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THE SUN, SUNDAY, 'FEBRUARY 18, 1917.
AND NEW TOIIK PHESS.
SUNOAY, FKIUtUAKY 18, 1017.
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TELEPHONI?. BEEKMAN 2200.
Suppose We Begin With Tbli Article.
Through Dr. Paul Kitteb, tho
Swiss Minister nt Washington, Ger
many Is still endeavoring to procure
a revision or "reitiurmntlon" (what
ever tlmt mny be) of the treaty con
cluded In 1S23 between tho United
Btntes and PrUssla.
Germany wants certain provisions
of that treaty made binding now In
cafe of war. Germany wants this
because In that event the provisions
In question would count vastly more
for her Interests than for tho Inter
ests of the United States.
Only a few days ago the reptile
press of Berlin was accusing the
United States of deliberately and
shamefully violating theso provisions
In tho old trenty of 1828; these pro
Tlslons which Germany regards as
taportnnt for her Interests.
Once more The Sun calls nttentlon
to tho fact that this same treaty con
tains certain other provisions and
agreements about the revision or re
afflrnmtlon of" which tho German
Government at Berlin and Its tem
porary representative at Washington
arc sdlent. One of these provisions
and agreements solemnly concluded
by Prussia iind tho United States in
Jb-3 Is ns follows:
"It one ot tho contracting parties
should be engaged In war with any
other Power, tho tree lntcrcourao and
oomincrco ot the subjects or citizens ot
the party remaining neuter with tho
belligerent Powers shall not be Inter
rupted. On tho contraiy. In that case,
as In full peace, tho vcs.iels ot the neu
tral partr may navigate freely to and
from the ports and on tin coasts of the
belligerent parties, free esscls making
free good. Insomuch that all things
halt be adjudged frco w?ilch shall ba
on board any vessel belonging to the
neutral party, although such things be
long to an enemy of tho other; and the
lame freedom shall bo extended to per
sons who shall bo on board a free ves
sel, although they should be enemies to
the other party, unless they bo soldiers
In actual service ot such enemy."
If there Is to bo any revision or
roalHrtuiitloit of undent agreements,
suppose wo begin with this article,
Article XII. of the "treaty with Trus
sla negotiated for the United States
In 178.J by , Bknjamin Franklin,
Thomas .Ti:m:r.so.v and John Adams,
and expressly revived nnd kept In
force as a binding contract by Arti
cle XII. of the later treaty of nmlty
and commerce negotiated with l'rus
aln In 1S28 by Hunby Clay.
K ever there was n righteous cause
for war It is presented by tho open
and delimit and barbarous violation
by Germany of those rights on tho
high seas which are not only based
on the common law ot nations, but in
our case expressly and explicitly and
specially recognized by this same
Minister Zlmmermann's Astonish
Shortly after 4 o'clock on the nf
tcrnoon of Wednesday, January 81,
Ambassador von Ukrnhtoiikf handed
to Secretary I.ansino the German
note informing tho United States that
beginning on February 1 Germany
would disregard her promise of Mny
4, 1!)10, and conduct a ruthless sub
marine warfare ngnlnst the merchant
fleets of enemy Powers and neutral
On Saturday, February 3, President
Wilson gave his passports to Ambas
sador von 1!i:hnstobkf and ordered
Ambassador Gerard to come home,
thus severing diplomatic relations
On Monday, February fi, tho Kai
ser's Government, speaking through
its Minister for Foreign Affairs, as
The- American President gave to the
German note nn Interpretation which
was not Intended by Germany.
"President Wilson's decision Is as-
Already, however, Ambassador von
BintNRTnwt' had said, on February 3:
"I ex.,oled it.
"Thcro was nothing else left for the
United States to do."
Wo have recited theso incidents
anil established the chronology of tho
various acts and utterances to
sharpen the point of tho testimony
given In Boston yesterday by Captain
('iiaw.i'.s A. Polapk, master of tho
German steamship KronprlnzcsMn
f'ecllle, who, being summoned to the
oillco of tho owners of tho boat in
Hobokcn, received orders from a
member of tho German F.mbassy to
dismantle tho ship's marhlnery anil
thus render her useless. Tho tlmo
when this prdcr wus Issued to Cap
tain Polack can be deduced from the
"Captain Polack testified that he was
In Hoboken when he trot the order to
disable the Cecilia's machinery and ho
telegraphed his chief engineer to do
"The engineer did bo on January 31
and February 1."
Captain Polack swore that ho "wos
told by tho embassy ofllclnl that tho
relations between the two countries
were being severed, nnd the condi
tion was serious." So It appears that
the German F.mbassy in Washington
knew that relations between the
United States -and Germany were to
bo severed nnd knew this In time to
set the Cecille's engineer at work on
Jnnuary 31 on the dismantling of the
ship's engines to prevent moving her
in case of hostilities. This task he
completed In workmanlike manner on
February 1; but the statesmen in
Berlin four days later were "aston
ished," -and accused President Wil
son of putting "an Interpretation
which was not intended by Germany"
on the note of Janunry 31.
German officialdom Is not Ignorant
or unintelligent. It may appear nt
times from Its outgivings to be; but
these apparent stupidities may bo ac
cepted as concealing, a purpose. What
Minister Zimmebmann'h purpose was
we do not pretend to know; he may
have sought to effect a domestic de
sign, or to deceive neutrals; but we
refuse to believe that what every
German and Amcrtcnn In the United
States knew was going to happen
was entirely hidden from the gentle
men of Wllhelmstrasse.
Fixating la Cuba.
A Cuban official Is reported as say
ing: "If even the German army had
only two weeks to put down a revolt
In Cuba It would be stumped."
He Is right. German efficiency
would avail little against bands of
rebels scattered through the manlgtia
and holding hidden positions of great
natural strength. ,
The Spaniards were never able to
clear tho summit of Gran Pledrn of
revolutionists. There Is near San Luis
a tract of forest with trnlls through
the tall guinea grass that the Spanish
regulars never dared to enter. The
Cubans were always secure In the
heart of It with their women folk.
And there are many such retreats in
the Island of Cuba.
It will not be surprising If the Lib
eral Insurgents nre "out" for mouths.
Could Everest Be Climbed?
So long as the mountains call, mid
that will be to tho end of recorded
time. It will bo the ambition of man
to stand on the ultimate uplift of
Mount Everest (Tibetan Cliomo I.nng
"mo), which Is 20,141 feet nbovo sea
level according to accurate triangula
tlon. This altitude Is about 4"i00 feet
greater than the Duke of the AnisLv.zi
attained on Mount Austen in the
Himalayas. No man ever struggled
up higher. The tremendous strain on
the heart Iff every 100 feet above the
21,000 to the credit of tho Duke or
the Aimuzzi makes the difference be
tween that achievement and tlto con
quest of Everest a forlorn hope. Is
any man equal to It?
In the dcogrnphiral Journal Mr. A.
Kellas, who has himself climbed to
22,000 feet, deals with the possibility
of putting Everest beneath the sole of
man's foot. He calculates that tho
oxygen supply at the top would be
only one-third of that nt sen level.
What a pair of lungs It would take
to keep tho body going! In the bnl
loon ascent of Guishek nnd Coxwkm,
both men were paralyzed at 20,000
feet, nnd Glaisuer became Insen
sible. Coxwell retained consciousness
enough to grip tho valve rope with his
teeth und thus ho arrested tho up
sweep of the great bag. Then he too
lost his senses, but the balloon soon
reached n lower level, both men es
caping death. But It is to bo noted
that they were sitting still. The
mountain climber must press up
word, and nt very high altitude tho
physical exertion of putting one fool
above tho other has the same effect
as if, like Atlas, ho were carrying
the heavens on his shoulders.
This seems absolutely deterrent to
,tho attainment of tho apes of tho
world, but Mr. Kellas encournges the
alpinist by saying that "the balloon
ist has no opportunity of becoming
acclimatized to high altitudes." But
what of the strain on the mountain
eer's heart ns ho tolls up through the
snow nnd works around cornices?
Peculiarly speculative Is Mr. Ki:l
lah'h suggestion that "the ascent of
Mount Everest would bo possible If
nlr enriched with oxygen were
breathed during tho latter portion of
the climb." Mr. Kellas, we think,
dismays the optimistic ones by ob
"If any of the Himalayan giants In
the far futuro are desecrated by a cog
wheel railway oxygen will have to be
breathed continuously by the patrons
when near the summit, otherwise none
will get down alive."
Who will build the cog railway?
Science must blush for Kki.las. Never
theless, ho perseveres, nsklng: "Is it
possible to become sufficiently acclima
tised to altitudes of 21,000 feet to
25,000 feet to ennblo ono to climb to
over 20,000 feet?" Ho submits n num.
her of "curves" nnd tables, "pressure
of oxygen In millimeters of mercury"
and "pcrce.ntago saturation of the
hicmoslobln with oxygen," nnd so on;
but after tho cog rnllway Illustration
thej' nro not Impressive. Moreover,
passing tho Illmnlaynn glnnts In re
view, Mr. Kellas says :
"Many of these peaks seem Impervious
to direct assault, and If on close Investi
gation that were found to be the case,
they may be attacked In some futuro
decade by aeroplane or airship,"
But bow the deuce Is the aviator to
brenlho tho one-third oxygen nt 20,000
odd feel, and how In thunder could ho
mako n landing? Mr. Kellas mast
bo playing with us unsclentlllc per
sons. Wo observe that In the sym
posium that followed his lecture
how delightful tho Interchange of
opinion nnd reminiscence always Is
at tho ltoyal Geographical Society's
meetings of explorers and wanderers
to tho earth's extremes I Mr. Kel
las's speculations wero taken none
too seriously. Tho ever polite presi
dent, Mr. Douglas Fresiifikld, D. C.
U, himself a distinguished moun
taineer, remarked before the lec
turer began: "There nro perhaps I
should not say unfortunately a good'
many difficulties In the wny of reach
ing tho top of tho highest mountain
In the world." The tlrst for tho pres
ent Is quite sufficient: His Highness
Mahflrnjadhlraja Tribiiubana Bir
Bikram Jung Bahadur Shumshcro
Jung forbids any one to come nearer
tho base of Everest than' 100 miles.
The Case of Claude Kltcbln.
Tho Hon. Claude Kitchin Is, nomi
nally nt least, the Democratic lender
of the House of Bepresentutlves.
When he desires 1(0 hns nt his back n
well drilled mnjorlty. No legislation
Involving serious national policies
can be slipped through without his
consent, connivance, or nt tho least
a light which would attract national
There was no fight when Mr. Mann
caused tho Incorporation In the navy
bill of n paragraph which, ns Its au
thor snld, "certainly tells the Presi
dent that tho House wants to keep
out of war."
Was It then with Mr. Kitchin's
connivance and consent that this no
tice was given Germany for It Is no
doubt current tbere by this time
that the House of Bepresentatlves
sought to repudiate and hamstring the
President's foreign policy?
Mr. Kitchin and Secretary Dan
iels are tho two closest friends and
adherents of Mr. Bryan now In offl
clnl life. Mr. Bryan, after doing his
best to wreck the President's policy,
retired to private station. Mr. Dan
iels, emulating tho Bryan example,
hns used his officlnl control of the
wireless to forward an Impertinent
newspaper despatch to Germany de
claring that tho American people were
not In accord with tho President's
policy toward tho German Govern
ment. The Secretary of the Navy
gave In a certain sense his official In
dorsement to this unqualified false
hood by editing the despatch contain
ing it before sending It on Its way
with his O. K.
If President Wilson persists In
keeping ns n member of his official
household a Cabinet officer who nc
cuses him of misrepresenting the nn
tlon, public opinion Is helpless. But
the case of Kitchin gives added rea
son why the new House of Kepresen
tallves, though tied between the two
great parties, should be organized by
the Republicans nnd Independents.
In such case Kitchin would neces
sarily go, nnd It Is quite too much to
believe that James It. Mann, author
of tho copperhead resolution, could
hold even the remnants of his party
leadership in tho presence or such n
Germany, according to her spokes
men, lights for the freedom of the
sea. To that end her submarine
ruthlessness Is directed; tyrant Brit
ain must be humbled.
Consequently tho American Phila
delphia, bound from England for the
United States, under n neutral flag,
of n Hue that lias carried no contra
band since the war began, her com
pany and passengers non-combatants,
had to sneak out of iwrt ns u crimi
nal sneaks from his hiding place, lest
the benevolent ngents of Teutonic lib
erty purveyors see anil sink her with
out winning, vMt or search, and send
to the bottom to Join the I.usltnnla
babies n few hundred more unarmed
and Innocent travellers.
Consequently, too, other ships of
tho same line nre tied to their piers
in their hnlling port, their mnll con
tracts unfulfilled, their legitimate and
harmless snlllngs cancelled; nnd tills
ns nn incidental contribution to the
freedom of the sens.
Teutonlcnlly freed seas? The Kill
serbtind hns already freed thorn of
law, and free death Is the portion
decreed for thoso who before never
knew they wero bowed beneath n
yoke of British make.
A Milk Commission.
Tho tendency to government by
commissions has brought forth some
valuable legislative enactments nnd
some qulto objectionable features.
Among tho Intter Is n law Introduced
Into the Assembly by Mr. Siiiplacoff
entitled "An act to establish a milk
commission; defining Uio powers nnd
duties of tlto commission; providing
for the purchase of lands nnd neces
sary machinery for tho collection,
pasteurization and distribution of
milk; making provision for tho Issu
ance of bonds to tho amount not to
exceed $20,000,000 for tho purposes;
and providing for a submission of this
proposition to the people of the State,
to bo voted upon nt the general elec
tion to be held In 1017."
Tho happy experience of the city of
New York In tho rnmpalgn of Its De
partment of Health against Impure
milk supply may be cited as evldcnco
ngnlnst tho need of a commission en
dowed with such power to rnlso a
Sinto milk monopoly, to appoint po
litical favorites and to expend enor
mous sums of tho taxpayers' money.
Tho gradually growing view that the
local health authorities nro abso
lutely competent to protect the com
munity ngnlnst (his source of dnn
ger hns crystallized In tho conviction
that we may safely intrust these or
ganized agencies with the attainment
of this object.
It is Improbable that the legisla
ture wltl permit this act to pass out
of the committee Into open discussion,
slnco tho latter would doubtless In
sure Its failure.
Days la Court.
A man has been pronounced not
guilty after n trial lasting forty-nine
days and costing tho city 105,000.
Tho Illness of a Judgo at tho end of
the first two sessions caused a mis
trial. Subsequently the case proceeded
at nn even though not1 rapid gait.
Each Juror-received ?350; li'ut one
said he" had lost $0,000 and another
declared ho had lost ?5,000 by nb
senco from work. The testimony
tilled 5,180 typewritten pages about
a million and a half words.
It seems as If the trial proved
something besides tho Innocence of
the accused. ,
The testimony given In Boston yes
terday by Captain Charles A. Polack
of tho North German Lloyd steamship
Kronprinzessln Cecllle, with regard to
the dismantling of that boat's engines
on January 31 nnd February 1 under
orders from the,German Emuausy, pos
sesses for readers of Tub Sun an In
terest asldo from Its revelation of Teu
tonic thoroughness and organization.
It will not escape their memories that
on February 6 and thereafter for bv
eral days Tin Sun informed them
of the ruin that had been wrought in
tho engine rooms of tho merchant ships
tied up In American harbors; and that
our explicit assertions on this subject
elicited a chorus of denials from per
sons known to be in possession of the
facts, and assumed generally to be
worthy of credence. These denials may
be classified u exemplifications of Kul
tur, and under the circumstances their
authors need not be violently re
proached. The essential matter Is that
Tub Sun obtained correct and authen
tic Information On this interesting and
Important lnddent, and laid It before
Its readers for their guidance; and we
are sure we shall be pardoned for en
joying the vindication of our accuracy
from an unimpeachable aource before
the echoes of the assaults made upon
It have ceased their aotmewhat gut
What would Happen If some dare
devil Representative should spring to
his feet in the House and wave an
American flag before the bulging eyes
of his shocked colleagues?
When, several centuries ago, certain
northern barbarians pulled the beards
of the Roman Senators one of the lat
ter suggested a referendum.
Washington's birthday will be cele
brated quietly on board American
ships In port, or, not to be redundant,
on board American ships.
It would be a relief If some patient
and painstaking person who knows, if
such thcro be, would tell New York
why the waiters employed "north of
Canal street and' south of Fifty-ninth
street" go on strike with such enthusi
asm, frequency and persistency. Are
tips bigger. Is the cost of living less
south of Canal street and north of
Fifty-ninth street? Or what?
The new wireless at Samoa will be
advantageous to us in time of peace
and to tho enemy which seizes our
Pacific holdings in time of war.
Tho Hon. J. Hampton Moore, Repre
sentative In Congress from the "Lib
erty Hall district" of Philadelphia, Is
not, as has been stated, an understudy
of Minority Leader Mann. Ho Is his
rival for election to the Speakership
if tho Republicans organize tho Slxty
flfth Congress. Mr. Mann's under
study for leadership nnd Speakership
Is tho Hon. William H. Stavford of
Milwaukee and Whltellsh Hay. Mr.
Stafford was graduated by Harvard
College, and In his time there may
have played ball with a sturdy chap
of tho name of Gardner. If the Re
publicans organize the next House and
refuse to elect Mann Speaker, let Mr.
Stafford neglect Hampt Moore's efforts
to steal home, but keep a bright eye
on that smarter base runner tho Hon.
AuausTua P. Gardner.
There Is said to be a peace party
forming In Congress. It Is to oppose
patriotism at any price.
Is Glasgow for peace without vic
tory? Her subscription of $500,000,000
to the new war loan speaks for her.
The population of Glasgow In 1911 was
Probably the surname of the Ameri
can schooner Lyman M. Law unduly
exasperated the German submarine
What hope for weal can cheer our
Tf summoned to Assize which God
To sift the nations, naught save glut
And ease It bring within Its pampered
Sumptuous among the desolate to stand
Arraigned, since in Fear's market
place we sold
A heritage of fame we who of old
Craved martyrdom for truth at Ills
He may not wait upon the Great Assize
To be our Judge ; lest we Ills Ire elude
lie can decree the shame by earthly
Pity bid be aloof, till we arise
Absolved through the oblation ot our
And consecrated to contending faith.
Joseph S. Auerbach.
Mr. Gerard Is Always Polite; but the
To the Editor or Tin Sun Sir: Tou
evidently missed a very important arti
cle which should have been on the first
page of your paper, 'In view of your
comparisons of the leaving of ex-Ambassador
Gerard from Berlin as against
the leaving of ex-Ambassador von Bern
Ktorff from here. I refer to a despatch
from Germany published In some of the
morning papers in regard to Mr. Gerard
thanking Germany for the arrangements
made by that Government and the hos
pitality displayed. Fair Plat.
New York, February 17,
To vni Eoitos or Tin SDN Sir: You
aay It Is a mystery that Bryan should
have been for silver when sold la so yel
low. Speech la silver, allanca Is (old.
Near Aunt, ilui, February 17,
CROSSING THE JERSEYS.
Did tho Mind that rules the Hand
that made and moulded the universe
create scenery for mnn or man to
enjoy tho scenery? Man has made
tho scenery over. Do proper travellers
ever tire of tho billboard landscape?
However It offends rcsthctlc taste, It
soothes tho miles for the car weary,
its hypnotizing monotony turns tedium
to a dream. It may not sell goods,
but It keeps Juvonllo passengers quiet,
or at tho very least furnishes matter
for prattlo more pleasing than an In
fantile devilish ninety mllo bawl.
A ride across Jersey reveals won
ders not of nature tout of man's Inge
nuity in disguising natural loveliness.
After taking It, Peregrine is qualified
to write frco verse:
Behold the world.
Of what It eonalatt
Shirts are prominent
In Ita composition,
Hole for ladlei
And note for tha lawn.
Alio there are hoes
To hoe up tho garden.
Tlckllne earth to frultfulneaa.
Chemlcale and mattreaiea.
Liver pills and paint.
All contribute to the wonderful Wholeness.
Limousines de looks,
Food and furniture,
Phonographs and book.
Plshballs, factory sites, '
Hotels and Old Doctor Soandso's
Warranted sure cure.
All alike are celebrated here.
Tombstones and diamonds,
Palse teeth, beer.
Cigars and windmills
Impartially we hall.
Couch drops and magazine,
SAlad oil and gasolene,
Castor oil, kalsomlne
Mingle In the plot divine.
Substitutes for this,
Substitutes for that
1'rom salvation to soap!
Window screens and watches,
Sausages and socks.
Umbrellas and clocks
Theatres and pencils,
Trucks, tractors and cigarettes,
Theatres and toels,
These and a million mora
Biding across Jersey ts not bad
sport, If it be Indulged in not oftener
than once In soventeen years. In the
two hours you see everything every
thing but Jersey.
WHAT WE OWE FRANCE.
A Proposal to Raise a Foal and Bis
charge the Debt la Part.
To tii Editor or The Son Sir;
Whether we owe France $700,000,000 or
$400,000,000, the Important point Is that
no attempt has ever been made to re
imburse her for her outlay, which of
course In the day It was made repre
sented a much larger sum, so far as
purchasing power Is concerned, than It
does to-day, and I am sorry to observe
that Whether the sum at compound In
terest amounts to one trillion or two
trillion dollars, no suggestion is made
to do something for France In this day
of her difficulties and act toward her In
tho same spirit as she acted toward us
In our life struegle.
I admit that certain sums have been
spent for lied Cross work, ambulances,
Ac, but all said and done, totalling
them as you shall, tho amount ts only
a small one, a mere bagatelle, compare1
to what other countries liave done for
Belgium and France, more especially
Great Britain, who In spite of her own
troubles and difficulties at the present
time has acted In the most generous
manner and supplied an enormous
amount of food, money and other com
forts that makes what we have sent to
either Belgium, France or Serbia, ic,
look Insignificant. Surely we have the will
to do the right thing and besides have
the funds to be generous. Cannot an ap
peal be made to the nation to take some
steps to discharge an obligation, a mors!
one In any case, that we owe to the grer.t
republic across the seas? L. D. C.
New York, February 17.
j Most He Expect a Certain Conde
i icenslon From His Mates?
To the Editor or The Sun Sir; A
writer In the American Machinist (New
York, November 9) writes: "Is It not
strange to hear that most Immigrants
look down upon the American co
worker? The childish way In which
the latter treats the foreigner, who
lacks nothing mentally but a second
language, forces the Immigrant to re
gard the American as not altogether
up to standard."
In my opinion the real reason why
native born Americans look doivn upon
tho Immigrant of course an unworthy
attitude to take in any case Is because
tho Immigrant Is a newcomer. AVe all
know how It Is. All of us, according
to our several dispositions. 111 treat
or snub or treat coldly or hold more
or less aloof from the newcomer In our
business or other meeting places.
The reason for this attitude that we
adopt toward the newcomer Is that all
of us, whether we admit It or not, at
taoh a value to what Is old and stable,
to what has endured and remained per
manently in the one place, The immi
grant Is a newcomer, and until he has
proved his worth by remaining In this
country for a generation or so and
establishing himself here hardly any
of us are very likely to wreathe chap
lets of roses about his classic but for
eign brow, Charles Hooper.
Seattle, Wash., February 12.
BE FAIR TO HIM I
Contemptuous Treatment of Insur
ance Agent Displays Your Folly.
To the Editor or The Sun Sir; In
1917 life Insurance companies will paV
about $730,000,000 to policyholders and
still hold In trust for future payments
allout $6,000,000,000 more.
Tho amount held Is equal to' or slightly
greater than the deposits In savings
banks throughout the United States.
Life Insurance companies nre also
furnishing capital at tho rate of $30,
000,000 a'mouthfor.allroad and munici
pal bonds and real estate mortgages.
Tho life Insurance salesman who hns
made these things possible and will Im
prove the above showing deserves, I
believe, a little better consideration by
In almost every other line of endeavor
an agreed appointment ts aiwajs kept,
or If something unforeseen occurs the
party thereto Is notified by phone or
letter if there ts time.
Time onco lost can never be regained.
That hour may be the only one when
some other being could have been as
sured of sustenance. Justice.
New York, February 17.
When the Cold Wave Struck Old Alabam'.
From tS Hoclriila Bootttr,
The Bootttr la lata this week for the
reason that wa were unable to ret the
office warm enough to run our presses,
At the time of writing wa have our mit
tens on and have Just discovered the office
cat frozen to a stove leg.
THE CITY PAYS.
And Thero Is No Probability That It
Can Kseape Paying.
To Titie Rorron or Tub Sun Sir: Why
should this city, In addition to paying
for its own police force, pay through r.
State tax two-thirds of the cost of a
Stnto constabulary for tho free use of
A state police force for the use ot
towns and counties that do not require
a permanent force of their own, or that
were unable or unwilling to pay for one,
would be unobjectionable, provided that
no town, city or county that did not use
their services would be taxed for their
support, Cornelius Martin,
Niw York, February 17.
THE .POLITICAL LEECH.
European Gorernaents Pat Him Oat
of Power When the Time Came.
To the Editor or The Sun Sir; The
I authorization by the Secretary ot the
Navy of the late sending of a Bryan
latlo (Daniels In a Bryan's den) peace
cablegram to Germany Illuminates the
action of all the great belligerent na
tions when they found it necessary in
their respectlvo great exigencies to re
place thoso different department heads
! who came to their important oftlces only
I by reason of personal or political Influ
ences, the nil potent features oDtaimng
In time of ease and Idle peace.
Hioiiland Falls, February 17.
"COMIN' THRO' THE RYE.1
Did the Lassie Breast the Grain or
Ford the River?
To the Editor of Tiif. Sun fir; Mr.
George Moffat's Interesting contribution
concerning the old Scottish ballad
"Comln' Thro' the Itye" falls to bring
out two important facts. The first Is
that the word which he spells "rye" and
defines as "the village green" Is not po
spelled. If the Scottish lexicographers
are to be trusted. The Scotsman spells
tho word "rlghc," as Sir. Stoffat can
easily find out by consulting Dwelly's
Gaelic Dictionary," volume 3, page 760:
111. Dwelly defines the term as "(1)
A field; (2) the bottom of a valley;
(J) the outstretched part or base of a
mountain; (4) a slope." Dwelly docs
not even record the form rye. nor Is the
word to be found with the definition
given to It by Mr. Moffat In Dr. Joseph
Wright's "English Dialect Dictionary,"
nor even In John Jamlcson's "Etymologi
cal Dictionary of the Scottish Language,"
editions of J808 (2 vols.), of 1840-41,
revised by John Johnstone, or of 1879
1889 (5 vols.), revised by Longmulr
and Donaldson. It Is not even In the
magnum opus of the late Sir James A.
H. Murray, the "New English Diction
ary," and yet Sir James was a Scots
man. It Is unknown equally to Thomas
Davidson, editor of Chambers's "English
Dlotlonary." published at Edinburgh ; to
the "Imperial Dictionary." edited by
Ogllvle and Annandale, and published
by Blackte & Son of Glasgow; to Alex
ander Warrack's "Scots Dialect Diction
ary," to Stormonth's Dictionary, another
Scottish work ; to the Standard Diction
ary, the Century, Webster or 'Worces
ter, and to a score more of other works
of like kind on my shelves.
The second Is that the name Rye as
a place name has been traced to the
Anglo-Saxon "rlth' a mountain stream,
and as such Is quite common In England
and Scotland. (See S. Baring-Gould's
"Family Names and Their Story," p.
171). Dr. Isaac Taylor says of Rye:
"The root Rhe or Rhln is connected with
the Gaelic rea, rapid; with the Welsh
the, swift: rhedu, to run; rhln, that
which runs (as a point of land that runs
out to sea, as Penrhyn).
Hence we have tho Rye In Klldare.
Yorkshire, Ayrshire ; tho Ilea In Salop,
Warwick, Herts and Worcestershire; tho
Bey In Wilts; the Ray In Oxfordshire:
tho Rheo In Cambridgeshire: the Rhea
I In Staffordshire," &c.
As to the song itself. It was 1 first
j heard In public In English pantomime
, at Christmas, 179B, but before that date
there existed an old Scotch ballad
I which was very popular and which
I Robert Burns touched up. This ballad
I referred to the fording of the Rye water,
or little river Rye, that flows for seven
1 miles southeast to the river Garnock,
near Dairy, In Ayrshire. It ran:
' Comln' through the Rye, poor body,
Comln' through the Itye.
She dralglet a' her pettlcoatla
' Comln' through the Rye.
Oh, Jenny's a' wat, poor body,
Jenny's seldom dry;
i She dralglet a' her pettlcoatla,
Comln' through the Rye,
I Gin a body meet a body.
' Comln' through the Rye,
Gin a body klsi a body
Need a body cry?
Gin a body meet a body
Comln" through the glen,
Gin a body kiss a body,.
Need the warld ken! '
Oh, Irnnv't a' waf, poor loty,
Jcnny'i teldom dry;
She ilmlgltt o" ft'rr v'ttlcoatit
C'omfn' through the live.
When ono recalls the custom of col
lecting a toll of klhscs from lassies met
crossing tho stream on stepping stones
tho woids of tho enng nre more signifi
cant. A similar custom practised by
lads on the lassies of England whom
they met crossing stiles In tlm country
bypaths and lanes leads to tho old Eng
lish song which runs:
If a body meet a body,
Going to the fair,
If a body hiss a body.
Need a body care?
Notwithstanding the foiegolng, tha edi
tor of the Scottish mcrlcim to whom I
referred the matter felt that a Held of
rye grain and not the Hye River was
meant. The poem Itself affords only
one verse which suggests tho river rather
than the rye field Is meant, nnd that
in printed In italics above. It Is more
likely that the lads gathered nt the
riverside to watch the lassies ford It
than that they stood nt the edgo of tho
rye field to see the girls pass through
the grain. If the farmer were around
thin could not happen often enough to
become a custom. It seems but naturul
that Hums should develop a folk sons
concerning Bye water ns a pacm t-lncc
the river flowed near the place where
ho was born. The curious fact that
seems to be worth recording Is that
"Comln' Thro' the Hye" does not nppcar
In Andrew Lang's edition of "Tho Pocma
and Songs of Robert Burns."
As to Peckham Bye, It is quite evident
that Mr, Moffat Is unaware of the fact
that onco upon a tlmo a brook ran from
tho north end of Bye lane and that this
brook now feeds the Grand Surrey
Canal which flows Into the Thames at
Rotherhtthe. Frank II, Vizetellt.
New York, February 17.
High Flnanre In Missouri.
From fse Cnu County f.euaVr,
A certain woman not a thousand miles
from Hume bought n doten ecia from
her grocer and had tha Item placed on
her charge account. She then took the
eggs to another grocer, to nhom ah sold
them for cash, buying tickets for herself
and friends to tha movies with tha pro
THE NEW DUBLIN
Who is James Joyce? ts doubtless a
question easier to answer In Dublin
than Now York, whero neither his no
tion nor his personality Is yet known.
Ho Is evidently a member of the new
group of young Irish writers who see
their country and countrymen In any.
thing but a flattering light. Ireland,
surely the most beautiful and most
melancholy Island on tho globe. Is not
the Isle of Saints for theso Iconoclasts.
George Moore Is a poet who happens to
write English, though ho thinks in
French; Bernard Shaw, notwithstand
ing his native wit. Is, of London and
Londoners; while Yeats and Syngearc
essentially Celtic, and both poets.
Yes, nnd there is tho delightful James
Stephen, who mingles angels' pin feath
ers with rainbow gold; a magic decoc
tion of which wo never weary. But
James Joyco, potentially a poet, and a
realist of the De Maupassant breed, en
visages Dublin nnd tha nuhllnns with
I a cruel scrutinizing gaze. lie Is as
truthful as Tchekov, and as gray that
Tchckov compared with whom the
"realism" of De Maupassant is roman
tic bric-a-brac, gilded with a fine
style. Joyce Is ns Implacably natu
ralistic as tho Russian In his vision of
the sombre, mean, petty, dusty com
monplaces of middle class life, and he
sometimes suggests tho Frenchman In
his clear, concise, technical methods.
Whoever tho mnn is he Is indubitably
a new talent.
Emerson, nfter his experiences In
Europe, became 'an arm chair trav
eller. He positively despises the Idea
of voyaging across the water to see
what Is Just as good at home. He
calls Europe, a tapeworm In the brain
of his countrymen. "The stuff of all
countries Is just the same." So Ralph
eat In his chair and enjoyed thinking
about Europe, thua evading the wor
ries of going there. It lias Its merit,
this Emersonian' way, particularly for
souls easily disillusioned. To anticipate
too much of a foreign city may result
in disappointment. We have all had
this experience. Paris resembles Chi
cago, or Vienna Is a second Philadel
phia at times; it depends on the color
of your mood. Few countries have
been so persistently misrepresented as
Ireland. It Is lauded to tho eleventh
heaven of tho Burmese or it is a place
full of fighting devils In a hell of crazy
politics. Of course it is neither, nor
is It the land of Lover and Lever;
Handy Andy and Harry Lorrequer are
there, but you never encounter them
In Dublin. John Synge got nearer to
the heart of the peasantry, nnd Yeats
and Iady Gregory brougbt back from
tho bidden spaces the fairies and the
Is "Father Ralph" by Gerald O'Don
ovan n veracious picture of' Irish
priesthood nnd college life? Is the
fiction of Mr. Joyce representative of
the middlo class and of the Jesuits?
A cloud o contradictory witnesses
pass acrosH the sky. What Is the
Celtic character? Dion Bouclcault's
"The Shaughraun," Chauncey Olcott,
or John McCormaclt, are they true
to type? Or isn't the pessimistic
dreamer with the soul of a "wild
goose," depicted in Georgo Moore's
story, tho real man? Celtic magic,
cried Matthew Arnold. He should have
said. Irish magic, for while the Irish
man is a Celt, ho is unlike his breth
ren across the Channel. Perhaps he
Is nearer to the Snrmatlan than the
continental Celt. Ireland and Poland!
Tho Irish and the Polish! Dissatis
fied no matter under which king! Not
Playboys of the Western World, but
martyrs to their unhappy tempera
ments. Tlio Dublin of Mr. Joyce shows an
other variation of this always inter
esting theme. It Is a rather depress
ing plcturo, his, of the dally doings
of his contemporaries. His novel is
called "A Portrait of tho Artist as a
Young Man," a titlo quite original and
expressive of what follows; also a titlo
that seems to' have emerged from the
catalogue of an art collector. It Is a
veritable portrait of the artist ns a
boy, a youth and a young man. From
school to college, from the brothel to
tho confessional, from his mother's
apron strings to coarse revelry, tho
hero, a sorry one. Is put to tho tor
ture by art and relates tho story of
his blotched yet striving soul. We do
not recall a book like this since the
autobiography "En Route" of J. K.
Huystnnns. This Parisian of Dutch
extraction is In the company of James
Joyce. Neither writer stops at tlio
half way house of reticence. It's tho
House of Flesh In Its most sordid ns-
nentM. nnd the litinmn hp,u1 (q v-rvil,n
ally illuminated by gleams from tho
grace of God. With both men the love
of Ralxialslnn speech is marked. This,
if you please. Is a Celtic trait. 'Not
even tlio Kllzahcthans so Joyed In
"green" words, ns the French say, ns
do some Irish. Of richest Into nro his
curses, and the Prince of Obliquity
himself must chuckle when ho over
hears one Irishman consign another
to everlasting damnation by tho turn
of his tongue. "If you knew what I
thought of you, you would dive into a
sewer headlong for hell" was tho fer
vent wish of a ccrtnln Irishman we
onco met in Burke's placo off Bnggott
street, Dublin. Tho chap addressed
took tho matter coolly and asked his
friend what ho would have. Then
some ono sang a "Come All Tou!"
which related the unhappy ending of
Stephen, the hero of "A Portrait of
the Artist as a Young Mnn." tells his
student friend about his father. Theso
wero his attributes; "A medical stu
dent, an oarsman, a tenor, an amateur
actor, a shouting polltlcran, a small
landlord, a small investor, a drinker.
I a good fellow, a story teller, some
I body's secretary, something )n n dls
, tlllery. a tax gatherer, a bankrupt, nt
, present a pralser of his own pnst."
An Kple of Deadheadlsm.
To the Kditor or The Sun Sir: The
legend of the Deadwood stage printed In
to-day's Sun recalls a similar Incident in
which I found a passing pleasure.
Some forty years ago, when I was
manager of Haverly's Minstrels, the com
pany gave nn entertainment In Mark
Twain's early home, Hannibal, In old
I stood at the entrance taking tickets
when a gentleman undertook to walk
by me in n rather "don't care a cuss"
sort of manner. '
"Tickets, please," 1 suggested in my
always pollle nnd refined manner.
"That's my ticket," quietly returned
tho gentleman, and as I extended ray
hand to accept the ticket I refused to
accept It, for It was a nice big six
shooter he was fondling in a very sassy
WRITER AND HIS
The portrait Is well nigh perfect. T
ihi guuno over ngnin, ever on the
wing. Stephen becamo violently p0Ui
after-a retreat nt tho Jesuits'. From
tha extreme of riotous living he w.
transformed Into a militant CatholkT
The reverend fathers had hopes of
him. He was 'an excellent Latlnlst, but
his mind was too speculative; later li
proved his spiritual undoing. To ana.
lyze tho sensibility of a noul inounllne
on flaming pinions to God is easier
than to describe tho modulations of
a moral recidivist. Stephen fell awr
from his faith, though he did not acai
sink Into tho slough of Dublin low
life. Cranly, the student, eaw thromh
tho hole In his sceptical millstone
"It Is a curious thing, do you know"
Cranly said dispassionately, "how vou'r
mind Is supersaturated with the relit.
Ion In which you Bay you disbelieve"
A profound remark. Onco a Homat
Cathollo always a Roman Cathollt
particularly If you were born In l
Mr. .Tnvrn linlila tlm ... .
,.l . n evenly,
Ho neither abuses nor prnlfvs. fJi
is evidently out of key with religious
life; yet ho speaks of the Jesuits nith
affection and admiration. Tho .r.
mons preached by them during the
retreat are models. They nro printed
in full strange material for a novel
And he can show us tho black hatrii
caused by tho clash of political sti
religious opinions. Thero is a cri
of this sort In tho house of stephrni
parents that simply blazes with vir.
lty. At a Christmas dinner the arrj.
ment between Dante (probably "ai
aunt) and Mr. Casey spoils tho affr,!:.
Stephen's father carves the turkey
and tries to stop tho mouths of tht
angry man and woman with food. Tf
mother Implores. Stephen stolid)
gobbles, watching tho row, which cu',
minates with Mr. Casey losing h
temper he has had several tumKcu
of mountain dew and Is a little "hot
come you so!" He bursts forth:
"No God In Ireland! We have ha I
too much God In Ireland! Aim
with God!" "Blasphemer! Devi!'"
screamed Dante, starting to her feet
and almost spitting In his face. "Dcv4
out of hell! We won! Wo crujVl
him to death! Fiend!" The dfr
slammed behind her. Mr. Casey sud.
denly bowed his head on hii handj
with a sob of pain. "Poor I"arnU'
he cried loudly. "My dead KinO
Naturally tho dinner was not a sue.
cess. Stephen noted that there wet
tears In his father's eyes at the mm.
tlon of Parnell, but that he seercM
debonair enough when the old wottji
unpacked her heart of vllo words I, i
a drab. A rich character is this sfiti
There is no denying that the not!
Is ns ft whole hardly cheerful. Its
grip on life, its.-Intensity, its cvidttt
truth and unflinching acceptance el
facts will mako "A Portrait" disagree
ablo to the average reader. There ,!
relief in tho Trinity College epi.-od"
humor of a saturnine kind in the an.
tic armor;- of Mr. Joyce. There is -o
ironist like nn Irishman. The bock
Is undoubtedly written from a M
heart, but the author must hate
sighed with relief when lie wrote H.e
last line. We have, no news as to -
critical reception in Dublin though '
must have ttrouHcd hostillt No ore
may tell tho truth without impmi,
and the portrait of .Stephen m
objective frigidity ns nn artMIc
formancc nnd its passionate per.of
note, was bound to givo oftVncp
every quarter. It i.s too Iilsli to m
liked by the Irish: not nn infrequf'
paradox. The volume of tales entitle!
"Dubllners" reveals a wider rnnce
practised technical hand, and a pift fir
etching character that m.v he com
pared with De Slaupas.-iint'J A lis
comparison, but read such master
pieces In pity and Irony as "The Dead
"A Painful Case," "The Boardir:
House," or "Two Gallants," and bf
convinced that wo do not eNnpceratc
Dublin, we have said rlsrnhcrc .1
a huge whispering gallcr;; Scandal
of the most insignificant order never
lacks multiple echoes. From Ma
rlon Square, from tho Shclhourne. to
Dalkey or Drumcondr.i; from tl.
Mnnnmnnt in Ch: nMIyrwl .ln rnr.
cusslon of spoken gossip is unf.ilkn?
"Dubllners" Is filled with Diibllnis'i
anecdotes. It Is charged with tie
sights nnd scents nnd gestures of
town. Tho slackers who pester "
vnnt girls for their shillings to spT.i
on whiskey; the young man In tri
boarding house who succumbs to tH
"planted" charms of the Inn H.ulj'i
daughter to fall into the m.itr mor.l.i.
trap only De Maupassant c,i.l I f
ter the telling of this too cnmmi'nplxri
storv: the rnlililln nrrnl tn.'in nar?:-
J monlous .is to his emotions and
trnglc ending of a love affair tba' rui
hardly begun; nnd the wonderful v
etched pinto called "The pead w'i
Its hundred lino touches of rmi '
and satire-r-these but prove tV dan
of J.imes Joyce's admirers that '
a writer signally gifted A m.itovol '
fairy seemingly made him n mK"
thropc. With Spinoza he . ould m
oh, terrifying Irony!- that "m.mt.itJ
Is not necessary" In the ctcrvu.
scheme. Wo hope that It'i the vein
ho may becomo mellower, hut that re
will never lose tlio nppreci..t "n ('
life's more bitter flavors. In !! n
elists are legion. He Is lI -niti-
little brother In his flair fr 'i-
tegratlng characters. 1!
Irishman, who sees the slur t . -In
the sky, h vision tlmt t u. , n v
ls'.ies before lie can p'n it- i- 1
ennvas. But yet an Ins'iin .
sense of the murderous h m.
a story as "Ivy Day In ti. 1 '
Room," which would bring ' T
many heeler what Ueni-v Jhih
"tne emotion or recognition 1
1 wild goose! Tho l!.m ilr -'
Iami - 11
That's good," I said, and he a
Shortly afterward an urass
tie man came up to me and r i'1
estly Inquired If 1 nmiM o'e
courtesy of free admission tut .0
"Yes," I answered, "of '''
then I related to him the In nl
"Where's the man"" he
pointed to him nnd the Slier ff
"What, him?'1 and In about t
tho before mentioned six (.hooter n-
owner flew n.ist mts lIKe a sf ej
llchtnlnir wllh the fine, rleht fi"' e' t
Sheriff securely attached to " " ' 'J
the gunman's neck, ami h ' ' "J"
let go Mr, Man was In tlm ml.l !' "f
muddiest street you ever si"
In those days the mud of 1 e -
of Hannibal was famous for
ness and depth and adhesive fu ''''
Flatsush, February It. '