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. . EDITED AND i'UBLtSHED
EVERY THUnSDAV, .'.. ,
'.J. mm ... III K," .
( Ravenna, Portage County , .OAo. .
. '' ' w ' , -
.Two Hottim per annum , in advance.
Two UotLiBs &. Fifty 6sfa in six months.
',' Hollars at .the end of the year.
A sviutiuso : o agreed on by the publisher
eUit papers in Ihe County of Forage, Jctvwry
for the i first Ihree insertions, one square
one dollar tach additional insertion twenty
JtU'tenti,' for, one square, per annum, ten
dollars. , For ontf'-fonrlh of column, fifteen
dollars. YOr half column, twenty do'lart
fBionmMumwJhirty dollaTi,i- !
'PRINTING OFFICE MELODY.
'. -'. ' v '- T " 7 ... . ,
" ' ull up my boys turn quick the mmce.
And let the work begin ' " ' '
. n'm The World is pressing on without,'
,, And we nitis' press within ' ,
V . And we who guide the public mind,
t". i Have influence Far and wide,
And all our deeds ore pood, although
" ; The Bint's at our side. .';' ;.. t.
. ' Let fly the frlsket now my boys ,,.',:
' " "' Who are more proud than we ' .
.. While wait the ftnx'wi? cro'id without, .
r ; The force of power to see
So puil aw-iy none nre so great, ;
" A they who run the cor; -.
" ' And who have dignity like those
' That practiee at the bar '
, And you who twirl the roller there, .
( . .Be quick, you inltyi man I
.'. Old time is roWng on himself, t
So beat him If you can ; -
', Becareful of the Vghl and W;,
' Nor lct the sheet grow pula
" Be careful of the turnkey lojis
' Of ctery head and Ule. ' '' ".
Thuugh high in'ojfice i our stand.
Arid pi ous is our cast. ' , '2
' '. We would hot cast a slur on those,
" Who fill our lower place -.
i 7 : The gsiing world is fed by us,
"' Who retail knowledge here,'
-"By feeding that we feed ourselves,
. - 'Nor deem our fire too dear.
' Pull op my boys turn quick the rounce,
, And thus the ehse we'll joini ...
We have deposites in the bank.'
Our diaw are full fin t '
And who should more genteelly cut '.
A figure or a dah I
' Tet sometimes we who ps so much, .
' Oursctres are pressed for cash,
-,'.- . , ... TYro. '
tf 'twere not for the splendid light
" That trembles from yon beautious star,
How 'dark would be the form of night,
Careering in her dusky car !
. 'Tis thus enlivening woman cheers
Mnn's gloomiest" hour with fond caress,'
: When nouxhl of kindred life appear
To seoth the pangs of deep distress .
And yet how oft his reckless heart
Neglects her in her reign of bliss
Tis only in affliction's smart, . 1
' We truly kn'iw what weman is.
: Then wherefore, man, forgets that friend,
When fortune's brighter planets shine ?
Remember, when their beauties en-l,
' How dark the night that must be thine!
But thou art like the thoughtless roc, '
That sports around the fountain's brink,
tier heed the rill that glides below,
. Nor cares its limped wave to drink
tJot so when 'mid the desert's heart,
He feels the pains of thirst begin
Oh! then the bitterest draughts were sweet
To sluko the fire that burns within,
bo, when with grief and care oppressed,
How soon we fjy to woman's arms!
Ands suppliant round her gentle breast,
Forget 'our woes for beauty's charms I
TJIE HIGHWAYMAN OFF HIS :
. A rider to a commercial house in Lon
.dorijWBa atlncked a few miles beyond
'. Winchester, by a single highway man.who
-robbed hira of hit purite and pocket book
containing cash nnd notes to a conaider
t able amount:, ; MSir," Baid the rider, " I
have suffered you to take my property
; and you nlo welcome to it. It is iny
t roaster's and tho loss of it cannot do him
- much harm, but as it will look very cow.
rdty in me to nave been roDoea , wmioui
-i- re a pistol through my coat.", With
Inal inn HftV (ID eOCO. 1 8 OUIU WISH YW IV
Bll mv heart,", saiu me niguvuynmin
- where will you have the bull ly'Here,"
. taid the rider, "just by the side of the but -
" ton," The unthinking highwayman, wne
( as good as hi word hut as soon aa ho
. had find, the rider knocked him off his
. horse, Jind wt'.b the assistance of a travel
er.'whff come up at tho time, lodged the
highwamaS Ta jil. " . ; . t'''
. A etory. Bomtiwhat like thia, which by
- the wnv ta a good m.tiy yeara.plder . thn
Joe Miller, lit q. is told of the. late, earl
of Berkeley the fatlier by the byt of the
- valuroU gentleman wh) lately covered
' himself with glory by flowing poor lut.e
Frazer, the publisher of Ft aaer M aga,-
1 - Eine. Tho earl was a notorious snooitr
Y of highwaymen in his d ?v, ': Bahot
V" Heath aud HouUslow Hertth were lit
--r " ""."- ;, - ',- : ' . " - : r
Vol. XIII. No. 0.
siderable numbers and he had often
been heaid to say that lie never would be
robbed by a single foofhacl,. although he
-might think proper to yield hia purse if
wUacked by more than one. ; '
I 'He' wad .crossing Bagihot one night
iii his carriage, when a loud voice was
heard, commanding the coachman to stop.'
The order was obeyed, and in an instant
a pistol was thrust in nt Ihe window, and
a highwayman well mounted, appeared by
the side of the vehicle. " You have said
that you will not be robbed by a single
foolmd, my lord,'? said the robber, "and
I have concluded, to try whether you will
keep your word. I will. trouble you for
your purseand w hatever other valuables
you may have about you.", It is very
tiue,' answered the earl, putting hishiuid
in his pocket that I hnve made such an
assertion; and l'u the fulfillment of it, I
would not give you my purse and pocket
book now, if it was hot for that other fel.
h)w who is behind you," the foot pad
turned hastily' round to see who was look
ing over his shoulder, and in a moment
Ihe earl'a bullet was in his heart.. V. Y.
Com. Adv. . ,
Lord Brougham and the Thieves.
A few years ago, Mr. H. (now Lord)
Brougham sustained a loss of a very im
portant nature, the bags in which ho car
ried his papers to tho courts. In the course
of tho day on which the robbery took
plaCo ho received the following communi
cation :r-"Sir, we will, return you them
bags, what wus stolen out of your car
riage this here morning (seeing as how
they belong to a lawyer, and finding that
wo had got into bad hands,) if so be you
will make us' a decent "recompense, as
honesty deserves. Should you feel in
clined to do so, plcaso go to Waterloo
Bridge this here evening at nine o'clock;
where you will meet with a gemman who
will ax you if your name's Brougham.
Do not. look him too hard in the face, for
he is werry modest, and having some
character to lose, does not like to be seen
in company .with a, lawyer. On your
telling him as your name's really Brough
am, he will give you your old cloathes bag,
and you in return, will give him what you
pleasewo leaves that to your generosi
ty trusting only, as you're a gemman,
you'll behave as sich. We hopes that
you won't give no account of tho person
that you'll meet on the bridge, for. he has
got a sort of a constitutional aversion to
the Old Bailey, seeing as how it is a dis
ease that has proved fatal to all his fami
ly. . We thinks you had better come
dressed in top-boots and spurs (with mous
lachios to disguise your person,) as we
then have no doubt of our man. Please
present our werry best compliments to
Sir ThomasLethbridge, with-whom, we
understand you are on excellent terms of
wisiting, and tell him we hopes as how
he'll put as many members to sleep dur
ing his speechifying as he did inst ses
sion; because we can then grab ilu rhino
out of tho members' pockets. So no more
at present,' but rest your , werry humble
servants, "(Signed) their X.'
A Palpable, Hit. A lady suspected
of popery was biougbt before a justice, o
rigid puritan, who told her, nothing could
do away her suspicious conduct but call
in" the pope a knave. ' "I know no-hing
ofbis holiness,' replied (he lady ; "but if
I knew him' as well, as I do your worship,
I could very readily call him a knave."
Scene in a Bank. An Irishman enter
ed one of our banks yesterdayjnnd throw
ing down a $5 bill '.'Will you be kind
enough, Misther, jisl to give mo the spa
ciq for that same bit of a bill f'
"No, sir." '" ' "
' 'Vhnt! cant you bo atther paying such
a smaJI sura as that at all t" ;
' "We have suspended paying specie
altogether." , '
"Suspended, have you? And is this
(he institution, sure, that cannot pay an
honest man five dollars, that you . have
had a man parading about with a loaded
musket, all the long winter through, to
keep off thie ves I If you had a pig or any
thing Valuable to protect, it would have
hII been right enough; but such a poor,
miserable concern as this i, sure. , Ochi
botheration toyou.nnd the like of you Y?..
JV. Orleans Flckayune ' '
1 1 . u " ;v i
' Unsentimental. Ladies, when they
come "Shopping" from the neighboring
towns' should r.of feed their babies in
the Dry" Goods Sto'rrs of Northampton.
It's unsentimental,'? says . the. Norlh
ampton Courier. .' .'"'
A running Jdea. A western paper
says, its the Ostrich uses both legs and
wings when the Arabian courser hounds
in her rear as the winged lightnings
leap from the heavens when the thunder
bolts are loosed so does a little negro
run like the devil when a big dog is after
hin !' ' -- - "V':y: -'
Front the 'Sny'mg and Doings of Sara Slick .
-Tna Yakkeb Lawtk'b ako Quaker.'
J guess you've never been iri ihe
' ri '. .-'II m (tin ..rant Tl!tn-
I1WI III ilili JjHWBMS
iel Webster ; he's a great man, I toll you
King William, No, 4, 1 guess, would be
no match for him as an orator; ho'd talk
him out of sight in half .an hour. If he
was in your house of commons, I reckon
he'd make some of your great folks look
pretty streaked, he's a patriot and states
man, and a most particular cute lawyer.
There was a Quaker chap too cute for him
once, tho'. This Quaker, a prerfy hnow
in old shaver,had a cause down to Rhode
Island ; so ho went to Daniel to hire him
to go down and plead his cau.se for him ;
so, says-he, Lawyer Webster, wha;'s
your fee?" ' 'Why,' says Daniel, 'let me
see ; I have got to go down south to
Washington, to plead the great insurance
case of the Hartford Company ; and I've
got to be at Cincinnati to attend the Con
vention ; and I don'.Csee how lean go to
Rhode Island without great loss and great
fatigue; it would cost you, maybe moro
than you would be willing to give." Well,
the Quaker looked pretty white about the
gills,-1 t'ojl you, when he heard this . for
he could not do without him no bow, and
he did not like this preliminary talk of his
at all ; at last be made bold to ask him the
worst of it, what ho would take t 'Why,'
says Daniel, ' I always liked the Quakers;
they are a quiet, peucable people, who
nevsr goto law if they can help it,and it
would be better for our great country if
there were more such people in it. . I'll
go for vou as low as I can afford ; say
1000 dollars.' The quaker well nigh
fainted when ho heard this, but ho was
pretty deep, too; so snys he, 'Lawjer,
that's a great deal of money ; but 1 have
mere causes there; if I give you the 1000
dollars, will you plead tho other cases I
shall have to give you?' 'Yes,' says
Daniel, I will to the best of my humbla
abilities.' 8" down they went to Rhode
Lland, and Duniel tried the case, and
carried it frr the quaker. Well tho Qua
ker, he goes round to all the fdlcs that
had suits in court, and says he, ' What
will you give me if I get the gteat Daniel
to plead fir you? It cost me 1000 dol
lars for a fee ; but now he and I are pret
ty thick, and, as ho is on the spot, I'd get
him to plead cheap for you;' so he got
300 dollars from one, and 200 from ano
ther, and so on, until he got 1100 dollars;
just 100 dollars more than ho gave.
Daniel was in a great tage when he heard
this. . What,' said he, 'do you thing I
wold agree to your letling me out like a
horse to hire ?'--'Friend Daniel,' said the
Quaker, ' didst thau not undertake to plead
all such cases as I should give thee? If
thou will not stand to thy agreement, nei
ther will I stand to nrne.' Daniel laugh
ed out. ready to split his sides, at thia.
'Well,' says he, I guei-s I might as well
stand still, for you to put the bridie on
this time, for you have fairly pinned me
up iu a corner of ihe fence any how :' so
he went good humored ly to work, and
pleaded them all.
Sweaiuns. General Jackson swears
" by the Great Eternal." Ethan Al
len's favorite cath was, " by the Con
tinental Congress," ZekieJ Penny, swore
"by the big bean pole," and the usual
oath or the Red River Roarer is, ;'by
the sharpest boned, hardest trotter, burnt
shirt and ragged razor.", - ' : ,
From Tegg's Work. .
OF EPINGS, RIVERS, AND THE SEA'.
Having viewed water as it takes its de
parture from the bosom of the deep, and
forms the watery mntoors, we shall, now
survey it as it rises in tho salient spring,
and gives birth to the gurgling rill,, or
uniting, gives coolness to the landscape
in tho magnificient stream, that iii its am
ple range fertilizes its neighborhood.
- Various ' have been the theories, or
rather hypotheses, relating io tho origin
of springs! but it socms the general opin
ion of those who havo made this branch
of natural philosophy their study, that the
true principles which supply the waters of
fountains or springs, aro melted snow,
rain water, and condensed vapours.' 1
The prodigious quantity of vapours rais
ed by the sun's heat, and otherwise, being
carried by the ' winds' over the low lands
to tho very ridges of mountains, as tho
Pyronoan, the : Alps, tho Apenmno the
Carpathian, in Europe; the Taurus the
Caucasus,' Imaus, and others, in Asia
'Atlas, the Montes Lursb, or mountains of
the moon, with other unknown ridges in
Africa;1 the vapours being compelled by
lU .iiMm nP nir to mount ud with it to
the top of those mountains, where tho
air becoming too light to sustain them.and
condensed by cold, they strike- against
their summits,' which' causes an union of
their 'particles,' and aro -precipitated in
water, which gloets dojvn by the cranies
of the stono, and entering into the caverns
of th-s hills, gathers, as iii an alembic,
into tlie basons of stone it finds, which
being once filled,' all the overplus of water
that comes thither, runs over by the low
est places, and breaking out 'by fua sides
of the hills,' form single springs "
' Many of theso springs running down
by tho valiios bdtweon the' ridges of the
hills, and coming to Urlite, form little rivu
let?, or brooks; manyofthese rtg'm meet
THURSDAY; JUNE 15, 1837.
ing in on, common vafley, and gain the
plain ground, -boing grown less rapid, be
c:me a river; and many of these being
united in one common channel, make
such enormous streams as the Rhine, the
Rhone, and the Danube. And it may al
ways pass for a rulo, that the magnitude
of a river, or the quantity of water it dis
charges, is proportional to the length and
heights of these very ridges from whence
tho fountains arise, i . '., . . -'
The several sorts of springs obsovored,
nre common springs, which either run
continually, and then they are called per
ennial springs; or else run only for a
time, or at certain times of, the year, and
then thoy aro called temporary springs.
Intermitting springs, or such as flow and
then stop, and . flow and stop again, by
regular alternations or intermissions.
.Reciprocating springs whose, waters rise
and fall, or.fluw and ebb, by regular in
tervals, or reciprocations of the surface. '
If these reservoirs of water, in the
bodies of mountains, bo situated whero
mineral ores abound, or the ducts or feed
ing streams run through mineral earth, it
is easy to conceive tho particles of metal
will mix with, and bo absorbed . by tho
water, which, being saturated therewith,
becomes a mineral spring or well. If
salt, sulphur, and lime-stone abound in
the strata through which the water passes,
it will then be salinc,sulphureous,and lime
water. If sulphur and iron should both
abound in the parts of tho hill whence the
waters come, tha waters will partake of
the warmth or heat which is occasioned
by the mixture of two such substances in
tho earth where they are found. '
Having noticed tho diflerent kinds of
springs, wc -shall say a few woxds respect
ing the various phenomena, which take
place in rivers.. "
A large collection of water which runs
in consequence of its gravity from a
higher to a lower, part of the surfaco of
the earth, in a channol generally open at
top, is called a river. . ..
A river which flows uniformly, and
preservQS tho same height in the same
place, is said to be in a permanent state;
such rivers aro very rare.
; The water of a river does not flow with
the same velocity through the whole width
of the river. The lino in which tho wa
ter moves with tho greatest velocity is
called tho thread of the river, nnd this
thread seldom iiea: in the middle of the
river, but it genorally comes nearer to
one' side than the other, according to tho
nuture of the impediments, and' the con
figuration of the banks.. Tho velocity of
rivers is likewise less at the bottom of
their cannals that tho surface, owing to
the resistance which the bed makes to the
water as it flows.
The running of rivers is upon the same
principle as tho descent of bodies on in
clined planes; for water no more than a
solid can move or horizontal plane, the
re-action of such a pluno being equal and
contrary io giavii") vuweiy uopwuvs nt
nnd leaves the body at rest; hero wc
speak of a plane of small extent, and
such as coincides with tho curved surface
of the earth. But if we consider a large
extent or long courso of water, then we
shall firtd that such water can never be at
rest but when the bottom of tho channel
coincides everywhere with the curved sur
face of tho earth. In rivers that aro
made? it is usual to allow the fall of 1 foot
in 300, but the declivity of those formed
by nature, is various and uncertain.
The velocity of the water of a river
ought to increase in proportion as it ro
cedos from its source:, but the numerous
causes of retardation, which occur in riv
ers, are productive of very great irregu
larities; and it is impossible to form any
general rules for determining such irregu
Tho Unequal quantities of water (ari
sing from rains, from tho melting of snow,
&c.,) which are conveyed by rivers at
different seasons, enlarge or contracf their
widths, render them more or less rapid,
and change more or less the form of their
beds. ' But independent of this, the sizo
and form of a river .is liable to bo con
tinually altered by the usual flowing of its
waters, and by local peculiarities. The
water constantly corrodes, its bed where
ever it runs . with considerable velocity,
end rubs off the sahd,or other not very co
hoicnt parts. Tho corrosion is most re
markable in that part of the bottom r which
is under the thread of the river; or where
the water descends suddenly from an em
inence as in. a caskadeov water; f all.
Tiie sand thus raisea is aeposueu m pla
ces whero 'the water slacks its velocity:
nnd there by degrees, an obstacle, a bank,
and even aa island, is formed, vhich in
its turn produces' jither changes. Thus
a river sometimes forms itbelf a new bed,
or it overflows tho adjacent grounds.
In some places we find that an obsta
cle or a bent on one side, will occasion a
corrosion on the opposite bank, by direct
ing the impetus of tho strcdm towards that
bank. Thus, from divers causes,1 whose
concurrence iii different proportions, and
rliiTnrent limes, forms an infinite varie
ty, tho velocity of rivers is never steady
of uniform. ' ' ' J '. , : ' ''''. '
, .The. following curious calculation re-
Whole No. 630,
f specting the river Thames, was'made by
Dr. ilalley. In order to estimate the
-quantity of water,' which passes daily
through the Thames,, (he Doctor assumes
that the bredth of the river at Kingston
bridge (where the flocxl seldom reaches)
to be 100 yards, and the depth 3: so that
the section of tho channel is 300 square
yards, and the allowing tho velocity of
tho water to be at the rate of 2 miles per
' hour,' there wtl! run in 24 hours, the
length of 48 miles, or 84.480 vards;
therefore 84,480-1-30025,34-1,000 cu
bic yards, which majte 203,000,000 tons
which the river Thames yilds per diem7
The proportional' lengths, of course,
of some of the most noted rivers in the
world, aro shewn nearly by the following
numbers, extracted from Mr. RenneFs pa
per, 71st volume of-Philosophical Tran
sactions. - 1
European Rivers. . m
Rhino t ;
;. Danube . . ". ... 7,
Wolga . . . '; 9$
Indus . . . ' CJ
Euphrates . . . 8J --
Ganges . . .' . - 9J
Burrampooter . . 9J
' Non Kian, or Ava River ' 9
Jennisea . . 10
0'.y . . . 104
Amoor . -. . 11
Lena . , . ' . 11 J
IIoanho(cf China). . 131
Kian Keu (of ditto) . 15 J
Nile .. . . . 12J
Mississippi . i 8 "
Amazons . . . 151 "
When wo reflect upon the immense
length of these rivers, and their origin,
we are naturally directed to the contem
plation of the round which water travels;
and by which, without suffering adultera
tion or waste, it is continually offering it
self to the wants of tho habitable globe.
From the sea are exhaled those vapours
which form the clouds; these clouds de
scend, in refreshing showers of rain,
which staking deep into the earth, form
springs,jmd springs uniting, form rivers,
which rivers in return feed the ocean.
So there is an incessant circulation of the
samo fluid; and not one drop probably
moro or less nowJhan there, was' at the
creation In fact, " look nature through,
'tis revoluliorl all;" wherever we. turn
our eyes, all seems continually in a state
of change Or circulation. The sun,"
saith Solomon, "ariseth, and the sun
goeth down, and pants for the place from
whence he arose; all rivers run into the
sea, yet the sea is hot full; unto the place
from whence the rivers came, thither they'
Tho sea is a vast collection of waters
in tho deep nnd Unfathomable valleys of
tho earth. This great abyss . occupies
nearly three-quarters of the whole surface
of our globe; which has been thought by
some too great a proportion ; but it is pre-.
bable no moro than sufficient to fertilize
tho land. : t ... ..... . ... ;
The saltness of the sea is a property in
that element, which appears to have ex
cited the curiosity of nuturalits in all ages. .
This property is very rationally judged to
arise from great multitudes' both of mines
and mountains of salt, dispersed here and
there in the depths of tho sea; the salt
being continually diluted and dissolved by
the waters, the Sea becomes impregnated
with its particles throughout; and, for
this reason, tho' saltness of tho sea can
never be diminished.
The saltness of the' sea preserves its
waters pure and swecti which otherwise
would corrupt and stink like a filthy lake,
and consequently nono of the myriads of
creofures which now live therein could
then, have being; from herice, also, the
sea water becomes much heavier; and
therefore ships of greater sizo and quan-
L tity may be used thereon.' Salt water al
so doth not treoze as soon as iresn wa
ter, whence the seas are more freo for
nv'gatiori. ' ' : ' " 1 ! - '
' Tho most remarkable thing in tho sea,
is that motion of the ' water called tides.
It is a rising and fallng of the water of
tho sea. The cause of this is tho attrac
tion of the moon; whereby the part of the
water in the great ocean, ' which is the
nearest tho moon, being most strongly
nttracted, israised higher than the rest
and tho part opposite to it, on tho contra
rv side, being least attracted: is also
higher than the rest,. And these two op-
posite rises oi tne suriace or we water iu
tho great ocean,'' following the motion of
the moon from east to west, aud striking
against the large coasts of the continents
that lie in its way, from thence rebounds
back egain, ond so makes floods rind ebbs
ia narrow seas, and rivers remote from
the groat ocean. ... .., - .
.As the earth, by its duily rofation round
its. axis, goes from the, moon to - the
moon , again, (or the moon appears to
move round the earth from a given merid
ian to tho same again,) in about twenty
four hours, hence in that period there are
two tides of flood, and two of ebb, and
this alternate ebbing and flowing oontui"
ues without, intermission. For instance
if ihe tido be now high water marki M
any port or harbor, which lies open tJ
the occcan, it will presently subside, and
flow regularly back, for about Six hours
when it will be found at low water-mark
After this, it will again gradually advance!
for six hours, and then return back, in the)
same time, to its former situation; rising
and falling alternately, twice a day, or iii
the space of about twenty-four hours. '
Tho interval between its flux and re-
flux is, however, not precisely six hours,
but about eleven minutes "more: so tha
the time of high water does not always
happen at tho same hour, -but is about
three quarters of an hour later every day,
for thirty days; when it again recurs as
before. For example, if it be high water
at any place to-day at hootv it will be low
water at eleven minutes alter six in the
evening;' and consequently, aftertwo
changes more, the- time of high water
the next day' will be aboat three quarter
of an hour; the day following it will be at
aboit half an hour after one; the day fbl-1
fowfng it will be about half an hour after
one; the day .after --that at a quarter post'
two; and so on for thirty dayejwijen l
wiii again bo found to be high ystet at
noon, the same as on the day, tlie- beer;'
vajion was madu. And this Q.xactly a,rj-
swers to the motion of the moon; she ri
ses every day about throe quarters of aft
hour luler than upon.tbe proceeding oue;
and by moving in this manner round the
L earth, completes her, revolution in.abbuC
thirty days, and then begins to risq agajn
at the same time as before. ,.-: - .
To make the matter still plainer sap
pose at a certain place, it. is high water
about three o'clock in the afternoon upon
the day of trie new moou; the following
day it will be high water at about three
quarters of an hour after three; the day
after that at about half an hour past four
and so on, fill the next new moon;' whent
it will again bo high water about three
o'clock, tlie same as before. ; And by ob-
serving the tides continually at tho samo
place, they will always be found to folio1
tlie same rule; the time of high water,
upon the day of every now moon, being?
nearly at tlie same hour; and tbrco quar
ters of an, hour later every succeeding;
day.- .- - ;. ;
The "attractbn, of tho sun also produ
ces a similar' rising and falling of tho wa
ter of the ocean; but, on account of its
distance, not near so considerable as that
which is produced by the moon. It will
be readily understood, that according to"
the different situations of the sun and the
moon, tho tides which are raised by their"
respective attraction, wi'J either conspire
wit h, or counteract each otber,in a great-'
er or lesser degree. , When they consnire'
together, the tides rise higher, and their
mutual action produces what are called!
spring tides. On thecontrary, when thpy
counteract each other; they produce neap;
tides. ' , . . . .
From a" slight consideration of what
has been said, we might be led to imag
ine thai the time of high water at any
place, would bo .when the moon is over
the meridian of that place. : But this, is
by no means the case; it being usually
about three hours afterwards; the reason:
of which may be shown as follows: , The
moon, when she is on the meridian, or
nearest to the zenith of any place, tends
lo raise the waters at that place; but this
force must evidently be exerted . for a
cdnsiderablo tirriO, before the greatest'
elevation will "take place; for, if the .
moon's attraction were to cease altogeth
er; when she has passed the meridian,
yet the motion already communicated tj'
the waters, would make them , continue
to ascend fof some time afterwards; and,?
therefore, they must be much more dis-"
posed to ascend, when the attractive force!
is only in a smaU measure diminished
The waves of the sea, which continue;
after a storm hasceased, and almost every
other motion of a fluid, will illustrate this
idea; all such effects being easily explain
ed, from the consideration; that a smalt
impulse given to a bodin motion, wilt
rhako it move faTther than h would Other-'
wise have done; It is also, upon the same
principle, that the heat is not the grcatestf
upon the longest day, but some tima af'
terwards; and that it is not so: hot at
twelve o'clock as at two or three ia, the
afternoon; because there is a farther in
crease made to the heat afready imparted
Instead of its being higher" tSen, when the
moon is upou the meridian of any place
it will always bo found to happen, as far'
as circumstances will allow, about three
hours afterwards; and tho intervals bes
tween tho flux and reflux, must bo reck-?
oned from that time i the same manner-'
as before.--- - 3 .-- .
The sun icing near the earth in winter'
than in a imrrer, is neare r to it in Febru
ary and October than in.Mfirch. and Sep
fomiier; nnrl. therefore, the createst tide.
happen not till some time after the aatum-'
nal equinox, arid return a little before tho
vernal.' ' .: " 1 '':f:T' '
The tide propagated by the moon tu tho ,
Gorman ocean, when she is three hours
past tho meridian, takes twelve hours tor
come from thence to London bridge:
where it arrives by the time that a ne
tide is raised in the ocean. .'-.-.) .
Those tiro the prmcipaf phenomena of
tides; and, where no local circumstancesi
interfere tho theory and facts: will be
found to agree." But if muef be observed1,
that what has beoii here said, rfcla'tcs only
to such places as lie open to largo oceans,'
In seas and ehannnls, which are more
confined, ahunirjcrof causes ocdur, which
occasion considerable deviations fro'm tlwt
I "encral rule Thu., tt is .tnjjtt war