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THE .Sl-V, .SUNDAY, APRIL 7, 1!)J8.
Queens of the Spy World Whose
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From Delilah's Time Women
Have Played Important Parts
DR. STEIBEK, who was the hea'd of
the German spy system in Prance
previous to the war of 1870, once slid:
"Two armies won the war. One was
my army of peaceful penetration which
broke through all the lines of the enemy
and pared the way for the army of Von
This army of "peaceful penetration"
was largely composed of women of all
classes that Dr. Steiber had introduced
into Francc-from 1867 to 1870. The Ger
man woman spy helped to open France
to the German armies.
The Germans seem devoid of the preju
dice most people have against spies and
spying- It was therefore very easy for
Dr. Steiber to recruit an enormous army
of women spies in a very short time.
After a short period of instruction the
most intelligent became servants in the
households of the best families of France,
especially such houses as were frequently
visited by military men. German nurses
abounded, German piano teachers, Ger
man barmaids, German waitresses were io
be scon everywhere ard all of them re
ported to Dr. Steiber, who directed the
Ordered to Marry 'in Her Work.
There were cases in which a woman spy
was o.-ilered to marry a certain man for
the good of the fatherland. And after
Fraulpin Fuhrer had become .the wife of
Capt. Duval she was ordered to fall in
Jove vith Gen. Ferre and was censured
and threatened when she did not succeed
within the given time in making an ad
mirer of the latter. In the garrison cities
German women spies were especially
That women are very able as spies has
been recognized since the beginning of
history. Was not Delilah scut by the
Philistines to betray Samson T There are
numerous other examples of the same
kind in history. Men have always been
easily duped by women spies.
Catherine ilc Medici. Queen of France,
realized that she could better subdue and
govern countries through an army of
women than through an army under the
best generate. She schooled hundreds of
women in the art of spying and sent them
as "living squadrons" to the courts of Eu
rope. It was due to the work of these
women that Catherine was able to govern
France and the Vatican and earn her rep
utation for able statesmanship to which
the whole world bowed. But elerer and
subtle as the "Medici women' were they
cannot be compared with the perfect
women spies of modern times.
The mission of the women of the "flying
squadron was mere eavesdropping and
petty conspiracy. The chief talent of
these women was that they knew how 'to
make men love them and thus to extract
secret from them. The modern woman
s-py mus.t know how to sketch a fort-fica- '
tion, how to draw a cross-section of a gun
nnd even how to select the i-ite for the
emplacement of a heavy gun.
- Carver of Baronets de Kaula.
Among the most subtle and skilful of
all the women spies whs Baroness tie
Kaula. During the Franco-Prussian war
the French General de Cissy was taken
prisoner by the Germans. During his
sojourn in Germany Baroness de taula
and he became very intimate and the
young woman, a Levantine by birth,
wormed herself into his confidence. After
peace was restored Gen. de Cissy returned
to Paris, where he soon became a great
factor in the reconstruction of the French
army. In 1875 he was Minister of War
and great things were expected for the
"Armce de la Revanche."
At the command of Bismarck Baroness
de Kaula received her instructions from
Dr. Steiber and was ordered to rejoin the
old French General in Paris. Unsuspect
ingly flattered, Gen. de Cissy welcomed
her. The Baroness was installed in a pri
vate apartment where the old General
came every day after breakfast to listen
to her beautiful playing of the piano or
to give an opinion on her newest French
poem Baroness de Kaula was a poet, an
artist and a musician, i
But the Baroness never failed to look
through the portfolio the Minister of War
brought with him on these visits and she
memorized what was useful for the Ger
man Government to know. Her memory
must have been phenomenal, for on one
occasion she memorized almost completely
a document of 6,000 words by reading it
When an accident exposed the Baron
ess's true character the republic was in
great danger. De Cissy never could be
made to admit that the woman was guilty.
The Baroness returned to Berlin, where
she fell in disgrace because she had not
Another case to the point is that of
Felice Schmidt. A beautiful young woman,
she had herself banished early in 1915 as
a suspicious character from the German
border. She went to England and there
won a host of admirers among the younger
officers. But she was sent alter bigger
game. She was ordered to captivate
Kitchener. She had managed cleverly so
far and the German spy master was sure
she would succeed. But she saw Kitchener
only once. Only once she had a look at
the face of the man who knew not what
pity or sentiment was and she fled.
Sketched a Gun and Was Sbot.
Some time after she made her appear
ance at Marseilles as an apple seller and
exercised her spell over all the people that
came in contact with her. She was so
pretty and simple that she inspired con
fidence, and she had acquired the southern
French accent to perfection. But one day
sha was found in a secluded spot making
a sketch of one of the big guns. And she
paid with her life for this.
Switzerland, Monaco and the Scandina
vian countries arc now full of women
spieA It is amazing how the German
net is spread. A story is told of two
young 'women whom'chance brought to
gether in a lodging house at Basic,
Switzerland. It so happened that loth
women studied singing under the same
professor and they grew very fond of
One day one of them after receiving a
letter called out that she hod to leave for
Bemc at once. "I must also leave," said
the other one. They had lived six months
together without either of them knowing
that the other was a spy for Germany.
Recommended by German Embassy.
Another story is that no sooner had the
war broken out than it was discovered
that a member of the household of the
Prime Minuter of England, Mr. Asquith,
was a spy of the German Government.
This woman had been engaged by Mrs.
Asquith through the German Embassy.
'The Asquiths and the Liehnowskys were
very" close friends, so that when it was
learned that a vacancy existed in the
household of the English Minister the Ger
man Foreign Office saw to it that the right
person was selected for the place.
It is probably no exaggeration to say
that Germany alone has to-day 100,000
paid women spies in all walks of life.
She has perhaps twice that numlicr en
gaged in spy work without making a
specialty of it. Every German woman
living abroad knows that if she sends any
sort of useful information to the secret
service she will lc paid for it. Women
of refinement and culture lend themselves
to this sort of work as well as servant
girls and barmaids.
Germany traded on French sympathy
with Alsace to introduce Alsatian women
into France as spies. These women were
especially placed as seltool teachers in
Before the war began numbers of Ger
man concert hall singers in London who
delighted the young navy officers with
their quaint English were busily collect
ing ever bit of information, they could
gather. At the head of the perfect spy
work of the German navy department
was Fran von Schroeder, wife of Ritt
rucister von Schioeder, who was in the
Army Intelligence Bureau of the General
Staff. Frau von Schroeder, a charming
and gifted woman, was cultivated by sev
eral American correspondents from whom
she obtained information that she desired
about the United States Embassy and
the United Stales Navy.
At one time she was so powerful, be
cause of her special knowledge, that notes
to the United States in reply to Presi
dent Wilson's submarine notes were
drafted in her study.
Spent $10,000,000 a Year.
In the last decade Germany spent on
her seeret service more than $10,000,000'
yearly, while the English and the French
hardly spent one-tenth of that amount on
secret work. The Russians spent great
amounts of money on secret service work,
but these sums were largely waited, be
cause the Russian Empress herself as
well as many of the most influential
women of the Russian Empire were agents
of Germany. The (Jermafi bom wives of
Russian Ministers and Generals, as well
as German dancers, singers and other
stagefolk, were in the pay of the Ger
man secret service and reported faith
fully everything they learned. They even
directed their husbands and admirers to
do the things the German Intelligence
Bureau wanted to have done.
How woman's wit once helped a traitor
was related in 1912 in the Budapest
Vresse, .when Lieut. Sehorveder of the
German garrison of Posen and his sweet
heart, Ida Mullerthal, "were conrt-mar-tialled
on a charge of high treason.
Sehorveder was deeply in love with
Fraulcin Mullerthal, but owing to his pov
erty the prospect of their marriage was
very remote. The despair of the young
lovers was well known to a Russian secret
agent who approached Lieut. Sehorveder
and offered him $25,000 for a plan of the
fortress of Posen.
PoTsrty Prevented Marriage.
The Lieutenant agreed to the proposal,
but found it very difficult to carry out his
task. His circumstances were common
knowledge in the garrison, and he was
carefully watched. It was impossible for
him to purloin a plan of the fortress and
despatch it to Russia. After he had ex
hausted his ingenuity without being able
(o find a suitable stdieme to cam the
reward he took counsel with his intended
bride, ncr woman's wit suggested a way
out of the difficulty.
"You shall tattoo the plan of the fort
ress on my hack," she said to him, "and
I shall easily be able to travel to Russia
with it without being discovered."
He accepted the fantastic suggestion.
That same night he began to tattoo an
accurate plan of the fortress on the
shoulders of Fraulein Mullerthal. The)
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MATA HARI ,
AS A SPY in FRANCE
operation lasted several days. The work
completed, Fraulcin Mullerthal went to
Hussia and obtained an audience with the
Governor of Warsaw. Removing her coat
and blouse she turned her back to him,
"Here is the plan."
The experienced eye of the General
took in all the details at a glance, a
copy of the plan was made and without
a moment's hesitation the stipulated sum
was handed to the daring young woman.
But the very secrecy with which Sehor
veder had- carried out his task had at
tracted suspicion. He had been seen,
moreover, in the company of the Russian
agent. The extravagance in which the
young couple indulged when Fraulein
Mullerthal returned from Warsaw con
firmed the suspicions which had been
aroused. Her dwelling was searched, but
without result. -Finally she was arrested,
although there was no proof that she had
done anything wrong.
But the proof was siMin forthcoming.
In accordance with prison regulations she
had to bo measured and examined for
purposes of identification. The game was
np. The incriminating plan was found
on her shoulders. This was the key to
the mysterious journey to Russia and the
aidden wealth of the couple.
Rumanian Spy for the Kaiser.
When Mme, Elena Teudorina, a Ruma
nian singer, was arrested in Milan early
in January, 1918, through information
furnished by the American secret ser
vice the Allies got rid of a subtle and
clever German spy. Mme. Teudorina,
beautiful, talented and with a splendid
oicc, apcared in opera at Rome more
than twenty years ago and scored a suc
cess. She afterward repeated this suc
cess in the United States and South America.
New York and Argentina were oWrved
and she was seen in the entourage of
Count von Luxburg of "Spttrlos ver
senkt" fame. When she sailed for Spain
last October the English secret service
was warned and she was taken off the boat
at Cadiz by officers of a British destroyer.
The singer's baggage was . examined
minutely and some papers were found
that appeared to lie innocent, but tinder
chemical treatment they- developed cipher
writings. Then Mme. Teudorina was
taken by female attendants and stripped
and her skin was treated with chemical?.
The complete key to the cipher was found
on her shoulders.
Stagefolk Easy Material.
Stagefolk, becanse of their extravagant
living and proverbial light heartedBess,
have always been an easy prey .of the Ger
man secret service when it has been in
search of tools. There was the case of
Mata Hari, the Javanese dancer who had
captivated Paris and London. She was
shot by a French firing squad after she
had been convicted .as a spy.
Mata Hari was a prominent figure in
the night life of Paris before the war.
She was arrested in Paris February 13,
1917, after the French police had obtained
indisputable proof that while on friendly
terms with a number of Frenchmen in
official or semi-official positions sne was
a trusted agent of the German secret
police. It was established that she had
furnished information of great impor
tance to Germany, including advance de
tails of the construction of the British
Mata Hari's maiden name was Mar-,
garet Zell and she was the daughter of &
Dutch planter and a Javanese woman. At
14 she met Sir Campbell MacLeod, who
fell in love with her and gave up his
army career on her account.
Later she deserted him and lived in
great luxury in Parb under the protec
tion of a German official. Six feet tall,
her great luminous, Oriental eyes shone
from an olive hued face of rare beauty.
Men in legions were at ncr feet in all the
capitals of Europe and always after a
dancing season she returned to Berlin to
pay a "protracted visit to her German
The arrest in Paris of Sumey Depsy,
an actress who appeared with Sarah Bern
hardt, created a sensation. Her husband,
Emilc Guiltier, had been employed by a
manufacturer of artificial limbs and had
access to all military and Red Cross hos
pitals. Sumey Depsy s frequent visits to
Switzerland caused the French secret ser
vice to be suspicious and led to her arrest
on a charge of giving information to.the
Other agents of the German spy sys-
Germans Most Unscrupulous of
Modern Peoples in Using
Female Agents in War
stars, with more ambition than money,
who were sent to the conservatories of
Italy and Paris. Rome, Naples and Milan
had more than their share of these spies.
Their girlishness, coupled with their wit
and subtlety, helped them to obtain val
uable information information whieh
helped to defeat the splendid army of Ca
doraa. When the net was drawn hun
dreds of these small fish were caught and
many a young girl bow -kehwd bars owes
her b'fc to her extreme youth, to ber thick
blond braids hanging loosely on her
The whole world has been honeycombed
by German spies, mostly women, who have
made their way wherever they were
directed in order to procure desired in
formation. Wearing the insignia of the
American Red Cross women whose parents
were unnaturalized Germans have crossed
the sea to minister to the wounded in
France. These women working in ad
vanced dressing stations have been able to
secure valuable information from the
wounded and prisoners.
In convicting six of these nurses of
German parentage who arrived from
America, the French authorities proved
that they had conveyed to Germany vital
information concerning troop movements
and conditions in the allied armies.
Tools of Agents Higher Up.
Exposures of their system of operating
which have been made to the Government
agents here indicate that these women
spies are simply tools of German agents
higher np. They do not direct schemes,
but go where assigned and obtain such
information as may prove nseful.
In one case it is known that a girl of
known hostile ties obtained a position
where she would be able to observe oper
ations about one of the big coast defence
bases. A Federal officer called upon-her
employers and produced a record showing
that she had spent much of her time with
a Teuton army officer who is now on Ellis
Island and that she had various other
suspects among her most intimate ac
quaintances. He also showed that this
girl had no other .reason to seek such
employment than to obtain information.
She was discharged immediately.
In Germany she would have been shot.
As a rule allied countries are lenient to
women spies and this is perhaps one rea
son why there are so many and why they
are so enterprising.
The death of Mme. Despina Davido-
tan were young; giik, woald-be lajitarviteh S torch, the beautiful young Levaa-.
tine, closed an eventful career. She was
only 23 years old when she died, the other
day on Ellis Island. She had promenaded
her beauty in all the capitals of Europe
and she sought everywhere the company
of diplomats and men in uniform. Ia
Spain she was once detained as a spy,
but nothing beyond close friendship with
German agents could be proved and she
-The fact 'that Germany chooses many
Levantine women as sines is due to the
fact that these natives of the Eastern
Mediterranean have -nn usual ability in
mastering languages. Besides they are
very able diplomatists and they also have
the power of fascination.
Use ia tbe Present War.
Women spies have played an important
role in the defeat of France in 1870, in
Russia's defeat, in the defeat of Rumania,
Belgium and Serbia and have greatly
aided the German advance in the west.
It is but natural that we should glorify
our own and abuse the one who w enlisted
in the service of the enemy. Xb doubt
the allied countries have had and still have
a great many women spies doing services
for them. Bat it is hardly possible that
their recruiting has been as easy as that of
Since Germany made war her chief in
dustry she had to make spying a chief
science. To be a spy is not dishonorable
in Germany and to the German mind.
Men and women have been trained to it
from early childhood and a good many of
them, no doubt, do their work from pa
triotic motives, and these are the greatest
menace, because they are imbued with the
belief that Germany must be the master
of the world.
The Latin peoples have a natural repug
nance for this kind of work. Napoleon,
who was certainly not an overscrupulous
man, refused to bestow a medal of honor
on his chief spy, Sehulmeistcr. "Money,
as much as you want, but the Cross
never!" The halo of romance hovers over
the women spies of the American civil
war., Who can forget Belle Boyd, the
Confederate girl who helped to save
Stonewall Jackson's army? There was
also Emma Edmonds, the Union spy,
whose adventures could scarcely be dupli
cated in fiction; Lydia Darrah the Quak
eress risked her life to assist Washington's
array. Hut sucn actions were prompicu
by patriotism only and were done on the
spur of the moment and not as a pro
fession. 4-, v ji.-ii.it. ,;.