Newspaper Page Text
THE SUN, SUNDAY, DECEMBER 31. 1916.
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RANK OF MARSHAL AS HONOR TO JOFFRE
Is a Very Ancient One, Having Been Instituted by King Philip
Augustus at the Time of the Third CrusadeOrigin of the
Baton as Symbol of Supreme Command
narchlcal restoration on the ground I gold atari and tipped at either end stateamen cf his day. and of whom
that the Kins was. despite his 1 with silver gilt, on the borders of Popo wrote:
! lrin,1Cr!l.,T0th'' e,Brandsf '.WJJC "7! .'P'"1 ,he. LTUln V0T,U' ArW- th "h"' thundar born
Princess Louise of Orleans. This 'Terror Heltl. decus pads." It Is car- to wield
I amazing project. offensive to the rled In the right hand nt all great mill- And shake alike the Senate and the
Belgian King tind embarrassing alike tary or State functions and Is used In 1 Field.
to his royal French relatives, to the 1 lieu of tho sabre for saluting. The t The "rst Duke of Marlborough, the
(monarchical parties Im France and to baton of Field Marshal of Great Britain . victor of Blenheim, of Itamltlles and
his Generals, ministers and court
dignitaries, all covered with gold and
silver lace. I
There are no Field Marshals at pres
ent In Russia. The last two command
ers to hold that rank were the late
field Marshal Gourko, Governor-Gen
eral of Poland, and the late Grand
...v ..v.M.v.n mm "uunciiu ui me is iipptu ai rnr tmi rna crowns and l" -usituunuci, oure ira uue 01 .ap-i ni,. xti-..i vi,,i,.i.wL.s wki
republic, fell very flat. But It tin- lions; those of Germany. AustrU and1 taln-Gcneral. to Indicate his rank as h, 'L
doubtedly contributed to the delay In ttussla with single headed or douUe i Generalissimo, a title undoubtedly I n,..! v,.'J, ,f.r n
the revival of the dignity of Marshal headed eagles. I originating In Spain, where It Is still i.v- i.nu. li-houS.., m
of France. m i. !.. i vr. .u.. .v.- i. .... ... .... Duke Nicholas Mcholalovlteh. who.
Emperor Wilhelm carrying the baton of Field Marshal.
By F. CUNLIFFE-OWEN.
SINCE the. Republic' of France,
while It consents to register law
fully inherited and duly, ap
proved tltlea of nobility under the
great seal of the nation, declines to
create new dlgnltlw of that kind on
the ground that It would be incon
sistent with tho doctrines of democ
racy to do so. It has found Itself In n
uandry with regard to the reward
f victorious generals who already
were In possession of the Grand Cross
cf the Legion of Honor and of the
atedaille Mllltalre. To recognize ser
Tieea of this kind to tho State with
ere grants of money seemed sordid,
mercenary and altogether Inconsistent
with tho chlvalryawhlch we nil love to
attribute to the profession f arms.
That is why tho Paris Government
has during the pant week revived the
proud and historic ofllce of Marshal of
Franco in favor of Generalissimo
Joseph JofTre on his retirement from
tho supreme command of the military
forces of the nation.
President lolncar6 wished to be
stow tho baton of Marshal upon Joffre
in the fall of 19H, that Is to say In the
nrst few months of the war, in rccog
victorious German troops
through tho Arc do Trlompho and
bivouacked In the Champs Elysecs.
Polneare felt that the soldier who
had stemmed the onrushlng tides of
foreign invasion merited some token
of gmtltudo from the nation, and there
was nothing c'.so left for tho purpose
than a Field Marshalshlp. Hut the
P.ndlcn!-Soclallst clement which then
predominated In the Cabinet raised
obstacles to the execution of the
project of the Chief Magistrate and
he was obliged to content himself with
a resolution by the Ministers that "the
principle" of reviving the oftlco was
If Polneare consented to the com
promise at the time it was because of
a pleco of extraordinary tactlessness
on the part of Arthur Meyer, the
editor of the monarchical (;inlolj.
People In the autumn of 1914 were
greatly wrought up by tho heroism
displayed by King Albert In the stub
born defence of the small corner of
Belgium whero he had intrenched
himself with tho rcmnanta of his gal
lant army. Nowhere was tho admira
tion which he -aroused moro enthusi
astic than In France; so much so that
It 6ccms to have suggested to Arthur
Meyer tho Idea of getting the dignity
of Marshal of Franco revived, not In
favor of .loffre but In that of the
nltion of his victory of Uie Marno and Ho even went so far as to Intimate
of his aeniceu in arresting the advance that If this were dono It might be
f tha Kalser'a armies upon larls und well to adopt Albert of Belgium as
In protecting tho metropolis from a tho ho u of the Itoyalist party in
repetition of the crowning indignity Franc and as tho candidate for the
which It suffered In 1871. when the French throne In the event tf a mo-
owi however, after the lapse of .of Marshal Is a verv ancient one. It caulvalent of the crude of FtM Mar.
, more than two years conditions arc ' was King Philip Aueustus who first shal In other countries, and Is held
, changed. Brland Instead of Vlvl.inl Is Instituted it as a military ofllco In by only two veteran commanders,
t Premier, and being a strong and mas- 1191, nt tho time of the Third Crusade, i both of whom bear names familiar to
tertul man has at length shaken him-1
i oeii iree oi me trammels or me liaut- ;
cal-Soclallst party. In the face of the
I tatter's protests and objections he has
brought Gen. Hubert Lyautey from
the scenes of his conquest In Morocco ,
to Paris to take charge of the great
i War Department In the Hue St.
' Dominique, and has united with Presi
dent Polneare In bestowing upon J
Joseph JofTre, tho cooper's son. that
supreme prize of the profession of
arms which tho first Napoleon used
to insist that every French soldier
carried In his knapsack: namely, the
baton of a Marshal of France.
Tho office of Marshal of France,
which carries with It a special salary '
of 16,000 over and In addition to all the
pay and allowances of a full general,
and endows Its holder with the rleht of
remaining on the actlvn llt until his
death. Instead of going Into retire
ment on the score of age, was not
abolished by the present republic In
France, as many seem to believe. At '
the time when in 1STG legislative meas. ,
ures were adopted In Paris for tho re
organization of the army and for tho
regulation of tho various grades It
. was specifically stated that the dlenttv
marched of marshal whs retained, but It wa
stipulated that the conditions under
which the rank could bo conferred
should be fixed by a supplementary
Therw were reasons for Its reten
tion. For at the time there were noless
than four Marshals of France still
In existence; namely, Uarakuay-d'Hlt-Hers,
Canrobert, l.etxrut and last but
not least MacMahon, Duke of Magenta,
who was occupying then the olllce of
President of the republic. Neither the I
army nor the people would have tol
erated their being deprived of their (
batons, not even unhappy old Letxeuf,
to whose lamentable Incompetency as
Minister of War so many of tho dls
asters sustained by France In 1870
Bit Parliament was determined to
be very chary about ever bestowing
the oftlco again, and the supplementary
bill providing tho conditions under
which It could be conferred remained
In abeyance until last week, largely
owing to the Itadlcal-Soclallsts, who
live In dread of a military dictatorship.
Neither President Polneare nor yet
Premier Hrland haa been deterred any
longer by such considerations. The
supplementary bill, which has been In
suspense for forty-four years, has be en
rushed through the chambers, and the
decree has been published appointing
Joseph Joffro to bo a Marshal
Vt it flHaPaBBal
Field Marshal Sir John French.
St, Louis Invested two of his com
manders with tho rank on the eve of
his 111 fated expedition to northern
Africa. Francis I. created three, and
by tho time that Ixmla XIV. had com
pleted his long reign there wero no
lc.s than twenty of them.
The ofllce was abolished by the flft
Republic, but restored by tho first
Napoleon when ho proclaimed himself
Kmporor. He limited the number to
sixteen. They were known a Marsh.iln
of tho Hmplre. The liourbon moiian hy
on its restoration In 1S15 maintained
them In ofBce, but changed their tltlo
back to that of Marxh:Ua of France.
By the law of 1S33, bearing the sign
manual of King Louis l'hlllnnc. their
of , number was limited to six In time of
peaco and twelve In time of war.
American ears, the first beln? Valer
ian Weylcr. Marquis of Temerlffe, and
formerly Governor-General of the
Slllinlsh Antilles whlti. the nthrr Is nM
Prima do Rivera. Marquis of Estella. ' N''lr ,,M
after commanding the Russian forces
on the western front during the first
year of the war, has since been Vi
ceroy of the Caucasus and In supreme
command In Asia Miner, merely holds
the rank of General, which he already
filled In the former war with Turkey.
i England has to-day sevtn Field Mar
shals. Including King Gorge. The
, others are his uncle, thv Duke of
. Connaught, until recently Governor
! General of Canada; Sir Kvelyn Wood,
i Constable of the Tower of 1! I- and
a Victoria Cross veteran of the Crl
. mean war and of the Indian Mutiny;
I Lord Grenfell. who won his military
laurels In the Sudan; Lord Methueti,
Lord Nicholson, who alone of his rank
has seen no active service, and Lord
French, commander of the home army
In England. General Sir Douglas
Halg will. It Is expected, receive hU
baton In the near future.
The best known of the Field Mar
shals In the Immediate past have W-en
Lord Wolseley, Lord Roberts and Lord
Kitchener.. In England the rank of
Held Marshal of tho army Is assimi
lated to that of Admiral of the Fleet,
who ranks' above the full Admiral.
Tho English Admirals of the Fleet
differ in this respect from tho Grand
Admirals of th German navy In that
they do not carry the baton of Mar
shal. In Austria-Hungary there Is hut
one Field Marshal, namely. Archduke
Frederick, who since tho beginning of
the present war has been acting ns
commander In chief of all the armed
forces of the Dual Empire. He Is a
brother of the Queen Mother of Spain
and heir to all the colossal fortune of
h!a uncle, the late Archduke Albert,
who hud won his Marshal's baton on
the battlefield of Custoxza.
Frederick's youngest brother. Arch
duke Eugene, commander In chief on
the Italian front, holds tho rank of
Colonel-General, which Is one degree
above that of full General, the only
other officer of the same grade as
Eugene being lUron Conrad von Hut
zendorfT, chief of the General Staff
and virtual head of the war inrty ut
Vienna. The full Generals In Austria
title of "1'eldzeugmelster'
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Field Marshal Joffre.
f the grade fot
urmy of Prussia,
ludead of li i n Get man urmy. and
to etniiha.tlxe this King l.ouls of Ba
vurlu l!-t suiiimer npiKilutixl Ms eldest
son. Crown l'rlnee ItuiH-rt, and ttla
brother. Prince t.eiHld. to be Field
MarstuCa of tho It.ivurlau army, n.
As for their young king. Alfonso
III., lie contents himself with the In-.
ferlor rank of General.
(Master of the Onlniincet when they
belong to tho artillery, uhlle'alt Lieu
tennnt GenerHls lire kiuuvn ns "Pel. I.
Nicholas H. of Russia U even still MnK uinually m'lMnuislate.1 abto.ul
"u". in win irri'ru. r.-r i , that f Field Marshal.
nas pernisienuy aeameu since nis nc-
lu " uinwo. over iweiuy Holland, and In tho armies of the
cars ago. to wear the epaulettes of italkan States, the rank of Field Mar
any higher rank than that of Colonel. i,nl unknown, although the late
together with the nlgullettes which 1 Kins Omrles if llimmn!,. ....
In Italy.- 5camtlnnv!a, Belgium and
xno baton, as provided ror by exist-, In England tho dignity of Field
ing military regulations In France. . Marshal was unknown until the relcn
consists of a staff about two feet lone. of George II.. who In 1735 bestowed It
an Inch and a half in diameter, covered i upon tho second Duke of Argyll, one
when atlll Cxarvwltcn Indlrated that
he was one of thr aides de camp of hts
father. The uniform In which he Is
nlmot Invariably seen alike at court
and State functions and In the field
Is the extremely plain green .we of too ha dispensed with lleld Marshals
the Preobrajensky regiment. In which since the death of that wicked old
uy reaon or its simplicity no presents Duke of Saldiiiilm. wIumh the late
celved NUons from Cmr Nicholas II
and from tli Kaiser, white King Con
Maiitlne of Greece Is a Field Marshal
in the Prussian army .if his brother-in-law.
Emperor William. Portugal
with dark bluo velvet, flecked with of tho greatest commanders and a striking figure when surrounded by ' Queen Pla on one memorable occasion
WORK OF AMERICAN WOMEN'S WAR RELIEF FUND IN LONDON
During the Past Year 3,203 Soldiers Have Been Cared For at Its Hospital
and 1;840 Have Been Restored to Active Life
GREAT good has been accom
plished by the American Wom
en's War Relief Fund which
was organized In London at the be
ginning of hostilities. A detailed ac
count of the results achieved during
the first twelve months was printed In
Titc Sun last year und a second an
nual report haa Just been Issued.'
Tho fund has at its head I.ady Paget,
Mrs. John Astor, tho Duchess of Marl
borough. Lady Lowther, Mrs. Harcourt
and Walter S. M. Burns. The com
mittees In charge of the various
branches of the work include Mrs.
Walter H. Page. Mrs. Walter Burns.
Lady Randolph Churchill, Lady Henry,
Mrs. H. C. Hoover, Mrs. J. Wlllcox
Jenkins, Mrs. Reginald Owen, Mrs.
Whltelaw Reid, Mrs. Robert Straw
bridge, the Hon. Mrs. John Ward.
Paris Singer. Mrs. Anthony Drexel.
Mrs. Oeorgo Fox. the Hon. Mrs. Fred
erick Guest, Lady Hadfield, Mrs. Cecil
Hlgtlns, Mrs, Xrwln Laughlln, Mrs.
Bhano Leslie, Princess Edmond de
Pollgnac, Mrs. Cavendish Bentlnck,
Mrs. Curtis Brown, Mrs. Alfred Clark.
Mrs. Lionel Harris, Mrs. IOrlng, Mrs.
fit. John Mildmay, Mrs. Edgar Rlck
ard, Mrs. A. T. Stewart and Mrs.
The most prominent feature of the
work undertaken by the American
women Is a hospital at Paignton, whero
up to the dato of the report 3,203 sol
diers have been treated. These include
2,110 surgical cases und S93 medical
cases, and while tho total number of
deaths haa been only thirteen, 1,840
cases havo been definitely cured, tho
soldiers being restored to good health
and cither discharged on furlough or
returned directly to tho army.
The average monthly cost of run
ning the hospital, Including all salaries,
food nnd upkeep, but exclusive of
building Improvements, has been $11,
453, the average dally cost of each bed
being nbout 11.44. Theso figures ex
ceed those of tho provlous year for
three reasons; first, the great rlso In
thn price of all food nnd in general ex
penses; secondly, tho extra Halarlos
which fell upon tho fund owing to thn
recall of Americun Red Cross units;
thirdly, In 1914 no patients wero re
ceived until ho end of Soptembcr,
therefore bovituI of the maintenance
charges covered eleven months only.
From the time patients arrive ut
Talgnton station until their discharge
from tho hospital every expense Is
home by the American Women's War
RUef Fund, no allowance being taken
front nor any charge of any kind mailo
upon tho War Ofllce.
An Important branch of the work
undertaken by tho American Women'M
War Relief Fund Is that which cornea
under the heading of economic relief.
The committee In charge Is headed by
tho Duchess of Marlborough, and her
efforts und those of the other mcm
kfrs. havg been directed to assist non
"iniipiitantu mifferlng from tho war.
Tho call lo military servico of Kreat
MimUrs of tha usual army of work
ers and the tremendous Increase In all
trades In any way connected with war
supplies hnve created a great demand
for efllclent women workers. No
capable, trained woman need now be
without employment. The necessity
for epcclal provision for women
thrown out of their regular employ
ment by the war was therefore ended
and the workrooms established In St.
Pancras, Woolwich and Greenwich
Only the old, broken down working
women Incapable of earning their wage
In the ordinary course of manufacture
or trade were left unprovided for.
Fourteen of these women who could
not be otherwiao placed were received
nt the Islington knitting factory of
the Society of American Women In
room. The garments needed
merican women's war !
pl.al am made here and the commit
tee receives orders on behalf nf other
hospitals nnd institutions. During the
1 London. The committee supplied the t opened the Victoria street workrooms under ordinary trade conditions receive ' y",r 'lthlng has been nuuV for varl
I funds for their wnrnv. Tim nrmliiet nf I In l.iml.111 nr. it I. . .. r,.n f- ii, 1.1 nr.. oils nrpliamiges, warm suit', fur send
funds for their wage. The product of
their labor, In the form of socks and
other knitted articles, went to the
hospital at Paignton or was given to
soldiers and sailors in special need.
But tho lot of another class of war
sufferers did not Improve With the Im
proved conditions of tho labor mar
ket In England. This class in
culdes elderly governesses and mu
sic teachers, women whoso only quali
fications had been tho ability to
teach English In Continental families,
secretaries, companions, and women of
this type. In many cases they found
themselves In a desperate plight, with
nothing before them but the work
house. For women such ns these the
American Women's War Relief Fund
ous nrpliamiges, warm milH fur semi-
Ing to Belgium, babies' outfits for tn'i
ternlty homes nnd overalls for buffet
nnd hoepltnl wear. Every worker In
the Victoria street workroom w.i.s a
proud woman on the day a letter of
thanks and congratulation was rv-'
celved for the neatneos and expedition
In IaiiuIou hi 1 91 5. It has leen found a full day's wage for the best they are
necessary to keep these workrooms able to accomplish,
open until the present time, and there The number of workers has steadily
Is every reason to believe that their decreased from thirty-seven In Septem
need of aid will continue for many 1 her. 1 9 1 r. to twenty tai August. l!lt.
months. I This result Is mainly due to the untlr-
Tho differ once In the condition of Ing Interest of Mrs. Wlllcox Jenkins,
work In ordinary trade workrooms anil w-lm bv konlnir in touch with the va
in tho workrooms of tho American rious organizations for bringing em-"u" nicn an oruer tor numiretiN or
Women's War Relief Fund Is that In I ployer and employed together has been ' thousands of tricolor budges for
tho former the worker la forced to the means of Inspiring many under her I "France's Day" had been turned out ,
adapt herself to regulations governing, fare with tho courage meded to make l'Vr the year ended August 31, l!lii,
tho necessary output, while In tho hit- a fresh effort for themselves. As Mil hospital garments nnd articles
ter tho output required Is gauged eleven have entered the workroom dur-1 Wl" made nt Victoria street, audi
solely by the capacity of the worker. . Ing the year this means that Mrs. Jen-1 S.l other garments. At the Isllng
The work Is planned to suit tho power kins has Miceceded In making twenty-1 'nn knitting factory tho workers of I
of the Individual, and women who nix of those women once morn helf-sup- the fund knitted by hand fii'S palm of
through physical or other disability are porting.
unable, to turn out a full day's wurki Only needlework
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Members of the executive committee, American Women's War Relief Fund. Standing (left to right) Paris Singer, Mrs.
Reginald Owen, Walter S. M. Burns, Lady Henry, Mrs. Robert Strawbridge, Mrs. Walter S. M. Burns. Seated (left to right)
Mrs. Harcourt, Lady Randolph Churchill, Mrs. John ABtor, Lady Paget, the Duchess of Marlborough, Lady Lowther.
men'H socks, 109 warm bed covers from 1
In 'the variegated semi f wool sent to
the fund by frlemU nnd TOO other
When orders full fhort garments nre
nude up for hospital inmates nnd for'
children and nro distributed by the
American women' war relief fund In
the poor In Great Britain who ate sitf.
ferlng from the war, or to hospitals
needing mtpplles. i
1 Among the supporters of the work
of the American Women's War Belief
Fund since Its Inception nro Mr (
I Adair, Miss Mary Ames, Mrs. W
Belersiin At liuthiiiit, Robert It.ienii.
Mrs. Otto Belt, Edward .1. Remind,1
,.r, T. Bird, F. fortlnndt Bishop. Hairy
Black, .Mrs. Bostwlek, M. Bayard
Brown, Mrs. Arthur Scott Burden,
'Walter S, M. Burns, Lndy Arthur Biil
ler, Mrs. Arthur K. Biixlnn, Lady
1'iiinoyn, Mr. and Mis. Andrew (Virne
gle. Mrs. A. H. Carhari. H. far
Ntnlrs, F. Ambroso (Mnrk, Senator Will
lam A. Clark, T. ('. (llen-fniilH, A. S.
Cochran, Mrs. William BaMird Cutting,
Miss Mary Podge, Anthony Pievel.
Mrs. Anthony Prevtl, Mis. John It
Drexel, .1. B. Puke. Mis. Marslmil
I Field, Cninerim Forbes, II. w I'rlek.
Hnlii'it tloelet, lliiwurd (limld, the
Countess of Gnuiard, the lion, Mis.
1 Frederick Guest, Hoiacii Hauling, Mis.
Hnrtley, Prlneoss llatzfeldt, Lady
Henry, Lndy Herbert. Mm, II. V. Illg
I Kins, Mrs. If, ('. llnnver, II. C. Huskier,
i Mrs, Archer Huntington, Mrs. II. 11.
Huntington, the Misses Lnwlsnliii, Mrs.
Henry Loftus, .Mrs, Lnrlllaid, ( 'lareiici'
Mnckuy, Mrs. W. N. Mc.Mlllun, Mrs.
Ilrnilley Martin, Jr., Mrs, Ogilen MiIIh,
Mrs. clarence Monro, Stnnley .Morli
mer, Mrs. 1.. I'. Morion, Mis, Charles
A. Miinn, Mlfs .Margniet V. C. Ogilen,
I'rlnrrsN I'Mmiuul ile I'olii.-niio, Mis.
Whltelaw Held. Hie Puchehs of Box
burghe, John p, Ryan, Mnillmer
.SchllT, .lumen Stllliiian, Mis, I'Mwnrd
T, Stoti'shury. Mrs. Hols-rt Slrttw
brlilge, It. E. Straulu IiIko, Mis. .Martin
Vngel, Mis. (leorwe Blllliii'illlllil, .ludwn
Gary, Mrs. Kduili Gnuld, (Mln Kilhn,
Kir (leruid A, Lowther, Mrs. I'rederick
W. Vaniltrhllt, S. It. (liiKeiiiclm mid
Mrs. I lei hurt U HntlerU e.
nt n great state function at Llslon to the oonteri
apostrophised with the remark that Field Marshal lu 'i"
( lu regretted not being the King,
since otherwise she wouM assuredly
i consign turn with short shrift to the
gallows for his crimes and for hi
: treason. i
I it l In Grrmany, however. tht j
; Field Marshals flourish, but only since ! measure which excited no end of Irri-
the piesent Kaiser has been on the tation at Berin nnd nt the head-
tlm -.e Just prior to the death of old tjuartrrs oi Emperor William.
' Hnteror Wl' lam in 1SSS there were The Kmiwiror himself haa only bsM
a Field Marshal of the German army
1 since 1913. when on tho occftsloti'of
the silver Jubilee of his acceselon'to
tho thixme and on his own aucrgeatlon
. he wjim miucvsted to assume the diaj
' nlty by oil his fellow sovereigns of
1 the confederation, w-1h preeented Mm
. with a Jewelled Uiton. He luid already
previous thereto 1een appointed to tn
honorary rank of a Field Manthal.la
the Austro-llutiKarlan army by Mtn
peror Francis Joseph.
I!ctdcs the full dress baton tf Mr
shal there Is likewise what is klidwa
as the Field Marshal's stick, or "n-
tertnt" tmton, which Is carriM by th
Field Marshal when lu undress Uni
form. It Is a very fine malacca can
about half an Inch lu diameter, nlmoat
ns long as a hunting crop und tipped
with silver flips, on which are eni
Uwsed thn imperial or roynl arms.
It may ls rivalled that In nearly ll
the Boer war plcturen 1n which Field
' M(iilml lvrd Bo4ert mutcirsM lia
was linarlab'.y iortrn.vcd carrying; Ju
hts hands a liort cane of this kind,
tslng the only oltlcer thus pkturesf.
The fact oi the matter Is that frem
time iuiiueuiiirial the stick or baron,
rather than tho sword, has Ihcii the
emblem of supreme military command
and authority. In ancient times kings
nnd rmperors on state occasions car
ried In their right hand not the sward
of state but their M'eptre, whlctl1 Is
merely a glorified stick, and monuretha
In medlfrval times, even when fully;
nccoutred In battle array on horse
back, are shown bearing the sceptre.
The gteat Puke nf Wellington Is repre
sented in paintings nf the battle nf
Waterloo as carrying a hlinrt eime'ln
his hand, being the only ofllcer to dote.
It was not by way of bravado, hut
with the object of Impressing the na
tives with the feeling that he was In
supreme command that Gen, "Clilneee"
Gordon made a point of always going
Into action mid lending his troops, first
lu China and afterwards In the Kudsn,
with nothing but a mere riding cane
In his hand. Piitll the beglnnlng''of
the present war It was contrary to
military etiquette for any one aitve
the general In supreme command Mo
carry n stick when on duty nnd on
the h.xttlcfiejd, But hlnco the vlrtunl
abolition of the sword hh a cumber
some superfluity, a long cane, In fact
a crook handled walking stick, is car
ried iiowadaya by couilulssloued offi
cers of nil ranks, not only when unfler
Jewelled baton of Kield Mar
shnl presented by the sove
reigns of Germany to the
but two l- I Murtdiuli In the entile
ileimaii tinny, iiamelv. tho then
Ciown l'i ti'v (iifterwaid I'reili'rlek
111 ) and ('mint .Molt lie, otl of whom
l.ad lecelveil ilielr liatons nt the elose
of tlio l-'nineo-Germnn war of is"0,
Ah mmiii mm ever the ineMriit lliupetor
i .uni' l the I In (inn he bei;iin to con
fer the illuiilly light und loft, with the
nnu It that It lost iiineli of Its foiiner
At thn piiwnt moment there are no
lesi tlmii a -.euro of them, llli'ludllig
Pul.o Bernh.iid of S.iM'-.MeliiliiKen,
the flnmil UnKo of Baden, Prince
Henry of Prussia nnd Baton von
I'lctwn, wloe-e out iro seivlri) lias been
ill coin I on tho personal Mtnff of the
l.llipelor lli'Mili'H tlieso theie lire
id'onl a iloi u more with tlio tank nf
"iieiieial-i ihMxti" or Colonel (leiiernl,
whieo rank la iiiislinltnteil to thai of
Field Miii 'lml and who mo above Hie
full ( it oi t il
The kuiM-r elslliia to have the solo
iiulhoiilv ill Geiinany lu grant Iho
baton . f I'telil .XUomIiuI. Bui this In
routeslid by tlio other fiveekiM of
tile fonlVdoiullnti of the (lermuii Em.
I'll , Who UK-nl that ho in uierely
Ihc r ally on I j'," I their siuer.ilu, that
ho Is oiil prllniiN Inter paies. Thev
tmnlend that Uio Kaiser Is rcatrlftrsl
fire, but even ut undress Inspection
BILLY SUNDAY'S TABERNACLES.
T seems a coincidence that Ilia aid
American League Park, nt llfth
Mreet and Broadway, should have
been selected lis the site for Hilly
Sunday's tabernacle, the largest vtr
built. Tho park may be said to ha
following In the footsteps of Billy, hav
ing been graduated from baseball Into
It was only a few years ago tlint
American Lcrigun IVuk wns one of the
popular reri ration places of the city.
Then the Yankees, under the leader
ship nf Grlfllth. Stalling, chase nnd
Elberfcld, plnycd In the nixictou
grounds bounded by Broadway, Fort
Washington avenue und IftSth nnd
At the beginning His Isinrbnll fans
resented the Intrusion nf the new team,
as the Giants were the locnl favor
ites, but us time wore on and the Yanks
continued to play Mint class ball In
tho face of dlsnniraglng nupisirt sen
timent changed, and when the Yank
left their old homo for thn Polo
Grounds they weto uliuoet aa popular
iih the Giants.
irlglimlly the grounds were enclosed
by a high gieeii fence, thn entrnuce
being situated ut troll It street, After
the ilepat tine of tho team sections of
the fvuen Wero leuiotid for the pur
pose of udmlttlllg two voituiouN strum
shovels for tlio pill pose of M'iiOillg Up
the l urth and pl.uiug It on dut curi
Whlell cairled It over a liillilatutn
tuoiiiitnlll loll . iv to stows tied up at
docks boidellug the llnileon Aftis- tills
woik hud Ihtii ciiuili'led t' o "i lulual
fence wus lelilowd nial a fenio of
slats tcpUccd It.