstem. the N-lnchgnn ho-s only
tws auxlllurs chambers or pockets, instead of
four. t in the t.nch gun. Tim length and
weight have been spoken ot as disadvantages,
and also the cost, but It Is only fair to say that
It Is familiar experience that tjpe guns cost
far more than thoso of the saiie sort that are
afteraard supplied.
I
PARISJN TilEDEAD&EASOiW
nOT-WEATIlKK STORIES THAT JTJV
TEtlTAIS TUB JlOULBrATtOH.
Gaatbolta Klllea by ladlsestloa-Tha Pay.
ehteoaca or Thonaht Photsarapha The
Marquis de Morea'a I.aat Flght-DId th
Jtifi or tha Eaailsh Murder 1111
PAnts, June a7. Was Qambetta killed or
dld ho perish by n natural death? This ques
tion which has been so often asked and which
has always been left without a definite answer,
has Just been asked again. M, Kochefort In the
"Aventures do ma Vlo," by declaring himself
for the murdor version, has kindled tho dis
cussion anew. Of course, tho doctors who at
tended the celobrated statesman continue to
assert, as they did before, that Gambetta really
died of disease. But they have found out a
new and strancre cause for his prematuro dis
appearance. Tho orator did not dlo on ac
count of the famous and questionable bullet
nor on account of otter ills more or less proved;
he merely ata too much of a southern dish
which he adored, the cuvoukt, of Toulouse. In
consequence of a slight wound which he hod
inflicted on hlmself.Gambetta hod been confined
to his room and the doctors had recommended
the utmost sobriety, but on tho Tlrst day on
which ho was allowed to go out he took a long
walk which gave him an extraordinary appe
tite. Ho permitted himself, therefore, to eat
beyond measure of that too soductlv e cciMouItt ;
that very nleht the fever seized him and
brought on the fatal result. Therefore, If
thote is any real foundation for tho "story, the
Illustrious orator was slain by an Inoffensive
dish. The Parisians, howevor, do not care to
decldo once for all on any historical statement
on this matter. The death of Gambetta remains
a constant snhject for discussion, and If any
ono perchance should put an end to It by Ir
refutable proofs It would break tho hearts of
nowspspor men and of tho public.
The death of Jules Simon coincided with the
bringing up again of this traglo event. A
philosopher, an orator, a politician, his career
is eo well known that It Is hardly nocessary to
rocall his presence In tho Government of na
tional defence In 1870, and the share ho took
In public affairs In tho Presidencies of Thiers
and of MacMnhnn. For fifteen years past he
had taken great Interest In charitable work,
mutual benefit associations, Ac. His unctuous
eloquence was of great assistance to htm In
speeches whose object was tn praise goodness,
charity, resignation, nnd he knew, better than
any other, how to persuade poor people that
their lot was one of unparalleled happiness.
With Jules Simon disappears one of the best
known figures In Paris society. Ho receivod
every ono with unvars Ing amiability. Nevor
did the Journalist leave him without taking with
him the Interview that he had asked for. Con
sequently his house was famous. He lived at
the corner of the Place de la Madeleine, on the
fifth story of a house where Henri Metlhno
lived on the wcond storv. At the top you
reached what was conventionally callod the at
tic. This famous attic was really a quite
simple apartment, low -studded, but very large.
A very rich ond very variegated llbrarv was Its
chief ornamont. Ihe walls, the tables, the
.supboards, all disappeared under books. Amid
theo tho mastr of the house received you with
a smile upon his lips, answered your questions
with the greatest klnclno-s. nn matter how
varied the subject might lie. and hen he left
you with a cordial shake of the hand It was to
go and greet some other writer, some cither
colleague, for whom he had a smile, a kind
ness, and a shake of the hand absolutely Iden
tical with that bestowed upon you.
No man was ever Interviewed more than
he. no man ever presided over more societies
with humanitarian objects than he. Hut as
death has taken from him these .wo admira
ble means of keeping himself permanently be
fore the public, the wake of glory which he
leaves behind him Is rapidly growing narrower
and a 111 -non disappear. Here, for that mat
ter, however Important a thing may be, and
no matter of what kind. It rarely attracts pub
lic attention for a long time.
For some years past Paris has been excited
ov er u metropolitan railway which w as thought
necesary. Yotx could not move In any tlri.c
tlon without stumbllug upon some public meet
ing at which this municipal work ten ed a
text for the orators. To-day the mattec-ls
about to come 'o u head. The Municipal Coun
cil has voted for a plan, and by means of
posters submits this plan to tho persons In
terested In order to find out what they hare to
say about it. In each district Mayor's office
notebooks have been placed, where any one
may write down what be thinks about this
Immense undertaking. Well, forty -three per
solb only have taken the trouble to pay any
ntteutlor. to tho Imitation made to them
forty-three persons out of two million and a
half Inhabitants: In five districts the note
books were left clean without any writing at
all. After this people can form some Idea of
how indifferent Paris is about mottcrsof pub
lic utility.
The spirit of tnvetIgatlon for some time
past, seems to be entering a region where
one bardie expected to nnd it. This region
Is the religious world. A sort of uneanlnoss Is
agitating rertaln members of the clergs. Af
ter Abbe Charlwmnel. who preaches a return
to the simplicity of the primitive Church, we
have Ab"S Hourrler as vicar of a Mar llles
parish upholding the nece-slty of a t-chlsm
within the Human Catholic Church. It would
be too long to givo his reasons, and he nicies,
the adversaries of Catholicism ine them
long ago Will these new attacks have ans re
suits That is n ques.ion wnlch excites most
Parisians vers llttlt. Vtt to thn new blows
struck against Catholic dogmas, the new pnr
rles are made by iiartlsans of the Church.
Hero rcslMnnce Is manifested by a sort of
awakening of tho clerical spirit which Is by no
means purely a religious spirit, but is rather
a political opinion and a social doctrine. Hath
sides expect a conflict soon. The Paplut party
itho former monarchists who have become Ite
publlcans bj ordor of the Pope) Is carrying
on nn encreetlc propaganda In favor of Its
theories. We shall see whether this tardv and
forced submission to institutions cmce detested
will glvo the men In this party the power that
they need If they have to deal with the country.
The rumors of schism, which are not yet very
definite, i is true, lead one to believe, never
theless, that perfee t agreement docs not exist
within the clerical party lteliglon and poli
tics cannot bo uilnglcil with Impunity.
Dlvideel nn the religious question, the great
majority of men find that they are unitesl on
tho ground of patriotism: that Is one nr the
reasons, apart from the artists' talents,
that brought about the success of the pano
rama of He7onvlIIe exhlnited In detail at the
Georges Petit Gallers. The panorama was
painted long ago for a German society by Al
phonse de Neiivllle and Kdouard Detollle. It
v,os exhibited ot Vienna and maele a great
deal of money for many years. To-day the
colossal work Is shown to us In a series of more
than a hundred canvases, all having n real
artistic and historical Interest. De Neuvllle
painted the bs tie portion, omoiiL-other things
that charge of the German cavalry which the
GeunonH hove called "Tho ltlue to Death."
w hero a portion of the PrussIanOuard come to Its
end, while Detallle pulntM the scenes of repose,
gnups In the canteen, In the Inndscope. ,Vc.
And the scheme of color of thn tlrst of these
artists and the pilustaklng exactness of the
second bring out most startllngly theijecollec
tloim of the war of 1870 A large crowd has
passed In front of tho ox.panornuiu. '
There has been much comment on the hidden
causes of thu assassination of the Marquis do
Mere's. Tho hand of tho .lews of Algiers, en
deavoring Ui avenge the quarrel of their fellow
Jews in Europe, has be-en seen in It: so has
that of the English who aro anxious to sup
press a dangerous commercial riva . Others
attribute tho slaying to fanaticism, and lay It
at the door of the .sunoussl sect, a t-traugo re
ligious association, re embling that of tho "old
mun of tho mountain" nnd his Ashlshln, or
assassins; a powerful association at any rate,
Ahlchhos Its holy-ilty In Jehrboub, In Tripoli.
Tho renoussls nre credited with the murder of
MM, Dournaux-Duperie and Jnube rt on th
road from Ghadames tn Ghat In 187-1. of the
White Fathers nt dliailanies In 1880. and of
Col t latters's mlslnn on the road from Aghouat
to the llaussa Mates In 1HH1,
Tho chief of the Senoussls. who tails him
se'f Fl .'lalidl. Is thu son of the man who
crtoted, or rather restored, the rulo of the
community. Ho lives at Jehrliouli, where he
has had afortllleil convent built, whore ho
has laid nut plantitinns nnd bad many wells
and cisterns dug. He has there a manufac
tory of firearms, fifteen connou, n liody guard
ot 4,000 men, mint!) Algerians and fanatics
who have Hud from rreiich dominion, and
2,000 slaves. The brotherhood is said to have
ISO convents, or centres of action, In mussul
mau countries.
Hnall). I glvo )ou, sUnply nsa curiosity,
the strange theory of a rrench traveller and
well-known explorer. M. ele Uehngle. A Jew.
loll merchant named rhlb has succeeded in
monopolizing In his own hands ami thoso of
his family the whole commerce of ihe Miutlan,
He lives at Tripoli, where, uslclo from
hli business as a trader, lie has held the
nfllce nf British Consul Aiblli has ouslns
In all the important oases, while other rblbs
represent the family in Carl awl in London.
The greater portion nt the gnoils whtch In uses
in exeiiange Is of English origin. Tho oser
tion Is tlial his ele sire to prn-arvr this nionop
oly Intact has led Arblb tg make ue of all
u eons. Including asiissinutiop, against Frent li
explorers, who are looked upon as dangerous
rivals. Kavmo.su Daly.
-
TBK rASBlSO OV RZ.WOOD.
A Kaaeaa Baoat Tow That Twae Obliter
ated by the Mlsaanrl River.
Vom th SL roiefs JUpublic.
In tha story of the rise and fall ot Western
boom towns within tho past generation there
la one strange history that has never been writ
tenthe passing of Elwood. Kan.
The Missouri River, twenty feet deep, roils
and gurgles and foams over the spot that was
once- the main street Where hustling mer
chants once displayed their wares in commodi
ous houses, and the hardy plainsman bnmped
elbows with, tho moneyed tenderfoot fresh from
the East, tha broad and erratia river flows to
day. Tho corner lots that once flitted back and
forth In the real estate exchange have gone
glimmering like the will-o'-the-wisp of tho gold
seekers gono to make sands on the seashore.
Elwood hat tumbled Into the muddy Mtssonrl.
Kobldoux's trading post (St. Joseph) afforded
a starting point for tho West-an oasis, and tho
last In the long Journey from tho populated
East to tbeliopcful land of promise ovor and
beyond the wilderness of great plains. One
Seth Allen, whose memory Is still revered along
with that ot his famed colonial ancestors, of
whom he often boasted, flung his lank frame
from a pralrlo schooner at the door of the prin
cipal tavern on the eastern shore ono spring
day tn the early '80s, received his small stipend,
and sworo he would go no further. The emi
grants of whose party he had been one
recuperated a few days, and then started
for the gold fields. Allen stood on the river
bank and watched the wagrina cross the
stream; he stood on the bank and watched
them touch the further shore. Then. It Is pre
sumed, an Idea occurred to him that tho west
ern side of tha Missouri River was the proper
place for emigrants to outfit and make their
departure. At any rate, few days passed before
a wooden building, with the sign "'Ijist Chance
Tavern " swinging from the door, stood on tho
nleasant prah-leacrots from Ht. Joseph. Other
houses soon clustered around Tavern Keeper
Allen's, and Yankee Industry, combined with
foreign capital, had a line of ferry steamers
sturdy stern wheelers actively churning the
muddy waters ot the Missouri Into foam before
the summer was dead. Elwood grew, grew, and
prospered. Truly. It filled a long-felt want,
1 he next year overland traffic Increased. Long
caravans came and went; settlers and pioneers
came and remained. The bustling real estate
agent, the honest home-seeker, the rakish river
5 ambler, the arsenal-begirdled terror, thn nou
escrlpt hanger-on. all drifted Into Elwood. Ihe
Great Western Hotel, the flnsst structure of Its
kind anywhere on the river, was built, nnd old
timers former residents of Elwood. who came
and went with Its power and glory to-day re
late many wonderful tales of tha revels that
went on beneath Its prosperous roof.
Meanwhile St, Joseph was enjoying Its share
of the prosperity, and the rivalry between the
cities on either side of the river grew apace with
their growth. In 1837. the date or the forma
tion of the Elwood Town Company, the big real
estate boom In Elwood was launched. One hun
dred dollars was tho price of an ordinary lot,
and corner lots sold much higher. Dozens nf
citizens of St, Joseph can stand to-day at the
foot of Francis street and look out to the west
on the river tranquilly flowing over the place
where their corner lots were once located.
Interesting relics of the Elwood Town Com
pany corns to the surface occasionally. Pur
chasing Agent George Dixon Berry of the St.
Joseph and Grand Island Railroad has one
of the original certificates of stock tn the
town-site scheme, it Is remarkably well pre
served. It was Issued to Richard S. Graves nnd
bears the signature of Henry Douglas. Presi
dent, and Edward Russell, Secretary.
I.lttle by little the best part of Elwood
rumbled and was swept Into the stream. To
day there Is but little of the once prosperous
town left standing One of the most Interesting
of the old landmarks jet remaining is the El
wood Jail, built nn land high and dry. far re
moved from thu river bank. Within Its narrow
confines many a tough character has been thrust
bv thn town Marshal. Jim Robls of lennesee
was Marshal of Elwood when the town was first
organized. Ho was succeeded at the end of
four years b) Hill Drown, a native of South Car
olina, who had spent several years In the gold
mines of California prior to locating In Elwood. .
As the place looks to-day. It presents the ap
pearance of u deserted village. The nouses now
standing were In the suburbs before the current :
of the river vras changed. The greatest evl- .
dence of life that Is there now Is the depot of I
the St. Jo-rph, and Grand IsUnd Railroad Com- '
pan), which Is about a mile from the original
town site. This road was built after Elwood
was on the wane The fow remaining houses '
are occupied hy fishermen and people who eke
out a precarious existence by doing odd Jobs In I
the city ncross the rlv er.
Elwood at night presents a weird soene. Dark- i
ncss. unbroken by light, except the reflection
from myriads of arc lamps across the river tn
St. Joseph, prevails, and the monotony is broken
only by tfto croaking of frogs In summer nnd
the dlmal how I of the Kansas winds In winter.
And this Is the storrof the passing of Elwood.
XEIT LIFE J.V VllILADELPniA.
A. Hsrsra of ttrtm Unkea the Natlvea HUp
Lively la the Heart ol tha Towi.
from te PKllodilphvl litcorti.
The swarm of bees that invaded the marts of
trade on baturday caused no end of troublo
about &lxlh and Market streets yesterday, and
all day long the air was filled with tho littlo
but formidable Insects. They had blood In their
eyes, and the) were clearly looking for trouble.
Ihe combined efforts of the Police and Fire De
partment were employed in the Interest of
peace and publlo welfare, but Director Rlter's
forces, accomplished as they are In quelling
riots nnd fighting fires, were quite powerless
before the army of pugnacious Insects.
Ihe bes madu their first appearance on Sat
urday. That being a hoi. day the) were not dis
turbed, and swarming nn the sign over the door
of J. G. Grleb ,V Sons' store, at 531 Market
street, tbes proceeded to make themselves at
home. All day -sunday they remained, evident
ly convinced that the bustle of city lite was a
myllL Yesterday morning, however, the) dis
covered their error, and then tbe fun began.
When Grieb'a porter came to open the store
ho discovered a condition of affairs he had not
bargained for. A crowd of boys, attracted by
the swarming bees, hnd collected tn front of the
building, and. armed with long sticks, were
busily engaged In poking into the mass of crawl
ing, fluttering Insects, budlenly there was a :
mad rush, 'ihe bea bad made a churge upon
the attacking forces, and the youngsters scat-
tered in all directions. Howls of pain told tha
story of many a sharp sting. Tho bees were
very much in earnest, and completely put their
tormentors to rout,
laklng advantage of the situation the porter
started for tho door with his keys in his hand.
He was strong tn his own rignt, but he soon
realized that the bees were no respecters of per
sons. They were firmly convinced that every
man's banc! was against them, and from thut
time forward they became thu foes of the human '
race. The porcer was no exception; nor were
thu Innocent pa&sers-tiy, as they soon learned to
their sorrow. Hy practical experience the) dis
covered that tho business end of a bue Is not a
safe thing to trifle with.
In thn mean time a crowd bad collected at
what was considered a safo distance, and tho
big policeman on the corner assumed an air of
more than usual Importance. Everybody had
some suggestion to make, A man with long hair
and a sombrero, who said be was an old Indian
fluhtei, said the only thins to do was to smoke
them out. j
A mild-mannered little man said he had onco ,
read that In such cases the only thing to do was
to capture the queen bee and the others would ,
follow In her wake. Whereupon a sarcastlo
young man suggested that the mild-mannered
man put a little salt on the queen bee's tail.
Then everybody laughed, and the big policeman
so far forgot his dignity as to venture tho pro.
diction tuat It would be o hot day.
1 hu cruwd Increased, and more policemen ap
peared on lle eiiu. By this tlmu 'the bees
that had gohe In cuaae of the boys returned tn
their compaulontt. I'bcn mm of tho policemen
suggested calling In the services of thu Fire
Department, 'ihrre is an engine house on
Sixth street. Just Imlow .Market, and It was the
work of a v erv few minutes to enlist the flremein
in the unique crusade. A lino of hosu was
quickly attached to a neighboring firu plug,
and a stream of water was directed upon tho
great mass of bees
Again the Invading Insects were put to rout,
and for the balance, of the day tho air In the
viclnlt) of Sixth and Market streets was full of
bee s. drlsb's porter finally got the front doors
open, and the day's business was soon under
waj. The bess, although scattered, bad by no
means given up the light. Alotof them got
Into tho store and began tu make things lively.
Customers dodged lu nnd out like men patron
izing a speak-easy on a hot Sunday. Ihe pedes
trians, who didn't know there was a bee within
miles of Market struct, were stung by tho scores.
The motormen on thu trolley cars covered their
faces with their arms as they skurrled through
the seat of battle.
Hut Tom Wlttman proved hlmelf to be the
hereof thedas, 'lorn works for David Huntley
,1 Co. on the opposite side uf Market street, nnd
what he doesn't know about bees Isn't worth
knowing At his hoinaawayoutat flity-second
and Jellerson streets, he has hives and hives of
bees, and ha determined to add to his collec
tion. After looking over the ground ho camu to
thu conclusion that tho queen bee was still in
the little- bunch left banging to the sign. With
thu aid of some slnoke he soon located her, ami
after effrcilng the capture ho proceeded to clip
ber blghness's wings
In the front window across the street he
placed an Inverted soap box. with a block of
wood under one end. leaving a small aperture.
In this he put the queen It wasn't long before
thiteor four scouts, evidently In starch of their
ruler came buzzing about the box, I hey
crawled iiiider, held u counsel of war for a few
moments, and thru flew uwuy again. Presently
tne returned und were followed at Ireque'it
Intervals by other detachments. It wasn't long
liefore there was it constant stream of bee
going into tho box. and before suuet thn box
was completely tilled. Then the astute Wltt
man nailed a piece of wire netting over the top,
and this morning tho bees ara In a new hive.
THE PRIME LESE MAJESTE.
THE CHIEF JltODBmt SUFFERER
IS THE JGail'EROlt OF GEltHAST.
tint There Have Ileen Others-Home la.
ataneea nr Unintentional Injury to sin.
Jeaty In Old Tlmea and the Punlahmenta
Inflicted Therefor by Olden Connta.
Fnm iht St. rvwf Olnbe IVmocnif.
The frequent Appeals of the German Emperor
to the law of lese majeste, which commonly- np
pears In tho forclzn despatches as "loso ma
Jestatls," ond In full should bo "crimen mesao
majestatls," have brought prominently to tho
attontlnu of tho modern reading publlo this
onco dreaded legal means which an absolute
monarch was formerly able to uso In order to
accomplish almost nny wrong that occurred to
him as desirable. Ot all tcverolaws Inan
are when nil lows wtro severe this was tho most
feared, for it was capahlo of so many different
applications and explanations that It could bo
mado to fit almost nny enso that arose, and was
used as a formidable moans of oppression when
the monarch dcsIreeCIo nln the property or
tnko tho life of a subject who had grown too
rich or become too powerful to suit tho Ideas of
royalty. Translated, the words mean simply
"Injured mnjcstv," but when Kings were abso
lute majesty was so easily Injured, end there
were so many ways hy which tho Injur) could
lie effected, that no one could lio sura but that,
in nn entirely innocent faction,: ho might not
vlnlato tho majesty nf the King and thut Incur
the sevorest punishment known to the law -Arson,
robbery, murder, assassination were
trifle in tho eyes of a sovereign who regarded
his majesty as his most sacred possession, nnd
while the-e were punlshe-' b) death, simple
hanging, beheading nr other form of speedy
execution was altogether too gcod for the man
guilty of violation of majesty. und the Ingenuity
nf cxoc.u tinners was taxed to provide length
nnd exquliitely polnfu tortures for the crimi
nal who wus adjudged guilty of this offence.
Notmti-h has been heard of U o majesty
by the men of this century, for old-time Ideas
nf royalty and the divinity that doth hedgo a
King were so UDset by tho revolutions In Amer
ica and In France that respect for Kings has
greatly diminished in volumo nnd sustained
considerable deterioration In qualltv. So
many Kings havo been chased nut nf their do
minions by their enraged subjects that royalty
Is not ptittlnir on so much stvlu as it formerly
did, wlillo tho stectaciu of twenty -five or
thirty ex-sovereigns wandering around.Europe
has accustomed people to take a rather low
view of tho Institution lu general. Injuring
the maje-ty of an exiled htuart or Bourbon
Is nn easy matter. It has often been Injured
by vulgar trades people to whom thnv owed
bills which they forgot to piv. and th sight
of a deposed monarch haled before a magis
trate and questioned as tn his reasons for not
rnylng bis butcher or baker or tailor or land
ord was calculated to bring majesty into con
tempt. So It did, and royultlos fortunate
enough not to bo kicked out by their tieople
wicly abstained from a good deal of the style
assumed by their grandfathers, and, very
often, when subjects of rank, wealth, and in
fluence! re-ally did Injure tho King's majesty
b) word or deed, tho King concluded that It
wob lictter to say nothing about the matter
rathe.- than run the ri-k of n great row,
merely for the sako of preserving his majesty
Intact 5o It is that the raalestv of lhee da) s
Is a good deal dented tn Places and cracked
heieaud there, and altogether quite a different
article from the brand that was In common uso
at the beginning ot the Iat century.
The predecessors of the Kal-er. In the do)S
when the empire consisted of nn aggregation
of s-ottered States loosely held together by an
elective head, were exceedingly Jealous of
their molest), and with reason, for It wasoften
their principal possession. The) had no little
trouble about It. for the prine s w ho elected the
Emperor considered them-elvcs quite Ms equal
In all but name, and did not sc ruple to remind
him of tho fact. When the Emperor happened
to lie a weak mm. as was often the case, ho
was forced to endure the turbulence of the
princes nr.d lltt'c soverelgcsof the empire as
iiest ho could, but a stroncr monarch oltcu
avenged his Insulted mile-tv In very peremp
tory fashion. Otho tlm Great had u nobleman
lieheaded for spitting In his presence. The
chief had exhibited signs of Insubordination,
and at a public council on some affair of statu
showed his contempt for the Emperor by turti
lug h s Iwck and -pitting on the ground. He
was Instantly dingged awav bv the guards at
tho command of Otho and Ms head was hacked
oil on a log with a battle axe. 11.3 successor.
Otho II.. took serious alleueu at all his chief
noblllt) for what he regarded as an Insult t"
his majest) am.' planned a wholesale ven
geance. Ihe cau-o 1m fold by one authority t"
hove been the fuct that, roga-dltig themselves
as his equals, a number of them assumed coro
net on their helmets. He e uunlncly dissem
bled his oum r and invito! them all to a feat.
They came, and after the entertainment had
reached a stage where they were eximfurtably
fuddled with the Knitieror's good oncer they
were all butchered bv hl guards
The German Emperors derives! their I deaj
of royal dignity from their predecessors, tho
Ceisars, among whom the crime of violated
tnajcstv wnsmade the pre text for getting rid
of an) obnoxious person, no matter whom or of
what elegrce. It wa-, Tiberius who bad o noble
man put to death Is cause, nt a fent. he os
crowned bv his friends with a gorlend of
I golcli';i laurel leaves Wearing crowns or gar
lands at fea-t was a common practice, and
the friend of till- man des gned nothing more
than a nat rnmpltineut, but the gloom auto
l crat tool, adlfferent vie., of the matter. Corn
moilus prl ed blm-elf on his skill as o gladl
I utor. and repeatedly fought In thu arena, but
. on one occasion, though a physic il giant, ho
met more than nls match In an opponi nt who
i did not value tho honor of being killed by an
Emperor. The unworthy occupant of the
I throne would have list his life had not the at
tendants ran to his a-sHtjence, uisin which tire
i KiiMorn gladiator, who re fu-el to be quletly
xillesl. utta tcel 'hem. and. after klllirg rive or
six. was himself killed for not respecting the
I Fmrsror's majesty Nero prided himself on
his mu'-lcal olullt cs. and when hu mule his
i famous tour through Greece he jie- Inn con
test of song, and triumphantly overcame all
antagonists but one. whn resolutely stod up
for the art he represented. 1 milly declared that
Nero could not slm;, md that it was an out
rage for the judges to give tho prlzn to a linn
with such a voice As ml.-ht have been ex
pectcd, little ceremony was shown with such a
I traitor. Thu Eiipcror declared him guilty of
Insulting mije-ti, and. on the theatre stage,
tin stiihliorn singor was pushed against tiio
I wall and ele patc bed b) the llctors In tne ores
I ence of the audience Ihe Emperor had no
I trouble in wln.iln pi-ics after this little Inci
dent, and when he retuniesl to Rome overVOO
crowns, won at vocal rem tests In tho various
cities of Greece, were proudly carried before
him as so many tributes to his vocal gifts.
1hoo magazines of nnt of the wty informa
tion, tho chap books, eonttln several stories
Illustrating the ease with which tho majesty
of a monarch was Insulted lu times when
monarch were, absolute, cconllng to one
of tbcs narratives, Isi the Armenian built
on the royal grounds In Constantinople a
palace In which he. took great prine. It faced
n publlo fnriim and was deemed a triumph of
architecture, until a wealthy mere hant pur
chased a piece "f ground adjoining that on
which 'ho FmpJror's palace was built, sncl
proceeded to erect for himself a house so much
more showy and magnificent than that of I,eo,
that tho latter looked poor und mean by com
parison. Plainly this was nut to be endured,
so the merchant wns thrown Into prison on
a chargo i'f the grossest kind of injury to
majesty, and a da) or two later was put to
death and his propert) confiscated. Thn
hmiieror had a good deal of trouble In uniting
the tvvopnluces Into one harmonious building,
but the job was finally rompjeted for him hy a
Greek architect Imported for tho purpose,
and about the tlmo it was finished n number
of his noblemen, w ho olso had tine houses, and
were afraid of meeting tho fnto of the mer
chant, insulted his Majesty most effec tually
by o-sasslnatlng him nnd putting another In
his place. Pi rhaps thu most peculiar c s ef
censlllvenoss nf this kind, however, according
to tho chap bonks, was that of llelloernbnlns.
w bunas n famous glutton and prielvd hltnsef
cin tx Ins the fattest iiiniii In Home. Vfcrta(n
Servolus who had picvluus) .vtrn the chnin
plon's pelt for odliHi'ii tissue made a bet
with n frlenel that tho Emperor's girdle would
lack ot least o palm's breadth of meeting
round his own wnlst. V Poloeu attendant
wnstrl'Hil to procure the Emperor's lielt. It
was tried, and to his Immense satisfaction it
failed of encompassing tho waist or Servetus
b) ne-arl) two palms. If ho hud po-sc ssejl as
nine li dlscri tlon as hu had abdominal clrcum.
firence. all would hnvulieen well with Sor
vetus. but he was so proud of his girth that
ho went nlsmt telling how much bigger he
was than ho Emperor, so that tho imperial
spies soon carried the story to the palace,
Servetus was apprehended on a charge of vlo.
latesl majest), and put to death with ex
quisite tortuii'f, thus literally fulling a vic
tim to his sizo.
The little Italian princes w ho eich ruled a city
or two and a few miles of territory outside tho
walls, mnde up In iliu-nlt) what I hoy lacked tn
power. I ait Is, rith in some elozen paltry vll
lageB. strong In sonic hundred spearmen,
would natural! be vor) tenacious of their
lordly rights and privilegei-, and would de
mand from their inferiors as iniirli n-sH-ct as
Cuilld be -hnvui u king, The law lee nnjeste
wasytr) impulnr among them, and the) pun
ished ever) Infraction of It by humble folk
with unspnrlng severity. It wits Cos no do
Medic I who had a doctor exiled tlit mid ubas
siuntid aterward fur sporting stout nf arm
which Imre a striking resemblance to tils own.
hen cited to show causu w hy ho should not
ts) dealt with for insulting tbuclmnd Duke of
lusc ny 1) assuming n punt of arms similar
to that of the reigning house, the man of
pills proved that he was the unvvortln de
scendant of a noble, family, and hint as much
right to his e oat .if anus as the Grand Dukn
hicct tn his, lie was oinercsl to change tho
famil) emblem but stubbornly refused todoso,
and wns t niiiinnrileil to iimvu I use- in tcrrltnr)
Instead ot doing so however, he went tn
another! town in Tuscan) and there hung out
his shingle with the obnciilcms arms offensively
llsiilaved. Of cflursu, the matter was reported
In Florence, und the dlfilenltv was luljusml by
a couple nf assassins, who followed up the doc
tor and. quietly stubbed him ono dark night,
afterward removing and destroying his sign.
Jt-was-not often, however, that open Violence
was resorted to by tho Italian princes in de
fence ot their dignity. Poison was so rauoh
safer that Mho man who made troublo In an
Italian court gonornlly passed off the stage ot
action easily and quietly, very often after a
friendly Interview and cotey little supper with
tbe Duke.
In England the lhse majeste has been common-enough,
and under the name of high tren
soh, multitudes of men of every rank have'fal
len under Its ban and been put to death. As the
law is defined at present, It is easy enough both
to uriderstnn" and to apply, bnt when Judges
werp removable, at tho King's pleasure an
wero generally ns corrupt as the court, tho
statute was greatly abused, and frequently
given a construction which made It applicable
to' almost any act, however Innooent. In tho
reign nf Edward IV. n Innkaeocr In London,
whose house ot entertainment bore a crownas a
sign, , onco remarked that he would make his
son heir to the crown. The pun was by no
means bad, but Its humor and evidently inno
cent intent did not prevent his being arrested,
tried on a charge ot high treason, on which he
was convicted, sentenced, hanged, drawn, and
quartered. It was In the same reign that a
country gentleman who had a number ot pet
deter, lost d fine buck, which was killed by
the King's darty while hunting. Angry at
tin loss a' his buojc ho profanely swore that be
wished the buck, horns and all, were In tho
King's stomach. Tho splenetic remark was
reported and tho gentleman was arrested for
treason. He pleaded, in his own defence, that
the remark was hasty and that he meant no
wrong, but the learned Judges argued thot aa
he. had wished the buck In the King's stomach,
ho must hato desired the death of the King, for
It was Impossible for the animal horns and nil,
to be. crammed, into the stomach of tbe King
without canting the, monarch to give up the
ghost forthwith, and on this plausible argu
ment tho luckless man was hanged.
Ho was fortunate In ono respect, however,
in being allowed to dlo a quick death, formon
archs havo not always been so considerate of
those whom they suspected nf lese maiesto.
Construed: hy Ahem as a crime atralnst the State,
the most atrocious offence that could be com
mitted. It. was punished with greatest severity.
In 'Romev the map who accidentally broko a,
stalueaf , (ho, KzqBerbr' .wolv not n ecessoir.il y,
gnUXr of iBauUIng.majcsty. but he who spit on
or nt one, or who threw bad eggs oranyoflen
slve substance at One, was sometimes whipped
to death, and the least he could expect was be
heading. Tho French kings took special tains
with this class of offenders, and a number of
punishments, were devised for their exclusive
benefit.
If the Journalists who have lately offended the
Knlsor hnd lived OOOjrars ago tney probably
would have been flayed alive, as at that time
this punishment was common In Germany for
the crime with which they were charged. In
England "banging, drawing, and quartering"
was tho common punishment. Breaking on
tho wheel was a common punishment in both
France and Spain.
Tho Journalists who have offended Kaiser
William ore tingulnrly fortunate In living in
an age which loots lightly nn an insult offered
to the majesty of the sovereign. High treason
agnlnst the State Is still regarded as the grav
est of crimes, but a Jest at the expense of the
sovereign Is no longer treason, and the Em
peror William In trying to give this Interpre
tation to the law simply shows how far he Is
behind the times.
HIS STOCK CIt085-EXA3IT.AT10S.
A. Lawro'i Attaaspt to Fit a POBnlona
Neighborhood Onto a Petty Larceny Cnao.
One of tbe lawyers practising In the General
Sessions Courts has a stock cross-examination
which ho uses in every case ho is engaged p.
He was admitted to the bar during tbe palmy
days nf tbe Tweed regime, and bis only knowl
edge of any thing legal is his stock cross ex
amination. As bis practice Is mostly in petty
larceny- cases, in which the fees range from a
postage stamp to 50 cents, his clients do not
suffer a great deal. After tho Assistant Dis
trict Attorney concludes the case for the prose
cution the Tweed lawryer makes a brief open
Ing, and tben the court clerk and prosecuting
officer sink down in their chairs while tbe
stereots ped cross examination is going on.
He got it off ono day last week in a case
where a boy was accused of stealing a basket
of strawberries from grocery shop. It was a
clear case, and tho lawyer would have done
better If ho had advised his client to plead
guilty and claimed some consideration for sav
ing tbe court the time and expense of a trial.
After a pol'ceman had testified that he caught
the boy running away with the strawberries
and had escaped the cross examination, the
grocer was culled to the stand and testified
that ho lost a box of strawberries and chased
a boy whom he saw running away with them
and who was eventually caught by the police
man. He Identified the defendant as the boy
whom ho pursued. This Is the stock cross
examination: "What time o' day was all this?"
"Eight o'clock In the evening."
"How many dcodIo wc-re on thn Htrst t
that time?"
"I don't know."
"Wejl. how. many were on the block where
your store i"
"I don't know."
"Were they a thousand?"
"I don't know."
"Were they .100?"
"I don't know."
"Were they 100?"
"I do-i't know."
"Well, were they fifty or ten or flvefH
"I don't know."
"Well, now, don't you know that that neigh
borhood is oegrery populous one?"
"Well, there's a good many people there."
"An how many were out that night?"
"I don't know."
"Well, there waa a big crowd, wasn't there?"
"A crowd gathered around."
"Did you see this boy take the berries?"
"I saw-him running awsy from tbestand with
them."
"Now, weren't there other boy running
awwr. too
"I didn't see any."
"And you mean to say that in that crowded
street, with that dim light, that you can Iden
tify this defendant as the boy whom you saw
running away with the berries?"
"I do." said the grocer, complacently.
"That's nil," exclaimed the lawyer, with an
expression of disgust, ns hf thn grocer had tes
tified to something extraordinary.
The Jury convicted his client without leav
Ing their seats.
RoornuT's itAnn race.
Bnt lie Kept Ahead or the Train that TToa
Faahed by aa Eartaqnaka.
Von th4 Chifnoo Dally .flrs.
Bootuby told us another story about phenom
enal natural disturbance. He said he felt ten
der about it because he bad figured prominently
In It himself. The story concerned a habit en
gineers on tbe Vandalla and the Ohio and
Mississippi roods had of racing. Just east of
hast St. Louis Is the crossing of a belt
railroad, and from there un to the bluffs, seven
miles away, is a straight streak of parallel
track. As tho outgoing passenger trains all
leave East St. Louis at about the same time. It
was the regular thing for Ohio and Mississippi
,and Van engineers to hammsr for their Uvea
over these seven miles, while the passengers
y elled defiance at one another and whooped and
got excited. The Ohio and Mississippi had one
engine, the 00, which was able to walkaway
from everything ever put up against hsr. She
hod humiliated all tha Van engineers, except
ing Boothby. and he fairly ached to get at her.
fine day, Just as he had whistled for the cross,
ng, be heard another whistle, and, looking
over, saw theOhloand Mississippi train abreast.
The engine's number was 00.
Boothby straightened up for the race of his
life. Tenderly, notch by noteb, hn opened the
throttle, while the fireman kept the old kettle
Just off tho popping point. Over the belt tracks
they went, the 80 alongside. To his Joy,
Boothby saw he was Inching away from his
opponent. Llkn a statue he sat. coddling the
machine, and at tho. tlrst mlln ho was two coach
lengthstothegood. His passengers were shriek.
Ing-ttMir Joy, while thor on-the O, and M.
were dumb. The O. and M. orew. too, seiued
astonished, and gathered on the platforms to
look over at the Van's new racer. It was Booth
by's race In a walk.
suddenly the Van engineer saw something
was happening Looking over bis shoulder, bo
found the O.and M. train only half a car length
back and surging along llko lightning. It
scared htm. and he pulled ber still wider open.
Then did that noble 18'J engine respond. She
leaped through tbe air. hardly seeming to touch
the talis. Rlgnt at her shoulder was the Oil.
Boothby gave her more. They were both go.
Ing within a mile a minute. Boothby said he
never saw a locomotive go like thut do, but he
knew his machine was as good as the bost. They
Plunged forward more furiously than the wind.
Th;ee miles, four, fire, and then- oh, Jov!- tho
60 began to fall back. At the sixth mile she
was tw o coach lengths behind, and as the trains
V!"Sl wa from each other at the base of tho
bluffs the 0, and M, was three train lengths off
to tr-e rear.
At Colllnsvllle Hank Hlbbard, white faced,
came rnshlng up to the 183 as she lay under tho
water tank getting water.
"Great heavens, lloothbyl" cried the con
ductor, "do you know what you've been run
nlngagalnst?" "The O. and M.'s hottest stuff, and I cooled It
for 'em.
" Yes. y ou have You've been running against
an earthquake. Tho O.and M. train was picked
npb) It lust out of town. A. hill twenty feet
high followed her last Pullman and she was
runnlngdown hill tho entire way, being pushed
forward all the distance,"
" Say. Hank." said Boothby, " did that earth
quake help us any ?"
','. N'.'iiw u'T i,2 yJa" ahe,u1 ! lm-"
Boothby climbed baok on his box and Hlbbard
returned to the train Hut although Bnothhy's
achievement brought glory to his round bnusn.
he would never race again. Hn said he didn't
nitnel whipping an ordinary engine run by or
dlnary steam, but hedldn't want to cnmliat
a thing that " laid up" with devils and was lu
league with cyclone, storm, and earthquake
Ibesearethe two Instructive stories told by
Engineer Boothby to David Lawrence and mv
self two trusting cyclists who stopped to rest
with bim.
t
ssmaaai saaaaassamaaaaaaaaaaaaamans&kaaaak .!
ANECDOTES OF HARRIS.
TUB FIOtlTFORTllE CREDIT OFT JIB fl
riRST PLAT ItB AltAl'TED. M
Ilia Ability at Bvrlrt Coadensatloa) and Vj
Combination of Heenea nnd Acla-IIla
Fnadaeaa for Dresa-Evrrr Detail of tho rM
Theatre at Ilia Flaasra' En da.
The London newspapers have plenty of aneo- J J
dotes to tell about Sir Augustus Harris. Before Q
his last lllness-and ho had been gravely 111 for a 4
long tlmo there was always a telephone by hit j
bedside, and he would never content at any tlmo ;i
to free himself entirely from tho worrlaa m jj
business. He used to devoto bis vacations to is. -J
vising thn Drury Lane melodrama. About tha M
authorship of the first ot these melodramas aa M
amusing story Is told.
Tho piece In question was " The World," which ".
fifteen years ago praotloally started tbe popu. r,
larlty of the species ot spectacular English tnel-
odrama that has occupied a fair share of publlo ''
patronage aver since both In this country.and
England. After tbe one hundredth perform- j
anco of tho play Sir Augustus Harris, who did ; 1
not then have tbe dignity of a title, Paul Mer- i
rltt, and Henry Pettlt, the three authors of tha j 1
piece, were present at a supper given In honor i
of the occasion. Pettlt was tbe first called upon j-"'.
for a speech, and he, with fine magnanlmity.-rs- ; 'i
nounced all credit for having really had a share i
In writing the play. X
"The piece is tho creation of my two fellow
workers. Mr. Merritt and Mr. Harris," he said f'f-
in conclusion, " and, although my nam appears m
on tha bill, I cannot say that any portion of tha -J
piece belongs to me." i
After him Merritt spoke, and said that he had M
really had no hand whatever In the play and , S"
go,ve all tho credit to his two collaborators. At ft
last Harris arose and said that the whole, play 3
had been written entirely by the two other I;
authors, and that he bad done nothing mora A;
than see that It was properly put. on the stage. p
This modesty was too much for the party, apd h
It drove tho low comedian of the play to say that I '
the " gags" ho had Introduced wore In reality X
responsible for tho success of thu drama, which
otherwise would never have survived the stu- ' J
pldlty of the dialogue. This touched the vanity j
ot thu three retiring dramatists, and Mr. Pettlt j
Jumped to his frot. f
"If plain spca!ngs to be the order of tha j
day." tie said, ns If clearing the air of all doubt, "
"I might as well explain that I was the solo 4
author of 'The World' and am exclusively re- ?
sponsible for Its success " . X
Before he had taken his seat the two other
authors were on their feet, each vociferously 1
protesting that he was the only person that bad j
been concerned lu making the pla). The ques- t
tlon was not settled that night, but Harris gavo i
his version of the facts a few da) a later.
' I cou'd hav e prov ed my case If I had wanted
to." he said, "for the pivotal scene la taken i
from a play called 'La Malson de Balgneur,' j
and all the best Incidents in the piece wero 3
taken from different French plays which Pettlt i
and Merritt never knew a thing about,"
Clement Scott tells In the Daily Tcttgraph
what Sir Augustus's methods as an adapter of j
foreign plays was. and It reveals a greater ao i
tual participation In the work than he generally ';
was supposed to have taken. He bad tele- '
6 raphes! Mr. Scott to come to Paris to hear 1
umas's 'Denlso" acted at the Theatre Fran i
Cols, and when he went to the play Harris car- J
rledacopy of tho French text with him. Mr. ,
Scott write that the English manager "In
variably shed copious tears" whenever be saw
thn piece, and he gives this account of the first 1
step toward their subsequent collaboration la
an English adaptation of the play .
" 'Do you want to know what I have got thta
book for?' he asked m In his droll fashion. with '
the well-known twinkle In his eye and the In- '
avltable laugh. ' We are going to collaborata I
to-night, i shall cut tho play to-night and you j
shall write it to-morrow.' so there we sat, both
Impressed, both affected, and while I stared and " i
took the whole scene In. away he worked with his j
pencil on the printed text In the'sta.lls.3 most 9
heterodox proceeding at theComeelfoFranoalse. X
and as we supped after the play he tossed to H
me the curtailed text, two acts having been run 5
Into one by htm as the play proceeded, nnd every"
speecn shortened tn a masterly fasnlon. and v
said: 'There you are. There is your scenario.
how write It I"
When Autrustus Harris took tho lease of '
the Drury Lane Theatre in 1ST0 he possessed '
exactly three pounds sterling and fifteen snll
llugs It was only by accident that he made tho
acquaintance of the man who advanced him
the money to realize on the properti he had I
secured. But tho capitalist was willing to ad-
vonco only 3.000. and the sum needed was i
AM.000. The remaining 1.000 had to be raised
by Harris, and ot this he was nble to borrow
A'J50 from a relative. He got another ,ia0 tor
the bar privileges of the theatre, und without
nnocner resource in tne world ha bad about
decided to give up the effort when be met two
friends, who asked him to dinner. He told nls i
story, and to his delight tbev were willing to i
give him anotLer .'00 between them. But that
made only three-quarters of the sum be had
promised to raise However his backer ac
cepted tbe sum. having been encouraged by tno
energy of a man who had been able to raise
even so much under such apparently hopeless
circumstances. Out of this sum Harris pro
duced his first pantomime, and his career as a
manager began. He said after that, down to
tho time he took Drury Lnne. his Income had
never averaged $50 a week. Despite tht-. bo
was an exquisite in his vounger days, and Mine,
Tletjens, the prima doni a, was never weary of
tclllug of her astonishment when she saw
him walking through a heavy fall of snow
In low patent leather boots. Once ho
mounted the opera of "Oberon" at a pro-
vlnclal theatre with only six hours' notice and
no greater facilities than a dusty lot of faded
scenery. He accomplished the tak. but he was
terribly grieved over Ihe loss, if a waistcoat that
was his particular pride. It was ruined oy tho
dirt, and be ent a special bill for it to thn man
ager. His father used to say of him that if ho
gave his two sons a halt sovere gn Charles
would go to a prize fight and Augu-tus would
bu) a new bat. sir Augustus's dress when ho
was in this country did not escape attention,
but It was not ot a kind that wuuld lead one to
call h m adiu.dy. , .
Mr Augustus is told to havo been Ignorant of
music In spite of his great success with tha
operu at Covent Garden: but his energy la
directing the dramatic features of tho perform
ance was unflagging. He held up the tails of
his coat and showed the ballet girls what ho
wanted them to do. He attitudinized violently
for the sake of the prima donna or the tenor.
He was as active at the rehearsals of his panto
mimes and his abilities as astage manager wero
exceptional. From his seventeenth year his
life Bad been passed In the theatre and ho knew
ever) detail of It. He hod Inherited his aoili.
ties sis theatrical director from his father, whn
was widely known before him. but his share in
the long list of melodramas tn which his name
has been added as author Is admitted, uven by
his friend Clemwit -cott. to hive been in 0
nearly every case confined to suggestion and I
abridgment, not a part usually regarded aa 1
Important enough to Justify a man in tminuln- 1
Ing ho Is concerned in a ploy's authorship. 1
TUB IXCAXDXSCEXT LIOHT. 1
Bonn or the Cnrlona or Comiaonpli.ee TJsaa 1
to-Whleh It la Pat.
Incandescent electric lights are nsed to lllu,
mlnato thn eyes of mounted animals, bears,
tigers, and lions, shown by furriers. Hero
obvlonsly a light with a flame would not do
while the Incandescent light answers tho pur
pose wall and conveniently. The wire is rua
from the head, down through the animal's body
and out through ono of its feat to a connection
with thn servlie wire of the store, . .
Incandescent lights are used In refrigerators,
such as the-Ice boxes of the wholesale clraler
In cut flower ond the butcher. Their tisein
sidewalk, how'rases Is fatiiilinr: In dressing
show w Indows the flexible c ouheotlon admit of S
placing the light where It is wanted with each S
new trimming of thn window. p
They are used in electric signs, some of whloh
are permanent, while others ore formed of
letters that are movable, like types, so tnatihe
sign can bemaellly changed as often as may ha
desired Electric numbers are inula- In tho
same way.
Ono may see a painter at work at night In a
store, paint brush In one hand and eleetrio
light-with the wire trailing away bark of hlra
III the other, to enable him to sen the better
In some nook or cranny that he is palming.
1 he Incandescent lamp is used to light side
walk awnings. The lamps are strung along a
wire hung under the ridge poP inside the awn.
Lifi,!h."i wlre ,n'1 .'""'FT sre ""ably taken in
when the awning Is Mnviib o blllWrds art)
Illuminated Hi the same mauiur.
No Ilravado There Now.
JVuse Ihr I'tlctl otntrvtr
,,..W.i,i "f1 Fourih that young Hlldreth, tha
train wrecker, passed In Auburn PrUon A
7ltthrJ.Tom,Viil,K ,ttvv h,m ,lur"".' tbowvlco .
In the chapel ye.ierdav morning. There was a
iu.aJn .llB v'"'0"' """try when the great
'Oily of prisoners entered and took their places
T hose who are under Irtu.etitancesisioo Inland
occupied paces In the rear. There were ton or
n:v.e.i5 ""? "u.','!"vtl,".m.l,elnl-'o"'- whoso
s.'iV.V..Ii"ra,,KU ",,n f.r,r" "' Publlo mind.
Never since be gained, his unhappy, notoriety
did heappear to bo such a child Ills companion.
S.r.!"fiiTire.blt raen' sL,a ,n t! aniu pr icVit
garb Hlldreth. among them, looked pitiful ?
h,rw'Lal.,!err,,c:?-!e.tt!u dmuuU fi a'S.
T'MAch bcrarr,,n, IZWXi
la.t few etrltlng weeks which hn passed ni i.
cleof uburn vanished as a reillraUon of h N
life approac heel, lit, whole attitude shows i thai
.J ' TiW" c".rei.-atlon ruh ' tho l ioiciiv
th. little prisoner bent und huag h it f head 5
the pew In front as though in fervent braver
Jha.uJt h,,r plc,uro of " dretl?.raTU. ttf
kchan that bai been wrought UcompUttl 1
j

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