Newspaper Page Text
THE SUtf, SUNDAY, APRIL 7, 1912.
SHOW ABOVE GROUND
'. Takes a Lot of Work and Much
Money to Put in Oooil
SECTIONS OF X. Y. DIFFER
In Some Parts of Town HotlrocK Is Near
the Surface, lit Other Dares It
Is Found For Below.
After a bis building has burrowed Its
wy up from tho depths where the
buay workers were laying the foundu
tlon Its growth Is ittacular. Tin- niuu
who stops for a few minutes to watch
the steel beams dtp Into place a score
of Morten above his head or listen to
the hum of the pneumatic hammer that
fMtens each girder In place remarks
on the rapidity with which tho new
building Is shooting skyward.
' ll sees story after story being added
and observes the steel structure putting
on its outer coat of stone and brlclc, nnd
wonders at tho liiKcnulty of the men.
who have planned und are able to exe
cute so vaul a project. Hut for months
before he has passed the same spot dally
nnd could sec only the plain board fence
1 whlrh surrounded the space where the
. foundations .were being laid. Within
the fence powerful forces were In opera
I tlon. and men were working perhaps
I night und day to give the great build-
in e. something to stand on.
One of the first problems which con
front the foundation constructor Is the
geological formation of the ground
where ho Is to work. The northern
part of Manhattan Island Is n great mass
of rock that arises to the surface In
parts, ami the bare rock towering above
I the ground presents a problem to the
builder. This rock dips In a southerly
j direction, the slope bringing It below
I tide level at Tenth street. The surface
of the rock north of this point Is easily
reached, and an expense Is entailed to
tho builder Is blasting It out to a depth
The P. J. Carlin Construction Company
UiYcilw? suti "pnle, Con,plBy l,tv,ne coMMOuasd eitiur wori aover
ub stations Mi N. V. Edison Co.. .. ........... T E Murrei Venia W SI
Wmiemsburg Power Sutton, llrooklyn.. T r MnYny. ConSu Mnl rlVSSir
til iirrl Power Station. Mrooklyn.. ...T K Murray Consu tin! f SI ISC'
Power Station, interboroucn R. H. Co.... w.s Mm"?d rwVf rn5&Mr r
Cr Barns. Mespeth. 1-ong (viand w. s. Menden. Cnlel 1 Vnelneer
Rett New. York Hhnna. tTraulilvn. V. V.... . u- wS' iS!!?'?.
Power Sutton. Mth Street. Iirooklvn..
power House. Holler House Coaling Station.
Beilevue Hrtanltal.. .
New York City Prison
Steel Cell Cojatrurtlon. City Prison
rest Office, nrooklyn. .V. Y.
Rail of Itecords, Brooklyn
8 roup or Buildings, Kings Park, I.. I
leekrer Building. KewTork city
Irk Building, .New York City ,
Armory Boat Houee. Annapolis, Md
fee Wall. Aanapolla. Md
Ifeoklyn InMltute e( Arts Sciences
warenouse for Arburkle Broa
four C'aatral Stations. N. Y. N. J. Tel. Co..
aurieen Sub stations. S. Y. .V. J. Tel. Cn
Boundary Wall Medical Building. Navy Yard.
W. s. Itendcn. Chief Engineer!
liters A Iltrkinn
ngrn m aiattery.
P. H. Duration Co . Chleae-a.
sufficient to give proper cellar nnd ruib
ccllar accommodations. '
South of this point the story Is quite
different. Tho hard rock bed Is covered
with u ten foot layer tTf liardpan, h
cemented mass of dlslntrArntcd rock
deposited during the glacial period, and
formed by the pressure nbove It from
clay and soil into a burdened substuuee
that resembles concrete. The problem
of laying the foundations for a tall olllco
building In such formations Is a seri
ous one. Hock bottom is general at
depths arylng between fifty and 150
feet from the street' level.
During foundation excuvutions for
the Finger und United States Kx press
buildings fauna of extinct spccloswero
found Impressed in the hurdpan. Fre
quently above this hardpan cro layers
of treacherous quicksands from ten to
sixty feet thick, and layers of coarser
eands are found. These deposits of
sand and silt have been built up by the
tides and currents In geological times.
Most of the matter Is disintegrated rock
from the Jersey shore. The water level
Is found from ten to thirty feet below
the street level.
The character of the quicksands that
underlie the surface In lower New York
Is characterized by Its firmness, as much
of It will puss through u sieve whoso
openings are thirty-five one thousandths
of an Inch in width. Owing to the sat
urated condition of these sands founda
tion construction engineers tlud this on"
of their fundamental dlttlcultles. for
when water Is pumped from a pit tho
sand Is drawn with It from the excava
tion and the pumping also draws the
sand from under adjoining buildings
and undermines them In time.
A consideration of New York's tall
office buildings shows that the reason
for their strength und the basis for
their daring height lies In the form of
Immense concrete piers, sometimes a
Frneet Flag g. New yirk.
... rrnest nagg. New York.
' SSSf'BsJ!!?4 yl. Ajtatlaeia.
iBiufou. .in, ion.
leal Relate f xchang e. Drookl) n .
lira Dept. HeadQuartera. I
farlem HoapttaJ. New Yo
Cojepieu R. R. Snoot. Wei
em. W est Shora R. R...
Flailuah Terminal Button
lib eiailoae. N. Y. C. H. H. R. H. Co...
II ai UrKinili
Sunerielnr Arhltena Wui.
. Oeo. rffcdbrooke.
. . Frank Freeman.
!,,?.r,nv,..8u,,wT' Naw Tort.
.Lont Jalaad R. R. Co.
.n. niiirsqaa, cn
koritiary faapel. Calvary Cemetery.. ...,R. F.
FrAnlfllf. n,,lLlln fl-AMllt... m :
er manU Bank lulldtaf... ,.' '.. .".'c. fitenaeh.
Xarnn ouuqinc. wei vejtry street r. P.
t. Jntia'a Hainttat. I.. I. Cllv .. ilw.Ji.
wmtanuburr. Savtnn Bank. Brooklyn .Himi
noma lor ine Aceu Men..
Caraerte Library. Oreenpolnt. X. Y R. L. r)a"ia
Bldinf Club. Ne York nradford " Gilbert
Rt; Barbara a Church. Ilrookh n .Helmla iiubwtr
IJt. Au(utl!no- School. Brooklyn . aS"i p
t. Aanea' Parorhfat School. Uriyitki 9 S'
CODjrrefatlonH Church, Wllllamsburc.
dl. Mnri. Lnurcn. nrooKlin.
MANY PRIVATK HKSIMfi.CF.S
John B. Snook Sana.
n. m . uonraon.
i rom wntcn it t an n teen mat t hat a wide and varied einerlenre In all klnda of con.
traction work. In recent ear. It hat tpectallied la bulldlor Miatroetron lnJiiTUa
ecflseerlni difflculilea. a. If evident frora.the work wa aow hive. or hid hid in rtar
CenlTM th?B. r1 T? Lomp"' ,he New Vork Telephone Compaor. IhS New Vo'rk
rue preMdent of theconrern. Mr. P. J. Carlin. hat been Identified with tti hniMi.
kutlacu for fortj nve yean, and orcanlted the oriflaal Carlin Ceaoanv In u:o 0Ull,lBe
hundred feet In length, whose bases nro
thrust through quicksands Into the rock
below to become supports for tho build
ings. Previous to llio formation of theso
piers sleel caissons are sunk Into the
sand beds, through which the dirt and
water Is gradually eliminated until
finally rock bottom la reached.
The rock Is then bored to n considerable
depth, depending on it i?lop and the
weight of tins building which tho concrete
piers will support. Into thee cnis-ons
concrete is poured, forming llio piers.
Then when tho series of piers have been
finished they nro connected by concrete
joints. Tho homogeneous mass is a
modern foundation, n solid pieco of rook
sprung up through tho quicksands and
into tlio air.
The builder often puts as much money
In tho ground as on top of it in construct
ing u skyscraper. Ktstinmtes given by a
foundation companv show that as much
as S'.'.ono.otio may la spent beforo the
building shows above ground. In some
cities not favored with u rock foundation
pile.? have to be driven nnd rubblo and
masses of stonu are sunk or driven in to
bo used as a base for u building. It has
been known that masonry put on such
foundations lias sunk two and tbren feet
during the process of settling, for all
buildings, no matter what tho founda
tion may Is, usually settle from one. inch
to several feet.
In towns where there is a clay belt it
has been found almost Impossible to
reach rock bottom, and millions of dollars'
have been lo-t in an effort to erect u
moderately heavy building without u
rock base. A contractor in Montreal
who contracted to put up ono of tho
largest department stores in that elty at
n cost of J.ooo,oo(i struck clay in uti en
deavor to tint) rock bottom which his
preliminary borings showed him to exist
not five yurds from tho proposed store
front. H spent nearly tho whole $2,oon,tion
in shooting piles and rubbish in this
bottomless clay pit to erect a foundation
for tho building.
When he fot mil it itnos.iilie bo went
into bankruptcy and a month later com
mitted suicide. Tills olay Mt in Mont
real is one of tho problems to builders
and contractors and its formation is ono
that has puzzled geologists. In some
sections of Montreal it is impossible to
construct a building larger than an
ordinary dwelling house.
In'.plrltiK Courage In Moroccan Soldiers.
t'nmt thr London Si ti'..
.An ItiKMilotis Ac lit- of the Mohamme
dans In Moreccu to Inspire courage among
the Mu.su1inans is tlei-ci Hint In it Paris
conti inporary. A mat about Mauds be
fore a vessel of clear' water, ntul seizing
h convenient opportunity he unpcrcelveil
by the speetatots moves tho exsel suffi
ciently to illxturb the water and m.ike It
Thru follow sottn- music passes uf tl
hand ocr the Mirfac and III time tin
water again settles, As soon as the water
Is culm then- me mmmi In pell-mell fashion
III tin- ".iter ! elicit foot soldiers, cav.iliy
men and artillery. Again the ocpillllirliim
of the vessel Is distill bed, and by the time
the water Is calm nothing is to ho urn
or tne warnois. "All dlspert-en, ks
the pilcM. Then Die spectators take
iciiuiagu and are ready to tight.
It sceniM that tin) marabout has con
cealed In his hand", stuck to the paling,
some little Kpliial figures uf xoldlcrs, and
these Hie retleiteil upon the water as In a
mirror auu prouuee ,t suceeHrul illusion.
tattdard" Green and Gold Label
Guaranteed Porcelain Enameled
This Label on
Fixture is an
the H ighest
sible to obtain,
Faosimile of "e$tattdard"
Each genuine .five-year Guaranteed "Standard" Plumbing Fixture bears the Standard" Green and
Its presence assures the most modern and sanitary equipment of the highest quality possible to obtain,
and that any fixture or part of same, so labeled, will be duplicated without charge should it become defect
ive through imperfect workmanship or materials during the life of the guarantee.
When ordering, Specify Standard" Plumbing Fixtures, not verbally, but in writing (using catalogue
numbers) and see to it personally that they, and not substitutes, are installed. In addition, the trade mark
Standard" is branded on all genuine 'Standard" Brass Fittings.
Genuine "Standard" fixtures for the Home'and for Schools, Office Buildings, Public Institutions, etc.,
arc identified by the Green and Gold Label with the exception of one brand of baths bearing the Red and
Black Label, which, while of the first quality of manufacture, has a slightly thinner enameling, and
thus meet the requirements of those who demand Standard" quality at less expense. All "Standard" fix
tures with care will last a lifetime. No fixture is genuine unless it bears the guarantee label.
Standard cSanitans H)&. Co
General Offices, Pittsburgh, Pa,
New York Showroom - 35-37 West 31st Street
ALBANY'S CIVIC CENTRE.,
An Architectural Croup 1 Suuscted to
Attorn Cnpltol Hill.
State Architect Krnnklln I). Ware, In
Ills annual report to the Now York
Legislature, rocommentli the erection
of two new public hulhltiiKS In Albany
-si Hall of Records nnd a Temple of
.Justice, says llje .licili tliirul llcvortl.
He proposes, with the Governor's ap
protal, the State's gradual acquisition
of land all around the Capitol, to the
end that as new buildings arc located
there may be developed on Capitol Hill
nn architectural group which shall he
worthy of tho State of New York. Thus
far It Is an admirable recommendation
and one that may even be said to have
Kor the details of the plan of Ml'.
Ware, however, approval must be more
restrained. His stiKKcstlou Is the not
unfamiliar one that n civic centre be
created to tliu west of the Capitol
behind It us one comes up the State
street hill. Ho proposes that the State
buy the two blocks bounded on tho
east by the Capitol Rrounds, on the
south by Stute street! on tho west by
Swan street and on the north by Wash
ington avenue. On one sldo the west
faco of the Capitol will look out upon
the reservation, on the other side the
new educational hulldlni; will front
upon It. If the temple of Justice were
In fact put here und other buildinKs
eventually added we should hate an
architectural group of Indisputable Im
presslveness. HtH the enclosure must
always be thought of us the Capitol's
back yard. Though It were the only
"centre" of the kind to be developed
Its place would be secondary. That the
new educational building Is so located
as to Invite such arrangement is not
the least of that structured faults.
To the front of the Capitol values ure
higher, hut not so much higher that
the great State of New York, If taking
up such a project at all, should con
sider that the saving would Justify a
second rate schemo. The Capitol Park
lies to the front or.east of the Capitol.
Theie would be no need of acquiring
any land save uctual building sites.
Already as public structures facing the
park are the old State house, Richard
son's city hall, one of the most beauti
ful buildings in tho t'nlted States; and
the brown stone academy, a potpourri
of architecture Indeed, as lilting the
vnrlous periods at which the buildings
rose. Hut the assemblage Is probably
still capable of union. If there be suit
able and well placed additions and If
there be rearrangement of the planting
schemo Into n group of which the
Capitol on the higher ground would
be, as 11 ought to be, the crown. Hack
of the Cupltol, In deference to the long
drawn out and Inescapable educational
building, there might well be a small
park, a square. In which elms will throw
an academic shade and around which
churches and other semi-public struc
tures might well gather to form a secs
ondary and scholastic group. The land
for this would cost, Mr. Ware estimates
In planning to develop It as the civic
centre, only 100,000 a mere fraction
of what one city of the State has spent
more than once for n single play
ground. There N a growing list, already long,
of State Capitols that have had plans
made by experts for their wlso devel
opment. In Connecticut, Pennsylvania,
hlo, Iowa. Minnesota, California and
South Carolina this work has been tlone.
In Ithode Island. Massachusetts nnd
New Jersey plans for It are now under
way. New York would do well to fol
low the example, at least beforo em
barking on an undertaking so Im
portant as that now suggested by the
State Architect. .Mr. Ware himself
would doubtless be the tlrst to wel
come such advice.
nrncEi ss heaver sr.
WKDSl 266 WEST ST.
HOLLAND & CO,
General . . .
493 W. Broadway
'I " in
JOHN C. RODQERS
121 West 125th St., ' New York
TELEPHONE ST MORNINQSIDE
VIRGINIA PORTLAND CEMENT CO.
"Old Dominion" Brand
Tha Standard of the Soath.
l.fjno.coo barrrla uied In V. S. Rovernmant wrk.
Kn.noo barrda In conitructlon of the Vlritnlan
lon.ooo barrels In the Ftontylvanla Water Power
Write for lltuntrated eatalone.
WM. Q. HARTRANFT CEMENT CO.
Sale Salllaa Anat
Ural EMate Traat Bide, FMladalahta, pa.
T1ETJEN & LANG
DRY DOCK CO.
HOBOKEN, N.,J. .....
NINE DRY DOCKS
600, 800,' 1000, 1200, 1400, 1800,
2000, 6000, 10,000 Tons
General Repairs on Wooden and Iron Yessels
17th Street and Park Avenue
Telephone 700 Hoboken
HOBOKEN. N. J.
PNEUMATIC CAISSON DAM FOUNDATIONS, UNITED FIRE COM-
Coiirmiri from Ftmt l'nyc.
wireless power transmission It would bo
an easy matter to reclaim vast tracts of
land. Xlknta ToMn was born at. Stnilian
I.ikatbnnk'v country of AiiKtrlU'IiunRni-y)'
in 1857, the son of a Oreek clergyman'
After his elementary school training ho
spent four years at the Lower Heulschulo
at Jospio. He was graduated from tho
Higher Healhchulo at Carlstadt in Crotin
in ISiII. He took his mathematical course
at the Polytechnic School nt (Iratz and
afterward spent two years at tho capit il
in Prague He began his practical carver
tit tltlftflMttkit ttl tKUf tfk...... 1... : . .
........... ....j-.u invented
a telephone repeater and then conceived
the idea of his rotating mngnetio Hold.
nun" iwi iiu jtuo iix-it
Construction U about comiileted on the 23
f lory oiUrt building fro mine on Maiden Lane and
cedar street. .New Vorlt. designated a -No. o
Maiden bane, which Ivbrlni built lor the t'nlted
lire Companies. he cellar will havo n door
about :n ft, below the curb and will be enclosed
In a water tight concrete dam rarrled down to
wild rock at a maximum depth ot over to ft.
( below the curb by pneumatic alon united to
reiser to make a continuous construction similar
. to that ot the .Stock Kzchanie and later buildings
which have from time to lime been described In
these columns. Concrete nlera, alsu sunk to rock
by pneumatic caissons, will support the Interior
columns and w llh a concrete cellar floor will com
prise the substructure, which Is the subject ot
The wall caissons are 8 In, from the lot line on
the east and west sides of the building and are
sunk through about :u ft, of line wet sand or hard
clay, as he case may be, and below It through a
stratum of hardpan from 3 to 4 ft. thick plentifully
lllled with green serpentine rock.
The hardnan corresponds to that found In all
other neighboring excavation, but Is here under
unusual conditions In that while In the other cases
the hardpan lies directly on the surface of the solid
rock It Is here separated from It by from 13 to 33
It of glxclat drift, consisting of gravel, cemented
clay and boulders In all sorts of Irregular dls.
trlbutlon. making a material of the most dimcult
rharacter to penetrate. The utiderblng rock Is
here a compact gucls, In some parts of which are
found mica In quite Urge deposits, also gurnets
of the slie of a plnhead sticking out of the broken
in tho United J
llwas not unusual at times to find the entile
piroin or tne working cnamner excavation cov
I The theory that slht can be made to
i accompany tho electrical wavo was ad
vanced tiy Mr. Tcsla in an interview pul"
lished ill lBOfl. . '
, ...r.,,,uiK KiKiii-uy
wires or otherwise to any diMtanco is as
difficult us It is fascinatlnc," ho suys.
"It must not ho compared as to its tech
nical difficulties with tho transmission
of pictures or even colors hy hucIi means,
11eso me otm'Ktmtively easy tasks.
"The solution of thU problem has loen
attempted very many times and moro
recent y a further st iinulus has been Riven
to rchcurch in this direction by tho mag
nificent inventions of Alexander (Iraham
Hell, As soon us it became possible to
transmit tho strains of an entire oterd
over a wire llie mind jumped immediately
In tilt, f.nnnllldlnn tlml ...,. t i
, ,, ii , , " f",nm ny rtiiuiiur
methods will also boomo an accomplished I
fact. I his appeared the morn rt.nnn.,1.1..
as Hell succeeded in traimmittiiifi siieoch
throiiKh tho medium of no moro than a
ray ot jiKht. Tho activities in thifi di
rection have not abated, but on tho con-
i trary havo increai,eil, eseeially sinco wa
have learned moro about tho nature or
liKh through tho discoveries of Helnrlch
1 could hardly name two or perhaps
three ot her problems or lines orinvestlna
tlon which have taxed my own powers
or hlnkinK as much as this. As yet,
while, in t heso other lines I havo realized
considerably, as repartls this problem
or transmitting sight 1 nm still very rr
rrom positive demonstration hy experi
ment, 'ton should not infor from this
that all my efforts to llnd a solution have
Iwen futile, only exsirienco has mude me
moro exact lug and even pcBslsmistlo
as to the linal carrying out of my ideas:
riv " inn rfinaineti .
as optimistic as over I was in their first
conception. Very often during tho dayl
I rmiceivo ideas which give nio ploastire '
and 1ioh, hul in Dm clam leixvoment I
ni inn ntgiii my pi net leal beijM deals
ered with nigger head bouldrrs, many of which
wnr u,u mrge ror removal witnout masting, tnua
making the progress very slow until the cutting
edge had sunk below them. Underneath the
boulders line sand wax sometimes encountered,
and in one Instance there was met a remarkable
stratum of black hard clay 1 ft. thick. As the
adjacent tall and heavy nrnce buildings had foun
dations on the upper stratum ot sand or clay It
was nrccMiary to protect them from settlement
due to possible undermining of their heavy walls
from the caisson sinking and the lne (table dls
turbanre and changes In underground pressure
so close to them. Provision was therefore made
for safeguarding a combined length of tse. ft, of
the walls of three adjacent buildings before sink
ing any of the caissons close, to ttiem was com
menced. The three buildings were of different heights
and different types, w Ith different types of founda
tions, and were treated In entirely dirterent man
ners. Tlie 13 story office building No. M William
.Street has a wlng.Vij, ft. wide on the lot line with
a brick wall curried ny girders In each story on
two columns which transmit tiiclrromputed loads
of nearly -wn.niki lb. each to an 1 beam grillage
on the sand about 13 ft. below street level.
i lew riveted connections were made to the
columns for heaty adjustable spur bracing to
suunlv any deficiency caused bv the removal nf
the outer grillage beams which were cut out' to
clear a pair of cylindrical piers sunk by the
llreuchaud process in the plane of the wall. These
Piers support a pair of plate inter riveted across
the fares of the columns and wedged tip to transfer
a portion of the column load throngs the pier to
solid rock, thus relieving a portion of Its load
and maintaining an alwa a undiminished support
for the columns In w hlcli the most accurate meas
urements have failed to detect any signs of settle
mcnl. The details of this underpinning were
MKisirated In the Dnglneerlng Hecoid of Sept. ,
The office building adjacent to No. M has a
stlf-bupportlng brick waliabout 73 fl.tnngand an
ft. high which, with Its floor load.wrlgha about
lO.OtUlb. ner linear fool, and has concrete fontlnzs
about f t. below the curb oil a pile foundation,
As the footing was In good condition It was de
rided to retain II. and plans were made to main-
. ir.ern!esNly with the projwti
' IUI J illMI.
tain the wall and rompensate any settlement In
the foundations without shorlngor underpinning.
to mis cnu ins wan waa uracm irom nrsi anil
second floor levels by six spur shores with Jack
screw adjustments on Utelr rrlb footings, and
holes about gf I. apart were rut through the walla
Just aho the footings. In them were Inserted
nine pairs of 10-ion Jack screws set up to posltls e
hearing beforo excavation was commenced
As the excavation tirnrresjed arcurate levels
were taken at least twice a day and as fast as
they shoned the slightest settlement the Jack
scrfws were nneraled to maintain the wall at
the original elevation. This method limited all
dlsnlai-einenl to the footings and biles, which
wire Urns driven down to Mild. btirlAg. at tut
as they needed It, and eventually were displaced
i or a in. vertically witnoui injury or distortion
to the wall or the rest of the building or any
material Injury to the foundations themselves.
After the caisson sinking was completed wedging
stones between the Jacks were adjusted to refine
the latter and the Jacks were removed and the
wall made good. As there was no apparent
tendency for the building to diverge from the
vertical the spur shores could be shifted as re
quired and some of them were entirely removed
to clear the adjacent caissons.
CompctiUse lilUn were received for Ura con
struction of the substructure for which the great
est expedition was demanded and enforced by
unusually severe conditions. A large peanalty
per day was Imposed for each of the nret 2ddaya
delay In ilnlshlng the contract at the sperlrird
time, tiesldes an additional penalty ot a large
lump sum for any further delay. No correspond
Ing bonus was provided for completing the work
In advance of contract time, but payments were
made on a basis of too per rent, monthly estl
The contract was awarded to the 0'Hourlie
Knglneclng Construction Company, who offered
to complete the talsson work Aug. 13, six weeks
sooner than their principal competitor, who. In
addition, required certain changes to be ; made In
the construction. The owners, architects and
general contractors considered thr time absurdly
short nnd only awarded the contract after con
slderabr discussion and a careful examination
ot the time schedule submitted.. Work was com
menred April 13 and the caisson sinking was
completed about Aug. II, thus permitting the
entire contract to be finished In time as agreed
to by the contract and establishing a remarkable
Itefore the site was more than half cleared by the
wrecking contractor who raxed the old building
two air compressors were Installed antt a derrick
set up for the erection of the four-boom traveller
which handled the caisson.-plant and Materials,
The Urst caissons were delivered and their sinking
commenced as quickly as possible, while the re
mainder of the site was cleared and the general
excavation and sheeting was carried on, tne rest
of the plant Installed, the material received and
the work pushed day and night as fast as space
The old sidewalk vault was uttllted where
available tor storing and working purposes, and
the vault walls were maintained In some places
for retaining walls and In other cases the sides
of the excavation were retained by vertical planks
driven with mauls as thr digging advanced and
secured by four lines of 13 x l:-ln. rangers which,
as the earth stood well, did not develop great
pressure and In some cases served temporarily
without bracing until the caissons could be sunk
to clear Inclined braces to them .
There are 51 exterior or wall caissons forming
thedam enclosing the site and 31 Interior caissons,
all of which were made complete at the contrac
tor's yard, delivered by trucks and awung to po
sition hy the derrick booms. Tne Interior cats
sons average about 7 ft. square and are made
entirely of wood with ltorliontal Interior frames,
to which are spiked the vertical a In. league and
groove calked sheeting planks. The rectangular
wall caissons have a uniform exterior wldtrt of
A ft. 6 In. and are from : lo 311, ft. long. They
have permanent Interior angle Iron horizontal
frames covered with 3 In. vertical sheathing and
have permanent sleel plate and angle decks pro
portioned to support the wet concrete and permit
the concreting to proceed continuously with the
greatest rapidity Instead of having to wait far
the lower portion to harden and support the rest,
as Is the case when the caissons are designed to
have the decks formed by a concrete sUb cast on
Tula method of constructing continuous con
crete ralssou masonry was Invented by Mr. John
P. O Hourke. to whom patents for It were granted
In 1(01, when he at Ural applied It to the construe
tlon of the foundations of the New York Stock
Kxchange Itulldlng. This building has Interior
caissons forming a dam with an Immersion of
o ft. above the sub-cellar floor. The. same con
struction lias been used In the Hudson Terminal
the Whitehall, the llsnkcrs' Trust and many othal
buildings, l-'or this reason It was considered i un
necessary to provide a uressure-realstlng floor
for the t'nlted Fire Companies llulldlng, where
the exclusion nf Die watrr Is expected lo pi event
upward pressure. Much water as will seen
through during, ihe tlrst few months will he
pumped out, P.xprileiirr Indicates mat concrete
placed under water Is traversed to some extent
by small openings formed by the compressed alt
escaping from the working chambers before in
concrete waa set. These optnlags are, howattxja
, vary losaU wa aeua