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Si" SBwklq. ;Paralhi ' Jltinspnper---Druaffb fa' lifit .XtUrnfurr, &ai5, ' Sgrirultnrr, tjje Hrte nnb Iritnrf, i Morals, Jrifrfjanirs, tl;j Markets, (G?nrral .Sntrllignirr, Aljt Jissfuitnatioh of Dfraorratit .ftonrtpfov'$r.
' J3T0. SxTEEIDAKJ
1 THE TTNIOIJ IT MUST AND SHALL BE PRESERVED.'
EDITOR AST) PROIRIETOR.
v y -
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I VII if' I
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BY FLOBEXCX FiECT.
jSfltr f a AM jtir nam mwwg It
I the land where I mm going
. When my earthly life in o'er, .
- -: Where the tired hands ecase the ir striving,
' r And the tired heart aches no more, '
" In that land of light and beauty .
:, -' .Where.no shadow ever canie.
To o'ercloud the perfect glory, , -"
' What shall be my angvl name ?
SiWhcn the spirit who await mo
Meet me at my entering in," ,'-.
' With' what aanie of lore and tnoic
Will their welcoming "begin ? .
" Jut the one so dimmed with earth-stains,
..- Linked with thoughts of grief and blame;
- Ho 4he name which mortals give me .
1." Will not be my angel name T . "
- I have heard it all too of ten --
Uttered by unloving lips ; '
' 4 Earthly care,' and sin, and sorrow,',
JJ)im it with their deep eclipse;
: I sli all change it like a garment " -
: " "When I leave this mortal frame,'."
; And at Life's immortal baptism. ,
" 1 bhall have auu'.kcr name if . . .- . . .
r Far the angel wlirnot call mo '
- By tbe name I bear-on earth,
' They will speak a holier language,
i Where I have nry holier birth. -"
Byllabled inleavcnly mnsic7 .'
Sweeter far than earth may claim
Very gentle, pure, and tender i1 - "
Such will be my1 angel name !
' , It has thrilled my spirit often: ...
- In the holiest of my drcaim, . f
.-But its beauty lingers with me - ;
" Only till the morning beam ;' ' -Weary
of the jarring discord ' , .
Which the lips of mortals frame, -When
shall I, with joy and rapture, .
'Answer to my angel name ?':-
' -fort land Eclectic '
A DREAM WITHTN A DSEA1IL
BY "A. C WASnBURM.. , . ".
t dreamed that for a long time I
. courted Cliarlotte wLat need of Ureani
. ing ? a It was true. Nevertheless I
dreamed that for a long time I courted
CLarlotte, atxl at last.which wa not true
married Lerl ' - A;ff I thoawht that.CLar
lotte and .1 lived very happily togethe'r.
She loved ine .better than gho ever
thought she could before-tto wero mar
ried, for I loved her exceedingly, and
it as rcrj kind t her "-'-
' I remember ' how long in was that I
wooed her, always hopiDg, though- some
times fearing that she would never love
me so as to marry me; how when at
" last we were married, and I carried,
her. home to my pretty cottage,' I could
' hardly contain myself for joy ; and when
I saw her seated in our own parlor, on
the wedding eve, I could riot keep a tear
from trickling down my cheek ; and
how she kissed away the tear, and when
she knew the cause, how she burst iato
a flood of tearsj and said she would love
me the bettor or my having loved her
so ; and how . that wo were from that
time wholy united in heart and sympa
thy. ; . .;' 'v ' .
Then in the course of time, we had
two darling children, which - we both
loved aud 1-tbongb.t my cup of happi-
''ness completed. . I had been an ambi
tious man in my youth, and had eipe-
j-ieoeed. much of the disappointment
incident to a lifo-Jfor fame.' But when
God had given us two such lovely chil
dren, I thought it was abusing his mercy
to neglect them ' for the applause of the
world -i-and so deroied myself entirelj
p ' their welfare If I worked hard
nd was inclined to feel peevish and
.cross, I- though), how that -I was laboring
;to make happy, aod good, and great, tLe
lear boys, and I forgave every thiirgelae.
-If I became tired of the turmoil of life
I was the moreTappy wneii I got home,
for the children were always watting
, and glad to see rue and their presence
- . immediatly banished all anxiety aod
' care. They seemed so happy when I
ame for Charlotte used to teach the.ra
Xo prise .ray presence by dating their
-pleasures by my arrival ; that I thought
it joy enough" for one mortal to have
Jooked upon the impersonation of. inno
cence and joy. in his own children. "
Then, when the bovs were asleep, how
, we used to talk about them ; how anx
-ions Wera hen either of them was
restless or unquiet I IIow we used to
reoon oa tQ80j they would, give us is
. nd now.io the pappinesa of our lot
wo shed tear. of nappiDesg and joy J
With what for,or did we uaitfl ja pray
er tor their 1 ftn(j prcterration,
.and wish all the orld as happy as wo
were, ::,W-beca sMsh ia OUf QJ
and felt to caro lmu for aajthingbut
home, ne e-; ?;aeBt 0f the gift
Ve had like to bav . ,oton tbe giver.
PbU legth the younger
boy, was sick, and we feared he would
die. ". We then remembered - in whose
hands his life was, and I bolieve, ever
after regarded our treasures as trusts
committed to our keeping. . Charlie suf
fered great pain, but he complained not.
His very submission smote our hearts
and though we could not think bo was
to die, jet we thought he was too good
to live. Benny co-ild no longer smile
upon us, but watched by his brotber'i
bed without speaking or moving, unless
to do him some sorvice. Wo felt anx
ious about Chares, yet forboro to speak
of our anxiety, though when he was
asleep' we could no longer conceal our
sorrow and fears. ,.-And when one day
the physician imprudently said, in his
hearing, ihat he feared Charles would
die, he looked at him in surprise, as if
he had not thought of that; and kissing
the feyered brow of his sick "brotLer, he
came and stcod by his his mother's side,
aod looking in her face' as much as to
say you won't let brother die, he saw a
tear in t'ie clear, blue eye of his moth
er, and he s.bbed aloud; and Charlotte
could contain herself. no longer, but
dropped hot tears on his faco faster than
she could kiss them away. Then
feared-if Charlie should die lest Benny
should die too: and then I knew that
Charlotte could not bear all this, and I
prayed in my heart to God for 'Charles.
And the next day, when - the good phy
sician said the danger was past, we felt
to thank God that he had so chastened
our affections, and ever loved " him the
. So we lived in love and happiness for
many years, and all that time not a
shade of discord passed between us; and
I often thought what a dreary world
this had deen to me if Charlotte ' had
never been mine. ' I used to pity my
bachelop neighbor, and, as I thought,
I could see the tear of disappointment
in his eye when he witnessed my happy
lot. I saw a vision, and oaly the figure
of Margarot, my once loved and pretty
sister, who existed theu but in the land
of spirits, and was before me.
And I told Margrctof the vision, and
could not repress a sigh that it was not
reality ; and rousing long on what I was
and what I might have been had nature
dealt with mo more kindly, until the
vesion returned. - Again I lived the life
of youth's fancy. ' . . v -
Bat the boys now, began tv mingle a
little with thi world, and we feared
we were not equal to the task of edu
cating them. We trembled when wc
thought of the dangers before them,
though we could not believe it possible
that they should ever do wrong. Alas!
what trouble ras before us. .
I had carried home a box of straw
berries, and set them in the pantry, and
setting myself down in the library,
waited for Charlotte to come home from
shopping. I saw Charlie come ' from
the pantry, but thought nothing st the
time, and when Benny came in, bade him
bring them to me and divide' them be
tween them they were gone-, Charles
must have taken them, ' for no one else
had been in the pantry. I called him
to me, and asked if he had taken them.
I asked without concern, for I knew if
he had, he did it supposing it to be
right. lie said, No, sir." " Ah,"
said I, " you did,' He then inquired
what ones I meant, aud I told him and
told him he roust confess it, or I must
punish hitr. But when I talked so
serious of punishment, he seemed con
founded. He turned pale, and only Baid
" I did not do it." That was a trying
moment ; and when Charlotte came in,
we considered long and aniously what we"
ought to do. Should we let (he- theft
go unpunished,-and thefalsehood to be
repeated. Again war urged him to con
fess. The answer was. Still tue same,
There was no alternative but a resort to
what I had prayed Heaven might spare
pae. I punished him severity,' but he
confessed not. I wished I had not be
gan, but now I. must go on. I still, in
creased the casti'gation, aud it was only
when I told him that I would stop
when he owned the theft, and not before
that he confessed he had takea the bei
ries. After this cruel punisement he went
out and : found Benny, who had been
crying piteously all the time, and then
my two boys went and hid themselves.
I would have suffered the rack to baye
recalled that hour. It was too late.-
On going into the kitchen shortly after,
I found a poor motpto of . the., neighbor
hood with the box, which she said her
yrievish son had confessed be stole from
the pantry. Perhaps some parents im
agine the feelings cf Charlotte and my
self wben we made this discovery. But
tbey are fewT ; The boys both, shunned
us, and we dreaded .to sea them. But at
last we sent for them to come in, and
fhey dared no refuse to obey. L too5
Charles in my armcs. I asked hia to
forgive me: I told him who fcok the
berries ; I shed tears without measure
t begged him to forgive mo ta kiss maj
as he was wont. He couIdSbt do it. r
ASHLAND, ASHLAND COUNTY , OHIO,
heart seemed -broke. Had ho died I
thought I could havo borne it, but I
could not endure this. . When he slept
he was fitful and . troubled ; ah ! his
troubles could not be greater than mine.
I slept not that night ; no, nor for many
nights after that ; but I watched him in
lo ssIaawv k v 3 ntsnn Sa Vt Nr fat T ilviAn
on his cheek, which he wiped off as poi
son, and for many weeks I would rise
several times every night, and go and
gaze on his pretty faoe, on which was
stamped the curso for my own cruel
In the. midst of these sore trials, the
lovely face of Margaret again appeared
before me, and again the vision vanished
into nothing. -A nd I told her this part
of the dream, and even then could not
suppress a tear that it was a dream, and
that the children of W could never
have an existence or a name.
Then the kind Margaret spoke words
of comfort to me, and made me . repress
the half-formed fecling.of discoutent.
Have you not," said she, "said
you would be satisfied for only one hour
of tho love of Charlotte ?"
" True," I replied, " and that dream
was worth moro than all my life, before."
Have-you not known in that the
joys of a parent, and have you cpt seen
what sorrows and trials might have been
yours, . rrotn wuicn you nave now es
caped ? - And do you now complain of
your lot, -W-
You know not
the designs of Providence.
Charlotte be- yours in the
world to I
come r . . .. .
" God grant it !" said I ; " but where
will be Btfnny and Charles ? They can
never be, and I shall die, aud tbe flame
of parental love . will burn in me, and
never cm it have an object." ,
" Hush, you 1" said Margaret !rv can
not God 'give you - in tho other ' world
those stirits of fancy ? Did you not en
joy.them ia the dream,, and caunot the
same power, make you enjoy them in
Elysium? Is it nothing that God has
done for you m snowing you what m,ght
' . . . .
have been, ana what can Do Merer
.A JJA Dllll.UillVBklWlftUU' Jv
A ota r . still nmwi.nAfrf.it I n vmil
still distrust his goodness ? " Is it noth-
' . . , 1 . . i .- .
ing that he has kept you from tempta-
tion, and that you. haye so clear a con-
science ? Will you not be worthy of
i. , . . . , . ,
unariotte in ueaven ; ana nave you no
;tnj. ,i t,;i tTaka a,. a
bin..vuuu w 0 ;
dear friends still and will not Margaret
rui miiirniflTi.anff A rl vnn Krt - Inner a I
- 6 - c -
J ""J J
rnn fiAintiin'-in thm vaIIav nklMr v"
my deserts and I will no more complain
but thank my Heavenly Father for. the
dream-children' he hath given me ?"
I felt reproved by tho words of
Margaret," fror I felt I had often indul
ged in useless repining ; and I deter
mined I would do so no more, but pati
ently await my time to enjoy the loved
ons, both real and ideal in heaven. I
again turned to speak to Margaret but
Margaret had vanished tj the land of
ppirits, and I was aloue, the solitary man
I had long been.- It was a dream with
in a dream. , .
-A GEM OF THOUGHT. .
Will it not be a merry time when
men with a blithe face and open look or piunder, like the Rangeis of Texas
shall confess they are poor ? When P r,enlir class of .wonle iika th
they shall bo to the world what they are
Look at this peasant his faco bronzed
with midday toil. From sunrise to sun
set, with cheerful looks and uncomplain
ing words, he turns the primal curso to
dignity, and manfully earns 1 ii bread by
the sweat of his brow.
And here is a white-haired shepherd.
As a boy, a child playful as the lambs he
as tenaeu, ne laoorea., lie nas dream-
ed away his life upon hillsides, on downs
on solitary neatns ; tue numwe, simple, was m08t sbamefully abused by the
patient watcher for fellow-man. Soli- poIeS( who were afterwards summoned
tudehas been his companion; he has to witness the consequences of their in
grown 1 1 and wrinkle, bent in the eye j'U8trce jn the dismemberment of their
of the burning sun.. His highest wis- country. The Jesuits crept into Fo
dom is a guess at the coming weather ; land. Here as everywhere else, they
he may have heard of diamonds, but he iaid their nlots.tnd wove their intrigues.
1 it. - - . rr I
Knows tue evening star, lie is to
mind, a most reverend knight of the
fleece, Douglas Jerrold.
- 7 r 7 t I
. Evil Company
The following beau-
tifel allegory is translated
German. - Sophronies, a wise teacher,
would not suffer even his grown up sons
and daughters to arseciate with those
whose conduct was not pure and upright.
m m TV f . . . . n m 1
i;ear lather, saia tne gentle Julalia
. -. - y, x . . I
.u vu.upbJ 10 Tl81t
the volatile Lucida " dear father, you
must think me very childish, if you im
agine that we shouldbe exposed to dan
ger by it." The ffctherCook in silence a
;,dAd coal fronrtho hearth, and reached
rt td his daughter." It mill not burn
yon, mj child ; takatiEulaliadid
and behrfdber but3fni.: white hand
was soiled and iblaekened.and. as it
said th'aAer, " you sea my childthat
coals, evlhi if they do not burn, blacken.'
rri . j l ir . 1
i t. 1 t. -
g.1 OIvuf.uS, Fcp c,
have contributed so much by their arms
to tuo arsrandizmcnt of the itussian
Empire. Historians and geographers
(met heads the Cossacks of tbe lion
and the Cossacks of the Dnieper. All
the various tribes of Cossacks of which
we read, are probably offshoots from :
the one or the other of these two princi
pal stocks. '
We will speak first of the Cossacks of
tho Dnieper. So long ago as the Fif-
tecnth Ucntury, they bad their home on
the banks of this river, which flowed
through their country from north to
south. On their north lived the Poles
and tho Russians.' On their south, the
Empire of the Turks extendod along the
entire northern coast cf the Black Sea.
Thoir country was very appropriately
called the Ukraine that is, the Fron
tier Country. Its natural situation
made it the bulwark of Christendom
against Jionan.meoanism m tuis part or
the world, ana its innaDitants always
had to Dear tee brunt ot tuo uatue, in
tho long and bloody wars between the
Turks and their northern neighbors.
jven in times ot peace, tney werenever
lreu ,rum lue. UUSC UI uuui:n iu4uu.
I r i e it.- J ; -el.. J j ; :
ueJr wcr" vut'tZv" 10 ul:P luouiscin.
continually on the lookout for the ene-
my; . 1 his, from tbe beginning, tbey
became a nation of soldiers. In the
times when the Poles were prosperous
and powerful, the Cossacks of the Duie
per acknowledged their supremacy, and
fought under their banners. Sigismund
T. who c&me in tha thrnna in 15(17. tpnn
lh firBt Polil.lr;nr who availed himpplf
of the Cossacks for the defence' of his do
minions against the Tartars ; . though we
I ..ij v. r ii 1 :
... H r
I 1)1 1 I llLI'Ca WlbU LUD 1U11HU UUU111LV. .1 U
... . . . .
.1 ' 1 . I
portant part in the history of Poland.
" - '
P"""'""" . "
I ad them to habitf of military discipline ;
I nc connnea to mem tne possession 01
Lj,. territor and the en"o idcdI of
e! CrrI0ry;., . ... ".'?yU1CDrril0
I i 4t. ri-
I a rntA .f l:
recognized, and no Cossacks was disqucl
ified by distinctions of rank from attain
ing the highest officers. Their eheif was
called the Iietman or Attaman He
was chosen anually, and during his term
of office his authority was unlimited.:
The Cossacks were not at all exclusive or
clannish in their customs. Nobody was
excluded from their community ; hence
their numbers were swollen with fugi
tives from justico and victims of oppres
sion from the countries around them.
Thus they beer mo a mixed race, thongh
tho Sclavie element was always predom
inant. For this reason, some have said
that the Cossacks were not, properly
speaking, a notion, but only a. military
organization, for the purpose of defence
Lciuattersf our Wesfern country. M.v
ny of the Cossacks were sailors, rather
than horsemen, and the so-called Rafor
og Cossacks, who lived ou the lower
Dnieper, were notorious for their pira
tical excursions oa the Black Sea.
So long as the Poles kept their prom
ises, and respected the liberties of the
Cossacks, so Ions' the Cossacks remain.
cd fa;t hful subject of the Poles. But
; t .tand. rccordcd UD0 the tmges of his-
torV that tho iojaity 0f the Cossacks
Thev insinuated themselves into the fa
vor of thekinr: thev rained aCce. to
tho councils of the nation, and from that
. e .... . . vlVnt Tun
. . . -.nni
" . . ' " "
premacy of the Roman Pontiff. ' They
Llnnt thtt 0 i p. ...
f . it.,- ..i m .'..'. ' I
Rnssiansfl They are damnable here-1
aiov uv iiaiiuum uuui;u Ul ma 1
iu ,JaSuUs, u They must
forthwith be converted," ffnswtred the
Poles: and so tho fires of persecution
wero lighted against this innocent peo-
pie. '.. '".'" """'.
The "nobility of. Poland, too, have
just' as much to answer fr,. in their
treatment of tho Cossacks, as tho clergy,
The haughty aristocrats could not bear
to see tho Cossacks enjoying equal priv-land
ileges "with themselves. ' Thev wished
meterr&'0 ttem- The wiU of tLe
kipg was; of no effect,: ; Tho monarchy
pecqme elective, and the king. was
no better than a, football, to be kicked
WEDNESDAY MORNING, APRIL
nobles vied with the priests in oppressing
tha f"!nKOflrL-fl fnr fiitnlerr nee in reli
is j b - - j j
I ir polities. Treaties were disregarded
Md old established laws trodden under
There lived among the Cossacks
at this time,' a man by the jaw-breaking
name of Chrcuieueski. ' He ' became
their-Hctinan. ' His property, had been
vlofeted-, acd family outragedby a Pol
ish Governor. Private revenge, there'
fore, added fuel to his patriotism ; h
made an alliance with the Tartars of the
Crimea. An army was raised, larg
enongh to conquer the Poles, who, in
,64rt by trcat; 0f Zborou, were
forced t0 reCognize all the rights and
privileges- of the Cossacks. But th
Cossacks had become too far alienated
from the Poles, ever to be their friend
again. No treaty of peace could close
up the beach between them. -The Polos
and Russians were enemies; and the
Cossacks had become formidable onoug
toehold the balanco of power between
them. They had generally fought on
the side of the Poles, but tho wrongs
thev -had suffered led them to forge
tLeir eDmit towards tue. RUSBians.
Theif religi0n was the same that of th
RussianSj and tbey were as nearly allied
thcm by b!oo.j a8 totLe poles Thej
accordingly put themselves under tho
Drotection of Russia, and in 1654 th
1 . . . ...
treaty of peace was concluded which
mnde "tUem the subjects of the Uzar.
his even gave a shock te Poland, frdm
i - she never recovered.
But -the Cossacks of the Dnieper fared
no better with the Russians for their
masters, than if they had submitted to
the oppressions of the Poles. It made
little difference that the Czar had sworu
. . . i r . .
10 reaped -"ir nuu tv
fraui trom lntertering in their eternal
affairs. The Democracy of the Ukraine
ana tuo Acsoiutism 01 ivussia couiu doi
.1 11 9 s I - 1.1 .
exist together, anymore than fire and
water. Sooner or later the one was to
absorb the other. Tho process
probably hastened by the turbulent and
rere' a nation 61 warriors, andTIke war
' like nations 'generally, they were heroes
on the held if battle, and notorious
robbers everywhere else. When Peter
the. Great and Charles XII of Sweden
were at war with each other, the Cos.
....... . . .
Wascppa for their iietman
the same whom Byron Las immortali
zed; he turned traitor to Russians, and
united his forces to those of Charles.
The victory gained by Peter at the bat
tle of Pultowa, in 1703. gavo him full
opportunity to exercise his revenge
against the rebels. The Cossacks were
deprived of their most valuable privil
eges ; they were no longer permitted to
choose their own Hetman ;. and the am
bassadors whom they sent to the Czar to
cmp OI gr.ev.uces, were Pu.
I i m l ii 3 n 1-
in cuains. . iweire iquusuuu vosoauaa
ended their days in hard labor, as con
victs. upon the Ladoga canal. Ten thou
sand more were martched into Persia
In 1 784, Catharine II put a finishing
stock to the work which her predeces
sor -had begun. Tue boundaries of the
empire bad been - ef tended fur beyond
the Ukraine. Tho Cossackswero no
longer the protectors"' of- tbe frontier,
and henco there was no need of continu
ing an organization so inconsistent with
the despotic system of Russia. They
had conspired together to throw off the
yoke of Russia, and establish an iudepen
dent government. Thus, a plausible
pretext was furnished for their complete
annihilation. Some of their number
were transported to the banks of the
river Kuban, whero their descendants
still from part of the line of the Cau
casus, under the name of Cossacks of the
Black Sea. With the exception, of the
existence of the Cossacks ot the Dnieper
is only a matter of history, and atl traccs
of their institutions in the Ukraine are
well-nigh obliterated. ...'. -
Tho'Cossacks of tbejTApn, on the con
trary, still continue to tccupy their an
cient Lome" in one of the most fertile
districts ottue liussian rmpire. xneir
tcrritoia-is a little ldrger than the State
01 "aiana, contains a population oi
m T T 1 l.- m
700,000 of which 150,000 aro serfs.
Besides these, there are about 300,000
so-called Cossacks, distributed in milita
ry colonies along the line of the Cauca
BU8, and through Siberia, who trace their
-ii:Ai,; a ti,- n..-o r.t, ri
- u awM,
through the early sttlers, that were
aenfout from them, in former times, to
those regions, to guard the frontiers.
Thus, it appears thatthe Cossacks of the
present Russian Empire number, at pres-
cnt, about a million ofsouls.
As early as 1560, tho Cossacks of the
Don became tributary to Russia. In
those times, they were a wild race of
frcebootors, famous for their courage
skill in war, and their turbulent and
nredatorv imirit: - We meet them in hi.
ory, fighting the battles of the Russians
against the Tartars, Vr taking an active
part iu the internal convulsions of the
empire ; engaged sometimes, in exploring
oiisly unknown ; at other times, in plan
.dering the caravans that bear the com.
mcrce of the Orient from Azof and As.
trachan to Moscow. , To the roving and
restles spirit- of -the Cossacks, Russia
owes her dominion over Siberia. .In the
reign of John the Terrible, a Cossack
chief by the nanio of Yermak, in the
employment of .thsSfcrflg.au.offsa family
of wealthy merchants, undertook, with
a handful of followers, 870 in number,
an expedition across the Ural Moun
tains, which, like the expedition of Cor
tez to Mexico, resulted in the conquest
of an empire, iuiuic S3 in extent, and
abounding in mcxhaustable mines of
gold. Tho decendapts of these adven
turers and of those who followed them,
now compose the aristocracy of Siberia.
Some of thcm live in the towns ; others
are stationed in garrisons along the fron
tiers of China. '
From the Cossack of Siberia, we pass
by the Cossacks of the Ural and Oren
burg, who uuiuber together about 100,-
000, to those who compose tho military
lino of the Caucasus. Their population
mounts to about 150,000, of whom on
less than 20,000 are constantly under
anus. They occupy the chain of fortifi
ed villages or-ni(Iitary posts which ex
tends along tbe northern frontier of Cir-
cassia, from the Black Sea to tho Cas
pian. :J.he decendants or tue uossacxs
who were first sent to this rigion, have
had their ranks thinned so often
by ' the fortunes of the war, and then
again, so often rc-enforccd by fresh levies
from various parts of the Empire, and
volunteers from the Tartars and other
tribes around them, that the original
stock of the Cossacks .is scarcely discern-
ble in this "mixture ofraces. "But if
these military colonists are not Cos
sacks by decent, they arc more so by their
habits and manner of life than any oth
er subjects of Czar. Here, as nowhere
else, the frontier settler is constantly ex
posed to the same dangers from the Cir
cassians, as the Cossacks of former times
were from the Tartars. ' The same cir
cumstances aud necessities beget the
ft hnbits of li fa, and tho same obarae
ter. Here, the Cossacks are engaged
m a perpetual warfare with their south
ern neighbors . like these of former
times and hence we find them possess-
d of the" same bold aud ad venturers
spirit, the same hardihood and bravery.
But it is far 'otherwise with those
Cossacks who still dwell in the land "of
their ancestors, on the banks of th
I'on. j.iie Dounaancs ot the JUnipire
have been pushed far beyond their bor
ders, so that their country is no longer
the theatre of war no longer the fron
jtier, any mors than the Ukraine. Their
soil is remarkab!e for its fertility.
Hence, they have become an agricultural
and pastoral people, much more inured
to the arts of peace than of war. As
was said above, their population amounts
to about 700,000. They speak the same
language as the Russians, and belong to
the same great Sclavie race. . . The Cos
sacks -of the Don - never undertook to
throw off the yoke of Russia, and make
themselves entirely independent, like
tho Cossacks of the Duieperand. hence
jbeybave been spared tho fate which be
fell the later. But their government
nd-institutions underwent serious mod-
fications, in tho reigns of Peter the
Great and Catharine II. , Jn the pres
ent century, too, and especially within
he last twenty' or thirty years, process
of assimilation to the despotic system of
Russia has been going on. so that the
Cossacks, although more favored, per-
aps, than the other subjects of the Czar,
till retain very few of their ancient lib
erties..- 1 hey no longer choose their
owir'Ilctma'n. The title of Iietman of
11 the Cossacks is now vested in the
creditary prince of the empire. Most
of their military and civil functionaries
re appointed by the Czar. Once, the
principal of equality prevailed, but now,
ristoeracy has been instituted, and serf
dom established. Formerly, all lands
wero held in common. But in 184 1, this
kind of tenure was abolished, and every
free male person was made the exclusive
crner of about 80 acres of land, and to
every serf was given half that amount. -The
Cossacks of tho Don hav no direct
taxes to pay, and they are free from the
opperatiou of the government monopo
lies, which weigh so heavily -upou the
ther provinces. v In consideration for
these exemptions, every Don Cossacks
between tho age of 16 anc24, must hold
himself in readiness for military duty at
any moment, armed, equipped, and
mounted, exclusively at his own expense'.
By the operation of this system of con
scription, the Cossacks of the Don furn-
ish an army of 50,000 to 60,000 caval-
for the services of the Czar These
troops , from, perhaps, tho best body of
light cavalry- in Europo, I No depend
ence can bo put upon tham in a pitched
battle. They would never stand before
the 'mouth of a cannon, or a charge of
bayonets. : But they are proverbial for
their skill in ..horsemanship, and. their
aharpnM in reoonnoiteriDg an enemy.
Suwaroff, called them the eye of the ar
my. Large detachments' of Cossacks
always attend the movements of the reg
ular army, when in active service ; and
all who have read the account of Napo
leon's campaign in Russia, know well
how efficient they are in harrassing the
eeemy, and impeding his progress.'
' The Cossack troops., arc not allowed
to idle in time of peace Tbey are em
ployed to carry into execution the ex
tensive system of internal' police and
espionage of the Empire." They form
the escort of government ; officials and
persons of distinction on their journeys,
and the guard of exiles en their way to
Siberia. ' They aro intrusted with the
conveyance of important messages from
one part of the empire to another, where
dispatch is the most that is required.
They arc the spies, the gens tTiirms, and
hangmen of the Empire. - They are em
ployed on the froutiers to prevent the
smuggling of contraband goods, and.
waylay those travellers who" presume to
entcrRussia without a paspcrt." In Asia,
along the southern" boundary, which
strctehes more than 4,000 miles through
inhospitable wastes from the Black Sea
to the Paciffic Ocean, aud in Europe,
along the bank of the Danube and the
borders of Germany to the Baltic Sea,
the Cossack pursues bis old votation of
guarding the "frontiers. ' Wherever Rus
sia extends her sway, there he posts him
self as sentinel, to watch the avenues cf
approach to this immense ' Empire to
guard them alike against the incursions
of tho savage hordes of Asia, and' the
introduction of the revolutionary pro
paganda of Europe tho barbarism of
the East, and . the civilization of the
West. The attribute of ubiquity which
he apparently possesses, renders him a
fit symbol of the power of the Czar. To
the traveller in Russia, especially, he
seems : everywhere present, and hence :
the word Cossack, in the laoguage of
Western . Europe," has come to be a sy.
rionym, or perhaps, a turm of opprobri
um for everything Russian.
In conclusion, it may be stated that
the entire military foree of tho Cossacks
amounts to about 125,000. ARermak
ing allowance for the troops nceesary
elsewhere, it is estimated that from 50,
000 to 70,000, armed and mounted.
might be brought into tbe field against
If we were to tell a number of friends
that they "don't know what a "home" is,
they would grow somewhat indignant
perhaps, use hard words. And yet it
may be remarked that the number of
persons who know what a genuine home
is, by experience, is surprisingly few.
One man in good circumstances will tell
us that be has a fine houso of his own,
in which every comfort and convenience
are provided. . He has a wife and chil.
dren there also, and they give life to
the place. Very true. . But does be
prefer that home, thus furnished and
thus cnUvened, tg every other place in
the world ? " Docs he sigl when tbe
hour for leaving comes, and smTle when
be is- permitted to vrcturn ? Docs ha
love to sit be thtfcheerful fire andTon
die the children, entering into 1 their
little disputed with a curious interest?
Docs he take particular note of the birds
in the cage, and the cat near the fire ? If
not, he has no home, in the dearest sonse
of the word. If bis m.indis altogether
absorded in the dusty ways of business
if ho hurries from the house in the
morning, Und is loth to return at night
if, while he is at home, he continues to
think of the journal and ledger,' and re
pulses the advances of the prattling chit '
dren ho has no home;' he only has a
place where, he lodges and takes his
meals.' - - ' .
AI4! happy is ho who knows and ap
preciates tho full bliss of home; whose
heart is warmed and humanized by its
cheerful influence, who feels how-, supe
rior in purity of pleasure are all its" en
joyments to the turmoil delights' of out
door life..--. Thrice happy is such a man.
He discovered the only paradise -this
world can afford. It is only such a man
who can have a deep and sincere pity for
the unfortunate creatures, who are home
less, ne regards them as being cut-off
from the best influence of tho earth, nnd
exposed to the action of all the darker
waves of life. He feels keenly for him
who has no fireside- no dear ones to wel
come him with smiles, aud prattle, over
tbe history of the day no tonguo to
sooth b.im when heavy cares have troub
led the mind and rendered his heart
sore ; aud the sympathy of such a man
is not slow to 0 vet flow in act s of beney
olence. A good home is tho source of
the-fountain of charity in the hearts vi
Our advice to those wLo have -po
homes, such as wo have described above,
is to get them as soon as posible. , They
can never be contented and. substantial
citizens, nor thoroughly bappy men, un
til they follow this council. . .Got homes.
Fill thou w4tkr .th objects of Jov and
endearment, aud aeek there for the pare
delights which tho world besides cannot
INFLUENCE OF BOOKS.
A library is a warehouse,' ia which
the precious merohandiso of knowledge
may be had for the asking: The read
ing of good books will cultivate and fer
tilize such portions of the mind as "yoar
profession abandons to neglect, so that
your intellectual development will" be
symmetrical and harmonious. There is
no condition cf life "which is. not better
ed by knowledge. 'Are yoa successful f
Knowledge-will.' crown and "embelish
your prosperity, as the capital docs the
shaft. It will save. you front the vanity
that awakens ridicule and the insolenoe
that begets envy.: Are yoa unsuccess
ful? It will dignify your adversity,
and defend you against the assaults ' of
despair. It will - ensure yoa the sun
shine of chee fulness and tbe tranquil are
of peace. ' '.' : '
Books will shield you from the nar
rowing and hardening influenco of world
ly pursuits. They will set yoa upou
heights of contemplation, and .broaden
the landscapes of the mind. ' The actu
al life that' is around us is, for the most
part, a struggle for subsistence. We
sec men as a general rule, under tbe in
fluence of the selfish appetites, warped
aud belittled by the love - of money or
the love of power, soiled with the dust-
and sweat of ignoble conflicts, drunk
with success or desperate from failure.
The dark side of humanity is turned
towards us."1- Never to see anything else
is to fall into a habit of contempt for
our kind, which hardens the heart audi
dwarfs the mind." Beware of contempt :
it is a sharp acid that eorrodos toea ves
sel in wjiich it is kept.'
Books furnish' a corrective to this
state of feeling. From them . learn
that man is, as Sir- Thomas Brown has .
called him-" a noble animal." ; Through
them we contemplate a wider stage, ac"
tors of more regal port and bearing, more
heroio passions, more majestic ' sorrows.
We cannot linger in the beautiful crea
tions of inventive genius, or pursue the
splenidd discoveries of modern science,
with out a new sense of the capacities
and. dignities of human nature, which
naturally leads to a sterner self-respect,
to manlier resolves and higher aspera
tiona. We cannot read of the words of
God to man revealed in tbe history of
nations, of sublime virtues as exempli
fied in the lives of great and good men,
without falling into that mood of thought
ful admiration, which, though it be but
a transient glow, is a purifying.and ele-.
vating influence while"- it' lasts. G. S.
HUUard. -. ..?,.,-. .
: : '
HONOR THY MOTHER.
"Come on, boys !
shouted Harvey B
come on, boys 1"
, to a group;
of bis playmates. .
V Where ? where ? - '
"Let's go down to"the river and have
a good skate ; I'll show you how to eut
your names scientifically-!'5- .
"Yes, come on 1 let's go 1"
"Where are you going Millard?" :. .
"I am going home." ' ,
"I dare not ge without the consent of
my mother." - -" -
Coward I coward IJ cried the boys
"I voul3" nob "be sucn a child"R3 to
ask my mother to permit me to go where
I wanted to!"
"I'm not a- coward!", rplied Millard, -
eyes flashing, and his manly form erect;
I'm not a coward ! I promised my
mother I would not go where there was
danger, with out obtaining permission -
"He is right !" said George ; "I aut
going with him to ask my mother also."
"Let them go!" cried Harvey.-
"They're the milk-sops, we the bravos,"
and he ran towards the river, followed
by all the boys.
It was early in spring, and the sua
was thawing the ice very fast, ' which
made it dangerous to go upon' it, and.
for that reason Millprd, would not go.
Harvey was a bad'b-y ; he respected
neither his father nor his mother; ha,
prided himself on his manliness, smoked.
segars, and wis coming on very fast. " ;
Millard respected ma motuer.- ooeyeu. .
her in all things, loved all his playmates,
and feared God. ' - : t :'
How many Millards and Harveys ,
wonder there are who read tbe xmton. ..
every .week ? I, think not many Har. 1 .
rays. " . J- . ' . -."-';'
Dear boys, do you always ODcy your-
mother? Do yoa respect her? If I
were to say you did not love her,, yoar
would bo very much, shocked, would '.
you not? Well, you" must prove your
love by obeying ner always.
1 .1-1 1 - 1 vj
As soon as a uoy intuits ne ww uxv t
to obey his mother, scorns her counsel,
smoke Bogars, runs with fire companies,
stands at corners, making remarks on all
who pass, then it is all up with him, i
I would not think much of him, cu
city him and think of bis poor mother
his wasted youth and unhappy old sg.
Many a ruined man looks bac to tn
time when he first disobeyed bia moth,v. ,
er, when he waa tempted to do wrong, ,
as the stepping-stone to all bis misery. .
If von have moral courage, , you will
never fsar to be called a coward. The
real coward is ho who disobeys bis
It was cold and mechanical. 'His littlo
BO it IS '
5 With tho company of vi);Ccipjjg"