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titeUAfXYiDB7 6, 1916.
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TELEPHONE. DBEKMAN JJM.
After Tea Years.
Mr. Hryan'h opinion ns to the de
slrnblllty of (ioveriiment ownership of
the railroads 1ms undergone Import
tnnt moilllU'iitlon in tlm ten years Hint
linvc tmssed since his return from IiIh
trip nrouud tho world In HKW. On
.Thursday lie told the Nowlands Inves
"I, personally, can't say 1 desire aov
"I lean to the Individual Idea, rather
than tha collective."
"1 believe In Individual ownerihlp ex
cept when competition l Impossible, and
In Government ownership If proper regu
lation la Impossible."
It wns In the evening of August 30,
1900, that Mr. IIhyan, In n long
speech delivered In Mndlson Square
Garden, formally declared himself nn
ndvocntn of (ioveriiment ownership
of railroads, mid iruvn the outline of
the scheme he lind In mind. Ills con
victions mi this subject n ud his plans
were Mthiciently disclosed In the sub
joined sentences In that address :
"1 have already reached the conclu
sion that railroads' partake so much of
the nature of a monopoly that they must
ultimately become public property and
lie managed by public officials In the
Interest of the whole community, In ac
cordance with the well defined theory
that public ownership Is necessary where
competition Is Impossible."
I have reached the conclusion that
theic will be no permanent relief on the
railroad question from discrimination be
tween Individuals and between places.
and from extortionate rates, until the
railroads are the property of the Gov
ernment and operated by the Govern
ment. In the Interests of the people."
"The greatest danger of a republic Is
the consolidation of all power at the cap
Itol remote from the people, und because
I believe that the ownership of' all the
railroads by the Federal Government
would so centralize power as to virtu
ally obliterate State lines. Instead of fa
voring the Federal ownership of all tall
roads, I favor the Federal ownership of
trunk lines' only, and the State ownership
of all the rest of the railroads."
What Mr. Hryan'h present project
for Coveriiiiieut control of railroad
capl 1 11II7.11I ion mid bond Issues Involves
Is not clear. He would lmvc railroad
stock kept at par "as staple as Gov
ernment bonds" ; If the earnings put
tlm stock up by 10 tier cent, he would
hnve it readjustment of rates. As 110
MHs hid this week for Covernment
fours. Mr. Hryan, It Is to be assumed,
would be pleased to have the authorl
ties Indulge In some llnanciiil legerde
main to depress their price. This
would he as defeu.slble as the Instltu
lion of ti sliding scale of freight nud
passenger rales designed to reduce
the market price of rnllro.nl shares.
The lioM', Inspired by Mr. Hryan'h
abandonment of (ioveriiment owner
ship of the railroads, that Ills logical
processes arc Improving Is not sun.
tallied by his slock regulation design.
He remains a Imiielessly muddled
and muddling political guide for the
thoughtless. And It must astonish
him to llml that with regard to the
ownership of railroads he has sue
ceetled In getting Into harmony, ns to
certain details, with the New York
Chamber of Commerce.
Forest 1'lres In the Kait.
New .Iei-.ey is the llrst sufferer In
the present forest lire season In the
Knst. The damage, estimated at $3)0,
ihhi, luis bee 1 1 Inflicted mostly upon
the northern part of the State. I'lanies
fanned by a high wind imperilled
properly around Greenwood Lake, and
it blaze near the Somcrsci-Huiitcrilou
county Hue swept a mountainside and
before It whs controlled threatened
tho Stale Village for Kplleptlcs,
According to the Federal Forest Ser
vice this Is I ho danger s?asou In the
Knst. In the North und West the
great f uresis of conifers, situated nl
comparatively high altitudes or lati
tudes, are covered with snow and safe
from (lie dancer, lint the ground of
the F.astcru forests Is usually at this
season dry nud covered with luthim
limbic fallen leaves. This menace re
mains until the winter full of rain or
snow and constitutes a period of anx
iety for the tire lighters.
In MiisxtehiiM'tiri, Maine and the
Adirondack region of this State,
which were In the past (lie greatest
Mifferers, much has been done lo re
luce Iho losses, but while within this
area there have been no disastrous
forest 'fires In tho past few years, tlio
danger has not becn'entlrely obviated.
Massachusetts, which has made n
special .study of preventive measures
and has enforced restrictions upon
hunters and railway companies, had
3,008 forest tiros last year, entailing
a loss of $141,073.
Hallway locomotives were held re
sponsible for 344 of the 1,281 forest
(Ires so fur this year. The remaining
037 wore caused mostly by the care
lessness of hunters, smokers and per
sons who fulled to extinguish cnnip
fires In tho woods.
Despite all the warnings, cautions
nixl attempts to Impress ukii jtcoplc
the great danger and loss from forest
tires, carelessness that amounts In
many cases to criminal negligence
remains the principal cause of the
destruction .of one of our valued nat
ural resources. Individual care timl
precaution arc more Important In pre
venting forest fires than wit ten tow
ers, wardens and the niemtlous of
nn improved forestry service.
They Been to Like It.
Thousands of men nnd women who
lire within easy walking distance of
the elevated railroads make thcinsehi
and others unnecessarily uncomforta
ble every day Jo' riding In the subway.
From Inslness or force of habit they
patronize a transportation system that
nonius ago ixisrch I lie limit or us
reasonable capacity. Ignoring the fa
cilities offered by the overhead line,
on which extensive Improvements havo
tieen made recently to provide the re
lief demanded by the community.
They refuse to assist In that distribu
tion of traffic by which the well nigh
Intolerable situation now existing
might be rendered endurable.
The carriers and the Public Service
Commission plead with the public to
use their heads In selecting roads for
their trips from one end of Manhattan
to the other. .The good sieed of the
elevated trains, the letter accommo
dations offered In their enrs, the con
venience of the stations: all nre cited
to Induce New Yorkers to serve their
own best Interest. Hut a citizenship
accustomed to Its morning and eve
ning crush refuses to take the few ex
tra steps that are Imolvcd. decllut-s
to go In the open air when it might
avoid the cellar of the town, und con
tinues to Jam Itself to 111 temin-r, ap
parently with the sole purpose of dem
onstrating to how much trouble It
will go to ierMiuutc u common ex
cuse for complaint.
rcrbaps the city may he forced to
post policemen to drive subwayltes to
the elevated railroads. It cannot er-
mlt the crowding in the umlerroutid
to puss the danger ixilut It has
rencbtxl. And If the day coiuch when
such n control Is nsserted over per
sonal liberty, what a howl will be
raised by those -who, rather than sac
rifice n single excuse for kicking, are
willing to undergo the unnecessary
torture of nn hour a day In the over
flowing subway !
Our Array and Our Navy.
Tlie present Secretary of Vur'tt llrst
annual rejiort Is n disappointment.
Much of what he lias to say about Its
affairs Is mere surplusage, a rfsum
of army legislation by Congress at Its
last session, an account of the Per
suing iH'iietrntlon of Mexico, with an
addendum about the mobilization of
the National Uuard for service on the
Secretary Haki.r distributes compli
ments freely. Features of the mobili
zation that dismayed friends of the
National Guard seem to have made no
liupres-lou tiKin Mr. Hakkr. He ac
cepts complacently the theory that tho
guard Is "the line of defence immedi
ately back of the regular army."
What did make a profound impression
upon him was the Intervention of the
Yonng Men's Christian Association to
provide "recreational opportunities"
for the guardsmen on the border. Mr.
Hakf.r submits that tlm Government
should take over this work.
Hecriiltlng for the authorized army
Is a matter that finds Mr. Haki.r opti
mUtlc in spite of ids admission that
the Department has leen unable to se.
cure the recruits needed. To him it Is
encouraging, that "during June, July
unil August, lillil, the niiinlMT of en
listments increased practically 175 ier
cent, over the number for the corre
sponding mouths In 1llir," hut he does
not disclose what the recruiting tig
tires were and are now.
As we hnve Indicated, Mr, Haki.r's
report in largely retrospectlxe and sta
tistical, It Is an aid to learu what
Congress did for the army ut the last
session, but It Is barren of construc
tive speculation nud helpful recom
mendations nre the exception. How
ever, Mr. Hakir does realize that If
tin; United Stales should ever be In
volved In u enntlh't with a llrst class
Power an adequate munlier of well
trained officers drawn mainly from
West Point and Annapolis would he
needed. Accordingly he proposes a
system of preparatory schools through
out the nation In which should he
taught "the rudiments of a sound edu
cation, t lit: elements of uiecliauleal
skill, the principles of business coordi
nation, and the beginnings of mili
tary science," with a view to develop
ing the right kind of young men for
the military and naval academics and
other young men for auxiliary indus
trial service In Hie event of war.
The lu-plnillun must have come
from nn efficiency cxjierl, hut beauti
ful as the theory looks on paper wo
doubt if It would be workable, Tlm
young men thus educated In a country
full of admirable schools, colleges ami
universities could hardly be tioiind
over to go lo either West Point or to
Annapolis, und In the event of war In
dustrial service could not be exacted
of them. The cxiimc of sikii Govern
ment preimratory M-hools has prolmhly
not been calculated by Mr. IUkir,
As there nre a great many Institutions
In the land (hat now train Roys In
military science nnd give them a prac
tical education In mechanics, engi
neering, mining, &c, and as the na
tional defence act provides for organ
izing them Into u reserve ofllcers'
training corps. It Is from those Insti
tutions that we may also cxiect ac
cessions to the military nnd naval
academies. Mr. Hakrr'n proosal will
hardly be seriously considered.
It Is n pleasure to turn lo the imlns
taking and businesslike reiwrt of the
Secretary of the Navy. Poetry and
sentimentality are absent from It this
year. Mr. Damki.h has broadened und
risen to the occasion. In Admiral
William S. Hknhon the Secretary has
a sagacious ami energetic Chief of
Naval Operations to guide him. Hap
pily Mr. Danim.h can lakeudvice. We
arc not obliged to agree with him that
a General Staff of the Navy Is no
longer necessary, hut a good substitute
Is the Office of Naval Operations when
a capable officer like Admiral Hknson
Is In charge.
The most lniKrlnnt topic with
which Mr. Damii.h deals Is the carry
ing out of the three eur programme
authorized by Congress. Nearly half
of the total number of ships are to be
laid down as soon ns practicable, at
least contracted for within six months
of the approval of the act. For the
llscttl year 1018 the Secretary, recog
nizing ship yard limitations at the
present time, Including scarcity of
skilled labor, submits a building pro
gramme of three lraltlrshl nnd one
battle cruiser, besides vessvls of
smaller tys. The General Hoard had
proposed four battleships and two bat
tle cruisers, nud extra destroyers and
fleet submarines. The Secretary's
plan Is more in keeping with working
conditions. We believe he Is right
when he says that "It will tax the
Government and private ynrds, even
after new facilities are provided, to
build the ships recommended for the
fiscal year 11118 nnd complete those
Bribery Below Stairs.
The revelations made by ti Janltress
to the Wicks legislative committee tire
Interesting If not lniNrtnnt because
they confirm ccrtulti suspicions long
entertained by. a timid citizenry con
cerning the graft nearest home. Al
most every apartment dweller has
drawn the conclusion, from the burn
ing anxiety of the biiscmeut lord as
to. the newcomer's supplies of milk,
ice and rolls, that there was some
thing In It for him who once wns
called Janitor but who now has die
title of snMrintendent.
The ligures given by the witness light
up I he subject. To her, caplalu of the
gate of it new apartment liou-e. the
purxeyors of food and Ice "came
across" splendidly. From SKI to S'JTi
from the Purling Spring Milk Farm;
51." or ?1'0 and free lee from Tony,
the Iceman: free bread and rolls from
Immi.ii.sciii.ak. the baker; add lo this
free rent, u salary und vails from the
tenants and you have nn Idea of Jani
torial proserlty. In an older apart
ment house the scale Is arranged ior
customer; It used to be $1 for every
family taking a quart of milk', but now
It Is only half us much. A reforme'l
Iceman told the committee Hint his
bonus to Janitors was S'J for every
customer. Another witness, a milk
mini, paid toll lo a real estate com
pany for n lNt of tenant". In that
case the Janitor presumably was Ig
nored und the man higher up got the
Now the flat holder knows Just
what was the price paid for telling
him that the Purling Spring was the
only reliable milk. Tony the only mer
chant with really cold Ico and Im
MKit.seiii.AK the only sanitary baker
for miles. And now that he knows
It he will say What of it? and pro
ceed as usual.
The Secretary of War. Ni.wton
Dii:iii. Hakik. has told the House For
eign Affairs Committee Hint the Amer
ican side of Niagara Falls Is likely to
disappear If the present volume of
water Is allowed to continue over the
Canadian or Hor-eshoe Falls,
The American Fulls carry less than
live i'r cent, of the entire How, Tho
Horseshoe Full-, measured along th?
curving edge, are nearly three times
as wide. The likeness to a horseshoe
has been spoiled by erosion, which
seems, for Hie last two hundred years,
to have been proceeding at about the
rale of live feet a year nnd has taken
place most noticeably In the centre of
I he arc. The edge of the American
Falls Is receding at a much slower
pace, from two mid n half to sewn
and a half Inches n year, II Is estl-
imilcd. As I lie Canadian Falls drop
more rapidly back toward Lake F.rle
they lend lo receive A larger und
larger share of the river's v ultimo.
It is a perplexing problem to know
what lo do. Nature Is playing Into
Canada's hands. That country al
ready controls most of Hie show. We
can hardly expect her materially to
Impair the beauty of her Falls meiely
to prevent our own from dwindling to
The rebuke administered by Mrs,
Carrik chapman Catt to the persons
of her sex responsible for the recent
II, ik' throwing incident In the Hull of
Representatives at Washington Is ns
(llirnlllfil ns It is severe. It correctly
represents, we believe, the opinion of
the vast majority of respectuble nnd
tensonuble women chKnKcd In tlm or
ganized movement to promote the
woman nuffragn cnuse In this euutitry.
Sensible citizens of both kcncm, no mat.
ter how they feel about the main (pies
Hon, wiit commend and admire this
plain spoken disavowal, in behalf of
n great body of nut nest suffraRlsts, of
such silly demonstrations at the ex
peuse of ordinary decorum.
ItusMia, France apd Kiigiand have
Rlrded uiftVelr loins and will iluht on.
If thr llu.il oiileo.ii,) if the struggle
(should be the rvP'r.itlon of the Hiatus
quo ante what will posterity say of
this generation's sacrifice of millions
of men? Possibly the war that would
shortly follow the struggle now raging
would be so universally devastating
that posterity would become an Im
Tho fundamental trouble with draws
Is that they always lead to return
Itucharest has been evacuated by the
Ittunanlan troops, Tho forces to the
south of llurhnrest have also retired
Hitch Is the version of the German
victory that officially softens the blow
to Husslan prestige. The responsi
bility for Humnnla's disaster Is divided,
but tho Czar's Government must
shoulder most of it. For nearly two
years ltnmnnla was solicited and en
treated to enter the war on the side
of the Kntentc Allies, and when she
yielded Kussla wus not ready with re
enforcements nnd equipment and It
wns the Itumanluns who saved fhe
Husslnn army at Plevna In the war of
Haltroad facilities were alt ready
and at hand to transport a great army
to Hucharest from the liukowlna,
menaced by the Russians, and from
llcscarabia; also from tho Illack Sea
by way of Constanta; but there wns
no concentration upon anything like
an nderiuato scale. The fault was
either with the ordering of Husslnn
resources or with Husslan strategy.
Some day the true story of the Ig
nominious failure must be told. At
the present time It Is the great mys
tery of the war. With a common
frontier arid railways crossing It there
seems to be no excuse for permit
ting the Humnnhtns to be driven from
Secretary Hakkr should rend Major-
Gencral ltt'uii I,. Scott with more care
tlinn he has expended upon the writ
ings of tho late John Fibre.
We arc willing to believe that a
bear carried off a hog at Illbblng.
Minn.; that seven fish, frozen for
months, swam when thawed; that a
Pennsylvantan caught a wildcat with
bare hands; that the wolves In our zoo
are howling for snow; that porcupines
have Invaded Salt Lake; that a Maine
cut dives to catch frogs; that a wolf
chased a woman at Wllllamsport, Pa.,
and that Mr. Ditmars'h snails will eat
nothing but hearts of lettuce at 10
cents a bend. Authentic tales about
animals delight us. Hut the red headed
alllgntor seen In Kansas, no! There
arc no scales on Stubbs.
Thnt a boom for Httan for Presi
dent In 19"0 has been stnrted may not
lie surprising, but it Is astonishing to
have him put forward ns a "logical
Iinns asked by 50,000 farmers. .Vetcs-
lrosperlty turns men Into financiers.
Villa Is killing Englishmen. Ger-
mnns and Chinamen, lie seems to be
under the influence of a very uncom
promising Monroe Doctrine of his own
The profitable policy for Janitors Is
PROFIT ON SHOES.
Itetallers Must Make From fl to
$2.50 Pair, According to Locality.
Tothk Kiutor or The Sln sir: Again
referring to shoe prices, t think one
critic Is correct in saying that the tig- j
uieji quoted by me might possibly g!c j
I lie consumer u wronc impression, jim
the same as the reported utterances of
.Mr. Donovan of the K. T. Wrinht Coin- (
puny, Huston, that eimes wouia cost :
a pair In the near future. There ure
lertaln uallllcatlons th.it should go
with stutements of this character. Mr.
Iionovnii was right when referring to
about 1 per cent, of the shoe production,
the extreme high grade made from the
finest leathers, which In tho custom
shops now cot around 115 u pair. I
wan endeavorlnc to speak of the. great j
mass of production not yet la the ex-1
tremely hlsli priced clasn.
Itetullers In large cities In the best ,
rented localities should receive a protlt
of $2.50 net a pair In order to do busl
nes rafely nnd cotrectly. Ill the me
dium class of cities there should be a
retail net protlt nf 11,50 a pair, and In
the crowded city retailing stores there
should be n net protlt of 11 a mtr If
retailers are to do business cm u correct
basis. The aliovo figures refer to shoes
for men and women und not misses and
The shoe retailer on the whole has
been coining out at the small end of the
horn up to within a few months past
by reason of the many returned shoes
concerning which fictitious claims are
made by the consumer, but the retnjler
Ih forced to meet the demiuvbi of the
customer In the larger number of In
stances because this Is looked upon as
the correct business attitude. '
ShnemakhiR labor prices aie now
being Increased and there will be quite
nn activity In this direction during the
next few months according to present
indications, and shoes figured for next
sprltiB und summer undoubtedly have
these conditions under consideration.
1 notice that the r.ndlcott-Johnson
Company of Klnghamton, N. Y., makes
tho statement that It proposes "to fight
the leather trust." and will not Increase
prices. Where It gets the Idea of a
"leather trust" I do not know, because
everybody understands that the Ameri
can Hide and Leather Company and the
Central Leather Company, by some peo
ple considered trusts, were not guilty of
making any profits before the war. The
leather business is very much on a com
iietltlxe luisls. Why any firms or manu
facturers should seek to advertise them
selves on a contrary basis Is not at all
clear to me.
The Kiiillcott-Jolinsou Company re
icnlly secured a large amount of pub
llcil In a national way liecuusc of Its
placing Its workers on an eight hour
b.isls. If the prices paid for labor In the
Kndlcott-.lolinson factory prevailed In
Massachusetts I dare say manufacturers
In this State would bo willing lo place
their labor on a six or seven hour day
b.isls, Nothing llko the low wages paid
In the lhidloott-Johnson factory prevails
In Massachusetts shoe factories,
There was considerable surprise In tho
shoe trade localise of the Rndlcntt
Johnson Company declaring for the
Democratic party In the recent election,
but this Is explained by the company's
desire for free hides, a Democratic Idea
with which this Ann of shoe manufac
turers Is Impressed liecuusc It does Its
own tanning, As (leneral Hancock once
remarked, "the tariff appears to be a
local question," and some people might
Mibslltnte "reinsh" for "local,"
KUWIN W, INUALLS,
Boston, December I,
"WOMEH OF ALL KINDS."
A Naff rage Letter Condemns the
Silly Performance at Wtshlnt-ton.
To the Editor or Tint Hus Sir: The
deepest and hardest prejudice In the
public mind which the woman movement
has had to overcomo Is the common ac
ceptance of the Idea that women are a
single class, each Individual possessing
the same motives, the same intelligence
and the same characteristics as every
other. It has required three generations
of agitation nnd of demonstration In
college nnd school, factory, work shop,
homo and club to prove to the world
that there are as many hinds of women
as there are kinds of men. Yet the
retlu of that old belief arises continually
to our amusement or discomfiture.
So It happens that some of the Mew
York press have hastened to scold suffra
gists In general for what happened in
the House of ItepresentutlveK the other
day on the occasion of the President's
address. The Woman Suffrage party of
the State of New York Is a great or
ganisation having hundreds of thou
sands of members and numbers In that
membership very many of the best
known men and women In every de
partment of Its varied life, That organi
zation Is attempting to pcrvuade the
voters of New York to give the women
of this State tho vote. That organiza
tion Is New York's auxiliary of the Na
tional American Woman Suffrage As
sociation, which has forty-seven other
similar branches. Altogether these wo
men are doing constructive educational
work hi the most dlgnltled nnd reason
able way possible. They had nothing
whatever lo do with the demonstration;
they do not approve of It, nor of similar
demonstrations which without doubt wilt
come In the future.
The woild looks to the press to pro
vide data for accurate history. If the
press of New York and of our country
lives up to that standard It must nl the
outset of this departure hi suffrage
methods mike a clear distinction between
the great 4ody of organized suffragists
who are making their appeal to the
reason of the country and the very small
minority which, growing Impatient nlth
the tardiness of favorable action by
Congress, resorts lo cheap publicity.
Carrie Chapman Catt.
New York, December S.
WHAT JAPAN WANTS.
Her Pnrpose Is Defined, Her Spirit
Earnest, hut She It Not a Menace.
To the Editor or The Sun sir: Al
low me to congratulate you on the edi
torial article on .Mr. Sato, tho new
Japanese Ambassador, both for Its spirit
and Tor Its statement of facts tbut all
the people of the country ought to know,
und that If known would be helpful In
dispelling the silly tcare, applicable only
on the ground of Ignorance, of an at
tack on us by Japan. It Is fortunate
for us nnd for the world that the Japa
nese understand us much better than we
More even than you stated was done
for Husslan war prisoners In Japan. Not
only were Illiterates among them taught
to read and write their own language
and letters home written for them by
Japanese priests of tho Kastern Church
but foreign missionaries were iicrm'.tted
to do similar work.
The, most Interesting service I ever
took part in was the administration nf
the Communion to some hundreds of
these prisoners. It was the first use
made of a new hospital building, which
the JupuucKe oftlcluls put at my dls
IKjsal. Kver thing (sisslble was done
for my convenience anil that of the men,
and no restriction was put on me as to
what I was to say or do.
Theic are Important facts thnt our
people lae still to learn. Most im
portant of all Is that although there nie
only about 200,000 Japanese church
members. Japan as a whole Is in mure
Hum one Inusirtant sense Chilstlan. int
"heathen." A generation ngo the more
highly educated men of Jap in were
Confiiclaiilsts. The Confucian concep
tion of OoJ wns n high and pure one.
Hut Confucianism has disappeared, and
the Christian Idea of Hod has supersedrd
It. The representative of the "three
lellglons" who a few years ago were
called together by n high (Ioveriiment
otllclal to consult on questions of pnpu
...r "" " eIO nninioisis. HUIMI.ISIH
.uHi unmans. ,nu me (.-nristlans
were the leaders In the conference. As
a Japanese clergyman once put It to
me. "All that the Javanese people know
,uu,,if ,1, .mi u cnrutimi
!ri,,Cu1,,e.! ,hem' . (;o,lfucl'lnl!,"'
he Old Testament of the Japanese, and
has been superseded by the New.
As for the two othTr religions, the
Japanese Government announced long
ago that Shinto bad no "religious"
(perhaps better translated "doctrinal")
significance, and Japanese, Iluddhlrm Is
not at all the speculative system knou'n
to scholars. It Is mostly the worship of
Amlda (Amltabha), who Is all powerful,
and saves nil who call upon him. Some
iwemy years ago n Huiliriilsl priest, who
had studied Sanscrit In Kngland under
Mux Milller, when asked by a mission-
niy. "Wlm Is AtnldaV" answeied,
"Amlda Is Cod,"
No belter short statement could be
made of the faith of the oidlnary de -
vout lluddhNt. And the answer Is be -
coming even more true If possible, for
Christian missionaries In these days get,
und accept, Invitations to lectuie to
students In training schools that piepne
for the Iluddhlst priesthood,
It has been characteristic of Japan
from early times to find, ndupt and adapt
the good In alien civilizations. Long ago
they took the best of the civilization
first of forea, then of China, then of,
nana. Ann ror nan a century and more
this has been their attitude tow:ml t?u.
rope and America. The "Yellow Peri"
is not tnui or being conquered or In-
lined In vv.ie lie .lamm. hot of l,i,,L.
lapan, lint of being
outstripped In social progress.
We Amer ciil are unite nmeseiied
Vi our confession that we are the
greatest nation In the wot Id other tia-
tlous say the same of themselves. Japan
Is, If not singular, at least preeminent
111 Its determination to be the greatest,
and that not by war but hy the ails
and studies of peace, If there Is ever
a "grenlest nation," which Is tho better
road to reach that soil'.'
TllKonnsit's S Ttno.
Ashlami, N. 1I Decemlier 4,
MUsourlan Keeps Alive an Aniient Art,
f'lm.i r t'nti IViiefi l.enittr
NntH ItlislHiidlna the ipilll pur iv a
ti the steel pen, and Oil. tn the aold pen,
which l being retired by the lperlter.
In-put)' County lirrk VV. c; S. I.uekr; nf
Itlpley i mint)' slid uses a imlll pen In uinut
uf bU nffiiial work. He r an eipert at
MlintiliiE Ihe piihit nf the giioxe quill pen,
nhlih, li) the way, Is nolle a trick,
In Terma All a t'ndrr.tand.
from the Antlfiton Unil
I'.ilten I" north aliuoil Its nalciu in
KTK now .
The open tilinloiT prarticr
Is tpreadlnc inlg lull) .
Sra Ituiila nnw demanding
A wlndgw to tba ita.
MR. STEWARTS PORTRAIT.
Was an Unfashionable Hat Imposed
on Him by the Artist?
To tub Editor or Tn Sun Sir: I
entered the employ of A. T. Stewart In
j 1870, golnic Into the cashier's depart
ment at tho start. I came In personal
contact with Mr. Stewart dally from
that time until his death, and carried
many personal messages to Mrs.
Stewart at their residence, Thirty-fourth
street and Fifth avenue,
While I would recognize the features
In the picture printed In The Sun 1
would not recognize the "high hst,"
which, I think, was a style worn before
the war, and must have been sketched
long before that time. W. A. V. O.
Urooki.tn, December S.
Mr. Stewart's Last Act hi the Cham
ben Street Store.
To the Editor or The Sl'n Sir: In
regard to the portrait of Alexander T.
Stewart I fully corroborate the remarks
of "N, T." The original wus a pencil
sketch drawn by Kdward Clowes, an
employee, and subsequently photo
graphed. Ile gave me two copies, and
I now have one In my possession con
I was In the cashier's office of A. T.
Stewart & Co. and successors 1865 to
1895, consequently came frequently ln'
contact with Mr. Stcwntt. This sketch
Is nn excellent likeness.
About April t, 1876. Mr. Stewart
came In the office, asked me for 150,
signed Ids Initials on the cash book,
gave the money to his office young man
for a wedding present and told him not
to be extravagant. This was the last
stroke of the pen, nnd the last act he
did In the wholesale dry goods establish
ment at Mroadw.iy and Chambers street.
A portrait of A. T. Stewart was painted
after his death by the late artist
Thomas lClear, with whom I was well
acquainted and who asked me to give
my opinion of it. K. II. X.
Hhkiewooii, N. J December 8.
A Bareheaded Alexander.
To the Editor or The Sun sir: In
The sun of December S appears a pic
ture of Mr. Stewart In which he it
shown wearing a high hat. There was
a much better portrait published in "The
People's Library," a compendium of uni
versal knowledge, historical, scientific,
mechanical and statistical, comprising
the origin of many things not generally
known, complied, arranged and pub
lished by It. M, Washburn, Chicago, the
last edition In 18S1.
This work contains the portraits of
William II, Astor. Cornelius Vanderbllt.
Oeorge Stephenson, Samuel K, II. Morse
nnd Alexander T. Stewart. As In the
picture In The Kt'N, Mr. Stewart has n
beard, but the upper lip Is smooth. Ile
is bareheaded and the hair at the side
above the ear Is brushed forward. The
forehead Is high and the hair in front
appears somewhat thin. He wears the
same style cravat and coat as In The
Sun picture. The collar of the coat
apixurs to be velvet. It Is a three
quarter view picture. Messrs. Marder,
Luse & Co., a Chicago firm of type
founders, did the electro!) pe work of
this book, a copy of which 1 have.
New York, Decemlier s.
More Pictures of the (treat Merchant.
To the EtUTon ok The Scn sir: Mr.
Stewart was averse to having his jsir
trait rnado during his lifetime. There
were nevertheless several portraits made
before lie died ; some were reproduced
before his death and some afterward.
Thomas l.e Clear, the artist, made nn nil
painting of one of bis portraits. At the
time of his death llarprr'a Weekly re
produced another portrait In wood en
graving. I have
been collecting ku traits ot
lerlc.lllM for the li.iftt twentv-
famous Americans for the past twenty
live years, and some time ago made a
study of the known portraits of Stewart.
The best llkrness. taken at the height of
his fame. Is irpriiditrcd with his bios
raphy !n Volume VII., page 352, nf The
National cyclopedia of American Hlog
I'aph.v. One of nur correspondents, ll.iriy
D.ivl", speaks of ji daguerreotype of
Stew.it t vvhUh Is to bo reproduced In a
new edition of Appletnn's Cyclopedia,
mt ,h, ,lasu,rreoljp0 ,aUel)
, m- i .i-
represent lilm to the best advantage.
Incidentally. Mr. Davis could not have
neeii aware inai wiibi purports to lie a
w e.uu,,,, of Appleton's Cyclopedia
,was published last year, containing the
,.... stevuirt blograi.hv that wi.s In
the old edition '.n Its proper alphabetical
place, ,o that there can be no reason
for publishing his daguerreotype in some
other volume not vet published.
,Iami:s T. White & Co.
Nr.vv Voiik, December .
The Citizen With the Shovel
To tiik KniTort or The Spn fiv The
snowstorms and billiards will soon be
upon us, and It will nut be possible for
n. street Cleaning Department to meet
rheai, for lack of immigration has made
labor scarce. There was a time honored
' ordinance providing tkat the police
'should notify owners of residences to
j clean the sidewalk in front of their
piemises, This ordlsauce ought to lie
' restored, and the department will have
, enough to do for the lest,
. There Is no need to wall Let us not
be a nation of mollcoddles. Let hs doll
our mittens and cheerfully take up the
shovel, with an occasional Jibe and a
j well aimed snuwliall. Let us be good
i uatured alioiit It. The exercise, executed
early In the morning, will give flesh to j
the lean nnd reduce the weight of the
tut Stum sliuvellini? I trii.iii,.
gladdening exercise, ami for the rest tt
s all bow we look upon it New Yoik
has Its reputation for being good tin-
Im. li. reimintlmi fe l.Ain.r i i
motet! , let us retain that ami not turn
cranks In the comlnc miow tesiu
i New YmiK, December T. N. Hkii.vr.
Is There an Aristocracy Among
Street Car Hogs? j
To Till- KntTon op Tim Sr'N Sir The i
, indiscriminate attacks upon street car '
logs are to some extent displeasing to
.persons of refined sensibility because tr '
I make no exception in fuvor of men with
j pretty feet, smalt feet, neat lilting shoes, i
the unusual shine, the arched Instep In-1
lie tiled from aristocratic uucestois used!
to the stirrup and the spur; such people '
ate not accustomed to restraint it s ,
only those with ugly, misshapen or ex
ceeding large feel or wuriiout shoes who
rare to conceal them,
I'ittsiu'kii, l'a., December
H. 1, M.
The Halt Nickel.
To thz Kiutor ok thk Sun .sir; wiij
not cull the two and one-half cent piece
n "little nlc"? S. A. S,
Wihuiukrf:, December V
To thh KniTos or Tlie Spn- ,sir. as
the twenty-five mill coin would be of
nickel and copper, call It an "allo."
Nsw loan, December I, 3, R J,
OUR DREADNOUGHTS OF BOTH TYPES
In Order Not to Sacrifice Gun Power It Will lie Necessary
The question as to armor and speed
of warships reminds one of Stockton's
perplexing story of "The Idy or tho
Tiger." One thing Is certain, we can
not have our cake and cat It too; wo
once und for all must decide the rela
tive importances of gun power, speed
and armor In our capital ship con
struction. I'Vir a ship of a given cost
and tonnage It la Impossible to de
mand ti muxlmum of all the above
characteristics; they must be ad
Justed not In accordance with personal
opinions but according to well recog
nized principles of nuvnl warfare.
It goes quite without sjylhg that
gun power must not be sacrificed on
board our heavy fighting ships. Tills
Is the end itself. Hut to decldo be
tween the other two, there Is the
cause of alt our difficulties. Superior
speed enables warship or a fleet .to
engage under advantageous terms and
refuse battle under terms of disad
vantage: to gain tactically advanta
geous positions during battle und to
concentrate more quickly than a slower
enemy, thereby having a wider pos
sible limit of dispersion. A ship with
Its vital pjrts heavily shielded with
armor Is simitar to ti pugilist whose
vltuls are well protected by lils mus
cular development; on the other hand,
we cannot pursue the simile nny
further, for muscular development docs
not decrease ueceesiirlly tho prize
Hy heavily coating a warship with
armor we do sacrifice speed, and In
ennsequenco tho group of 'which It
will be a unit is deprived of all the ad
vantages enumerated above. Of what
use will be our gun power If wo can
not forco our enemy to fight except
upon terms of disadvantage to us?
Can we lie sure that our armor will al
ways counteract this handicap?
It Is an Interesting historical fact
that this question in a somewhat dlf-
ferent form arose several centuries ago
when Great Hrltaln was engaged in
breaking tne nacKDono or me i-rencn
nnd Spanish sea power. The latter na
tions sacrificed speed to gun power;
they built their ships of the lino to
carry many guns of a large calibre.
The enormous size of their ships made
them difficult to sail and especially to
manoeuvre quickly. Once overtaken by
a faster fleet they were forced to flirht,
but lielng able to hurl a greater weight
of mctul from each unit than the en
emy they were willing' to fight under
such conditions. Great Hrltaln found
that If she built warships of equal gun
power her enemies would avoid action
except when in superior numbers. The
consequence was, actions between the
fleets of Kngland ami those of France
and Spain were usually Indecisive.
Kngland then liogan to build warships
that could outsail and outmanoeuvre
the enemy. Once having accomplished
this, the ncflons soon become decisive:
the faster Knglish ships concentrated
upon u part of the enemy line nnd. as
It is termed, annihilated it In detail.
Kngland in those days sacrificed gun
power for speed. It Is, then, not at
nil odd that she should In this hour
of trlnl, barkening to j decision which
brought vlrtory to her centuries ago.
bo willing to-day to sacrifice nrmor,
not gun power, for speed In order to
accomplish this Identical purpose.
Tho battle cruiser Is not. as many
hnve claimed, nn offshoot from tho
j battleship: It s a big sister to nil the
I i. ....... l., .... ..lY.irl ti. imili
the battleship's offensive nnd defensive
power wiille keeping cruiser speed The
consequence has been thnt lt cun
power Is less and urmor thinner than
the battleship's. The I'lilted States hns
not built battle cruisers; her defensive
Itepretcntuthe Slegel finds No Sentl
ment In Kntnr of Its Admission.
To the r.tUTort or The SfN Str: The
letter of Schuyler v. v. nomnan nas
'W) ,,,,,, wui,'uen Interest here. I am
the member of the Committee on Im-
migration and Naturalization who de-
llvered tlie lectuie on Immigration to
which he mikes reference,
.Mr. Hoffman said thnt bis Invesllga-
Hons showed that citizens In very large
numbers bad cxpresbcd views In favor
nf the abrogation of the present Chinese
exclusion laws and also the gentlemen's
agreement existing between Japan and
Hie United States.
1 was exceedingly Interested in what
lie had to say. as I did not claim to
have knowledge as to what was t'e
real sentkaicnt on the Par I lie coast at
the present time. Since returning to
Washington, however. I have made In-
qulrles among my colleagues fi out Call-
fornla, Washington and Oregon and
cannot leum from them that there bus
been niir lecent 1 hauge In sentiment
among their neighbors, friends, ac
quaintances or basinets men which
would In any way tend to conllrm the
views expressed by Mr. Huffman.
I have not us jet found any news
paper of the tilt co States mentioned
editorially advocating Mr. Huffman's
views, nnd I must therefore take It for
granted that no such changes have I
Again, It must be borne in mind that
the Chinese exclusion laws have been
enacted by and with the consent of the
! iI.I,.uua AtiiDiuitl n,,,l tli.it r,ui nm m.
Chinese Government and that our exclu
sl.ni or certain .nip.inesc aim coones IS
I ,sltl1 ,,IC ''""sent of Japnti, and that up to
mis nine n n. " ....-.,. ., ,,,v
i Government has not the light lo de-
I terinlne for itself ns to which kind of
immigration It desires,
lloisr or ItKPKKsrNTATlVKs, Decem
, ChrUtma. Id) I,
Nim Pull) has come home tn tpsiid
Iter Christum" liol,U),
And fur h .ertson theie'n an end
nf in iinliurdeneil up:
lir fully inun be entrt.ilii'd
And taken in and nut,
And all the shekel. I have gained
tut speed the merry rout!
With in.ttlnees nnd the. daninnt.
My aftriioon fly l ;
And IIihUs imt all my holy nnnls.
Though costs nf living er !
The dinner. Ihat enrh.int her heart.
The pU)s that end too soon,
Will drive nie In the aler c.irt
Kor many a dreary moon.
Hut though inv puckers lll l lure
lire she giie. bi k tn school,
And I could well afford to spar
The sometimes golden rule,
line thing she mniint take from in
1hl tune right here I score'
My heart l safe frnni Jeopard)
Tor It ai hera befoie'
suit Owa Tiros,
bican have caused her to fnow .
methods employed by 1'raiue at
Spuln. Now finally having .hc.ded fw
a vessel of great sliced carrjlns man
heavy guns, why should e
this type of cruiser ot all ,n .,,
namo battle cruiser mlsliM.iin,.-, .,
,,f n ...... i i
" -""" nup wiiii h j,.
sons for tho decision to call tin... ...
sels battleships? If v0 thmk , ' "
as battleships, wo shall be Uk,,
to commit tho error of Klvl.,c thi,
lower guns or guns that are uf '.
lighter calibre. r '
It Is . understood that our lam,
ships Appropriated for tin je4- ,,'
to carry eight ItS Inch guns 'and
battle cruisers ten 4 inch gun,
. r, . I . . . ' '
.-.Ki m.uuil i-hii lllloril lo 1 til I It I,,...
Iltunr n,- ttl.,1. ......... I I...... .. 11 "
cruiser or high speed li.ittiP
leave It out of the battle line Thiti,
the most Important of Its dim,., ...J
therefore must arm It for t,ilt v. ,
service. Having ulven it lug), J
by sacrificing sonic armor, tl.
In the battle line It must ri,lM,0,
giving more punishment than it
eclves. This cilll be lleeiinip,n
two ways; with a heavier callhre '(
gun tliun Its opponent In the
uoe or u-iru nun n gieatt r muiilr i,f
equal calibre guns.
Onco wo have started saerlfleir
armor for more and heavier guns ana
Increased speed, wiieto rim we r,u
the limit? 1
In the buttle of Jutland the tlm,
Ilrltlsh battle cruisers sunk were ,..
strnyed by magazine explosion ti,,
shells doing the dainago weie te,
German buttle cruisers nnd imt hJS
lKcn stated In the puss, , (;,.,,,,
dreadnought Imtllcshlps. ti,, nfl)1
matlon seriously upet the oill. iji, ,
Washington who were not fniiv ( ,.
vlnced in tho beginning, nud mi
was mmlo to several well known I mm,.,
cruiser advocates to sen ,f o,f,.
opinions hud been shaken In . tl
, m,,s of tho fight. It has been ie,rd
gnco that the Ilrltlsh battle ,,n
i owed their destruction to faultily
signed turrets that permitted the n,niH
of nn exploding shell Inside u turn'
find Its wuy to the magazine.-, Tne m
gageinent wii nt Its height and tirs
was most rapid: doubtless then' w,i a
train of powder fioin magazine to h
breech of guns. This of coure cuild
have occurred equiillv well on IkmpI
the most heavily nrmul ilicadiiiiiiuh'
Ammunition siippb houid ,r.-aK
Joints, and safety piecautloiis prrio
tlsed in peace nit- to lie u-ed li .iiu
To disregard them will ever be d,c
gcrous. If not fatal, nnd no am ,n ,
armor can possibly (.cure safi t.v
Tho submarine during the prext,
war bus arrived to strength! n the ar
gument for faster b.ittli-'i p T
r-53 Is said to have a surface ptj
of eighteen knots and to be ap.i .
of maintaining; that spec-d for -i'Vimi
thousand miles. Our future ! itb-o,
fleet must have ,i sustained s;f,
greater than eighteen knots. In f:i,
it should 1.0 not less than twenty knt
In order to allow for progics In
nurllie engines. Arinor Is of no v,i .
against the siibmailuo torpedo llic
speed has I mo, then the Mvoiid im
portant character st .
A high sliced dreadnought tW n
battle cruisers, should bo Ann i .1 l.
clslon. To accomplish this nr i.or m
can be snerlllced Wli.it unit im '
armor should be retained" wr
report from Ktirope ij t i- .
Admiralty has cancelled ,t I t m,
for armor plate. We are ii'h. i i ,,
$10,000,0110 upon a (ioveriiiini rm
Knglnnd's le.nl In Latin -tup
etriaiion embodies tin oIYcumVi
: of warfare and Is .haii i . r
' from both historical pre r,li '
the results of the prcent w ar
LET US HAVE SPEECH'
Hut Is KnglMi a (iliamliiir Ihi.illlai
or a Batcher's Cleaver"
To Tin: IhiiTon of Tm: Si s .(
r:ngllsli language a s. i i
battle of life. Shapid fe.
forged on Anglican anv.N. wr ,
Norman skill, tempered vv r ic
fashioned with Grecian be in i
by Gallic cnier. edged w i
and used with Ame-Lan iir '
blade Is helmed with golden i e
with gemmed poetr and he I I
the koh-i-noor of Shakepi . ' '
callhur l.e.vond all prP e.
Ten veais of cirrus .1 1 "'
luenticcship will enable 1
wield this splendid arm wit t
and strength through li'e 1
proper Use makes him mo"
Yet this wonderful vvc.r
cleave from crow 11 tlm .K
pelve, so stanch ! It. s'i .
can gleam like 1 snaft
exquisite Is il dauitv g ,
that thought, effort.
genius can make it. h t. o:
and In its stead Is chon
live free agent", 1 pl" in
.hemlock, smeared with 1 n: .V
and inentatlve pauperism
Let us have speech
New ToriK, December T
American and .Tar.inrs
made lilt sites In Mini I, .
jear. Men nf Mmi, hur
nrer ) linpor'ed tr im II. c
psln's snrdlne In in.
$,1:.,M, ,,), ,rinl: ,i,
.. ,u.-- iiii.ks novel n
Jected to hir,niiie pr..
uu't" are being , vp..r.
.tin hi a 'iihstiiiit
briquet, are also being i
; A l.trne number of p. ,
b nil tier, of fox ,ti
J Iniieliinii dlsirli'i I r i
Camilla. Alioui t.ln lino linn
i foves in this vh Inliv
HeCHiian uf Mi,, inc i ,.
i and olive oil eperimrni - '
I i essfull) made In Tie'.,
I an nl) which Is evrt e I f
ran bo nsd for tonkins
la tlie m.iktiig of simp
j The Ki-u.idoi i in t'tuic -I
the na, illation of an r e "
Iln the illy nf .. 'tu
tor hy a spe, ill i.t pi, i, e i
and mm brousiil no ''
There Is ,t po.slh.e oaike
I for Amerh im butt i
f reserved llsti i- ne le I
A railw .i) h ill he ion i t
I rieci Hi. cine, of f na
I nales, Hie port of INp ' 11
, ernuienr ha. granted t(
tills roid a subsoil nf sut, .u ,
A lirm In Vreen-ihi
for trein h making inn ' ' f
Vjlist steel . art u li , .1 s
In I'einr.il ,Vmr .1
Alllelli'illl burlap It a ,
Scot, h mauiita' 1 in s 111 b" Ita
Irade U a laige one as tor .