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Anti-slavery bugle. (New-Lisbon, Ohio) 1845-1861, October 03, 1845, Image 1

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VOL. 1.
SALEM, O., FRIDAY, OCTOBER 3, 1815. ;; V;. J-
'. f-
...... . , . . . ' r.f,f -: I I' ' f I ''-'- ' - " . T'-,'
. - "'"'. III i - ILIJII!i-lllJBU( J
Published ever Friday at . ;
JAMES BARNAUL, Jr., General Agent
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ruHMSHiNd Con mr res: jtm'l Brooke
Uaorgo ll.irrets in, Jins 1 irn itiy, J r
David L. Galbrentn, L"t II times.
5. mvusm 3sia?i3L
After a few words expressing his happi
new in meeting the abolitionists of Eastern
Pennsylvania, bia brethren as the children of
common lather, and his brethren also as en
gaged in a common cause and impelled by
common desires for the triumph of truth, and
Tight, and for the slave's deliverance, the
speaker went on to remark upon the solemni
ity and importance of the question before
them. Weshoild not act rashly, he said,there
should be nothing impulsive in our move
ments. Not that we should wait to know
what affect our course may have on ourselves
our ease or prosperity or good name. Ich
abod, will be the motto of our banner, in the
Jay when such considerations can make us
hesitate about advancing in the path of duty,
Wo should ask only what is right! not what
is politic) or popular! We are not to fol
low the multitude to do evil
: I see a large portion of those before me,
who ought la be disunionists; who, though
thsu nghls are as dear and as precious a
ours, aw treated as aon-cntiiies by your gov
ernment, and by your political parties.
Whigs aad Demecrats profess with equal
seal to go fat equal- political rights, but both
unite in depriving Ball the rapeol their rights,
And Liberty party differs not in the least
from the other parties, as to its practical con
tempt of women. 1 hat government has no
just authority but what it derives from the
consent of the governed, is a principle laid
down, not by reckless fanatics, but by the
greatest statesmen of the country. It is the
Nation's avowed doctrine, yet in defiance
the government claims and exercises authori
ty over those whose consent has never been
given or asked. How can christians or pa
triots support such a government!
. Who are most likely to be blinded in re
gard to this question! and who are most
likely to be impartial! For the union arc
those who are willing to remain in political
association with the prolligate and tlia un
principled, that they may obtain political
power. Ihey want the power, they say
which cannot else be obtained, but they want
It to make a good use ol it. lie it so, yet
fear the man who wants power. For what
does he want it! To make me do what hi
thinks is right, not what my own conscience
requires or me. Ihey who defjnd the ('on
stiution are on the side of ho.ior and einol
ument, and men love these. Their course
puts them in the way to their own prefer-
ment, ours cuts us on iroin all chance ot pre
ferment, with its emoluments and honors,
other things being equal thon, t'.iey are like
ly to be bfinded rather than we.
It has been said or intimated, that we have
no right to introduce the Non-resistant ques
tion here. Uut they who say this, have in
troduced it; we have not. ine Non-Rcsist-
ance quostion is not involved in that which
we are now discussing. It is not whether
we shall go for no government, but whether
we shall support this government. We stand
in regard to this matter, where the Coven,
anters do, and they are far enough from be
ing iNon-ltesistants,
' If any are here who are not abolitionists,
if any who are abolitionists only when it
popular to be such, if any who are abolitionists
only so far as they can thereby promote
their own interests, or any who instead
taxing truth lor their guide, follow any man
as an oracle; to them I make no appeal;
speak only to thoau who mem to follow
truth at whatever cost, for there is need now
ef a firm trust in God, and resolute purpose
to abide by the right. Times m-iro trying
thin our tubers saw, await us, and we are
fa is through a in on? severe ordeal of our faith
n God and trust in man, than any to which
they were called. Hence none will rally
with us around this banner but those who
pre ready to Ijcaj it onward through persecu
tion and reproach, for if the cause is to
'fcj iMn Vt umaiu.
Ail abolitionists are agrcud as ti the jwi'n-
tipUt of abolitionism; tho right of all men
to free, tbJ sinfulness of slaveho'ding,
duty of linm-di ita e:mnciiintion; but in
Application of these principles wo are not
agreed, There is a wide and honest differ-
nee ef opinion; and this should not excite
surprise, for thu minds of men am n."
in thrir growth. Though all should start
yet some must go forward. There
so exwjfcioo for impaling to wh e hr wntng
motives for such differences. The truo man
does not wince at the dissent or the rebukes
of hi associate, but relies on his Win? in
the right, and if anju-uly accused dors not
cry out Impatiently and lly Into a passion.
. All concede that it is not enough to Uc
ounce the system of slavery as sinful. The
slaveholders themselves can do that. They
admit it is wrong and a curse, but alt that is
Dot enough to abolish it. War is every
where admitted to be a great evil, but still
the work of slaughter ffoes on, and men train
themselves to engage in it. But to make
our principles of any avail, we must bold
them practically, and not in the absttacl
merely. It is a serious question, who are
1110 iriunas 01 iioeriyi Are an wno prongs
to be! No. The American people profess
republicanism, but in their practice are a
i -r it .
oinuiw oi rouueis. mcn tune
professions on trust. If the State claims to
be republican, we win explain it by thought
of republican principles, and if its practice is
at war with its profession, we will brand it
as despotic. If the church claims to be an
ti-slavery, we will try it by the law of Uod,
and if it cannot abide that, we will treat it as
anti-christian and diabolical.
We are connected with various associa-
tions, political and religious, and it is hard
to give tbein up. Here comes a strong temp
tation to do wrong lor the sike of remaining
in them; to go with the multitude to do evil,
rather than stind alona or with the despised
few for tho right, and forego the connections
which have been so dear to us. Hut we
must resist all such temptation if we would
be faithful to the cause of the slave, and suc
cessful in laboring tor his deliverance.
1 stand here to affirm that in saying, that
consistency with our principle requires us to
withdraw trom the pro-sl, ivory organizations
ol the country, not exuoptui its pro-slavery
government, i onng in no prescriptive uoc
trine, nor one which is invidious to any one
on the anti-slavery plalfor n. I hold to the
largest liberty on that platlorm, tor all who
believe in tho right of the slave to be free
immediately. They iniy differ as to the
mode of action, and each has a right to un
dertake his own chosen method. Somo be
lieve in the use of free produce, as an im
portant means of aiding the cause, and regard
abstinence f.om the products of slave labor,
as an anti-slavery duty. Ihey have a right
to express taat opinion, and to do it in no
proscription ot those who do not adopt it.
. So of. our own course .in relation to politl
cal parties. Shall the Whig or the Demo
cratic abolitionist say that we are prescrip
tive, because we dculurc it to be inconsistent
with anti-s.avery principles to act with those
parties w.ule they remain in a pro-slavery
position, or to support t icir pro-sluvory can
didatesl Nay; he interferes willi my rights
is an abiliiioui.tt, if hn prevents me from
speaking sach a sentiment; and if he runs off
because 1 speak It, he shows that he cannot
remain where the truth is spoknn. Uut it is
called proscription, to say that the Constitu
ion is a bloody compact; a league with op,
rcssion, which we ought not to support or
sanction by our oaths or votes. We must
not call a'lolitionuts inconsistent when they
swear to support such a pro-slavery Consti
tution. 1 do not assent to this doctrine 1
thank any man whu faithfully rebukes my
inconsistency. 1 he life ol our cause is in
our willingness to hear all, in the spirit of
manly honesty.
We have otien adopted resolutions that it
is not consistent for abolitionists to beloUg to
the Whig and Democratic parties, on ac
count of their pro-slavery character; and now
some of the same persons who have advoca
ted these resolutions, condemn us for saying
it is inconsistent for them to belong to a pro
slavery confederacy, and uomiso support to
a pro-slavery Constitution. They accuse us
of doing the same thing in principle, which
New organization did in 1BJU and in 10, when
it sought to force upon the Anti-slavery soci
ety, the doctrine ol the rightfulness of hu
man governments and the duty of voting to
create and uphold them; matters on which
it was not our province to decide either war.
uut the charge is unjust, for we do not teach
the duty of not voting, or that human gov
ernment is wrong and ought not to be sup
ported; we only say that abolitionists cannot
consistently vote lor, create, or support
prvtlavery government. This is a purely
Anti-slavery doctrine,
From the Arena.
Mr. Editor: I wish to address a few
thoughts to the Abolitionists, and people in
Windham county, through the colmns
your parer with reference to the Liberty Par
ly Association, recently held in Daiilclson-
villc, anil my attendances as an anti-slavery
man. Tun "Christian Freeman" inciden
tally came into my hands, and I found an
invitation to "evury anti-slavery man and
woman who can attend, to appuir at a Lib
erty Association of Windham county, armod
an I equipped with courage and zeal com,
mensural;) with the work before th?m."
ad- havo bocnre ivjly engignd, as an enemy
American ri.ivcry, in iiie neiu in open oppo-
sition to it for the List seven or eight years.
to ( lave warn-J against slavery in season and
the out of seas n it all times in all places
the without c.iasing. This I need not tell
all 1 it is well known; my life has been a '"living
epistle. against slavery, known and read
gether, is
a! I men."
When I engaged In tho anti-slavery
to.prise, it was with a princiult nf rii'A',
against an enormously wleked system
w-nnj nd utrac I enured the floM
an uncompromising enemy to slavery, for the ,
eainpaign, be it long or short. 1 little un
dorstood at the time the strength of the foe
with winch I had made war how many
strong holds fortifications and) coverts, it
had; how it had endeared itself and obtained
a s roeg fmthoM.in every class of society.
CUihing mys :ll with the panoply ol truth
I weui turiit with the Ithnreat spenrand com
menced an attack. I followed the enemy
into the whig and democratic jinnies, and
heard its friends crying "this is not tlvc
greatest devil" ''wo are choosing tlie least
of evils." . I made no compromise I fol
lowed on and the . enemy fled into the
Church, Theological ohoolsand Ecclestisti-
cal bodies which shut their doors upon me
saying "touch not the - Lord s annointed;
you are going to excite and divide the
church, and destroy the ministry." I made
no compromise. I followed the enemy on
into the very citadel of the government in
to their very name work and tound its vi
til and animating spirit slavery- 1 applied
my principle ol right. 1 have made no com
promise no union with slavery and I hear
God saying to all, "your covenant with
death and agreement with hell shall be dis
annulled." . :' .
1 was educated nn orthodox congrcgation-
alist and to believe that every principle of
right was given to us as a rule ol conduct;
and that it is the duty of all to apply these
principles to every thing and to every body,
and wli i:evcr would not stand the test, to
regard it as wrong and unworthy of counte
nance. . 1 hue 1 have rigidly, conscientious
ly, and unfalteringly applied my anti-slavery
principles to the people, the parties, the
church, clorgy, theological and religious in
stitutions, and to the government, and 1
found their "power on the side of the op
pressorwhile the poor slave had no com
forter." I am a eomeouter from the whig
and demooratio parties, because they are
slaveholding. I must bo without partiality
and hypocrisy. I am a comeoutcr from the
church, because as James G. Birnc.y says,
it is "ihe bulwark of American Slavery
and God says "come o t of her, that ye par
take not of her sins and receive not of her
plagues." I come out from the clorgy, be
cause they baptise and sanctify slavery, and
as Gcrrit .Smith says, as a body constitute
the most corrupt and abandoned set of men
in the land. 1 come ont from- the govern'
ment, becauso it has entered into a slave-
liuldiiiT. slave-tradiiiir. nbvo-'v. -Hiiia com.
pact a covenant with deatirond' an agree
ment Willi hell and no ono can be other
than a coinooutcr from it, who is an aboli
liouist. And now I must not shrink from
applying my principles to tho so termed
Liberty Party the members of which pro
fess to be opposed to Slavery. I find it very
ready to admit my principle, of right and ap
ply it to tun whig ii nd democratic parties,
and unite with me in crying come out oe
ye separate from them to recognize no man
as anti-slavery, w.n continue in connex
ion and labor with them as did Porter,
Ainsworth. also Dooth. Hammond at the
Liberty Party meeliiiir and here we part,
1 ask them to make the like impartial appli'
cation of their principles to the American
Lhurch 'VAc Uulwart nf iluvery" which
sanctifies the system; and they cry hands
oil yuu with to "abolish the church ''-you
hnlc the church" "your object is to dulroy
the church under the garb of anti-slavery.
Such charges were used by Porter, llooth
and the clergy present. Thus tho church
sanctities and defends slavery; and tho Lib
erty Parly is in full league with the church
crying against come-out ism; defending the
church, wiiigs and democrats, by it to get
their votes to got ollice and power.
i he politics of.tlie Liberty party can h
no better than their religion, and i:r,H
slave huldiiig. lis leaders carefully avoid
the church question in its relation to slave
rythey will talk about every other obsUv
clo but that of the church as Porter and his
fellow laborers did at Daniclsonviilc and
others introduce thu church, they defend her
daub her over call her anti-slavery
1'orter and Ainsworth did and oiler you
rebuke as llooth and Porter and others did
me for introducing the subject.
The church is in league with slavery, and
Liberty party in league with the church
and the latter more criminal than the tonne
because of its light and professions, li
under the necessity of being so to got votes.
Porter "let the cat out of the bag" to the
chagrin of Liberty party leaders. He un
dertook in common with other leading Lib
erty party spirits to put a padlock upon
lips but their presiding oilicer, and a ma
jority of tho meeting, were not so lost to anti-slavery
principles, to allow it they have
unwittingly been cajoled into the parly, and
without fairly seeing their position, united
with t'.ie party to rote slavery down. The
leading spirits must keep them in, and to
so ku v they must keep dark, Mr. Porter,
1 should havo said Hev. James Porter, pre
siding Elder in the Meth. Epis. Church
church rotten with slavery from centre
circuinlerence) author ol a work against
coiuivoutisui emphatically enjoined
the Liberty party to countenance no free discussion
meetings. He would not engage
in thorn neither would the clergy
church; anJ they had stood aloof from
cause in consequence of them; they would
not attend, to be abused, traduced, rebuked;
a id ha also emphatically said "depend upon
a.ic tun, if you open your doom to free dis
cussion, you will make but a very few eon
perts," Cnr hoar! hear! Yes freo discus
sion is death to the Liberty party for it
slavtholdtiijj parry, uniting with theeburch
to sanctify slavery and tho government to
defend it, and protect it, and the truth is its
Only antidote; it swears to do so .at any
rate and if.it takes the oath to get into
office, im-rcly. It is the meanest kin 1 of por-
ntry. II it takes the oath to support tlie
Constitution .with a mental rctervaJion, as
Mr. Birney says he' is prepared to dor it in
dicates a laxity of morals a moral degener
acy which would cause even slavery to blush
for shame. . If it sweats to support the con
stitution (an instrument of authority a rule
of conduct for every member of the goy
ernraeut w ith all the other members) claim
ing the. right of. individual interpret ilion,
when the bjrgain the compact provides tho
interpreting power, and makes their decision
law then Liberty parly is truly 5 dis,,rjr
izing, no-iiovcrumcut party for if we have
fifteen millions of interpreters of tlui Con
stitution it has no meaning no force no
authority and we have no government it
is nullified. These individual interpreters
are nullifiers, to all intents and purposes
Liberty party men are In an awkward dilem
ma crying, come ont from the whi-f and
democratic parties refusing to roto lor any
one of the parties, whether he be deacon,
elder, bishop,' minister, or layman htit ari-
locating union with and support of these
very men in the ennrcn. 1 no .onirrega-
ttonal and Methodist ministers in DaiiMson-
ville were present, to hear the claims of Lib
erty party upon them tind their churches for
their' votes. 1 suppose they had Keen niaue
to understand that they would he In no dan-
crer of getting a rebuke, as the leading spir-
its of -the meeting were Reverends; i. ".,
Rev. James Porter, Rov. Charles Ainsworth,
He.' Mr. Otis. Key. Mr.' Hammond, Kev,
Sherman M. Booth all In the church. . I
infer it from the fact that the Congregational
minister fled, when his church wn being
called in question, and the tact held up aJi.it
nil t he moelins houses in the village were
closed, and the meetinr had to bo held in a
mechanic's shop. I infer it from Um dagger
looking countenances of the priests and tneir
attemnts to defend these' churches. 1 in
it from tle declarations ot rorier, anor.rsen
by the silent nsscnt of nil the other speakers
that free discson meetings would not
answer their purpose they would not make
mnv converts. 1 inter It trom me declara
tion of Porter that ifHhe whigs and demo
crats would come nnd sit in silence and
hear him ho would convert one -half them
if thev. like its sectarian hearers, would
mien their mouths, nnd gulp down likcgcs,
. . . . . . . I :i
linn, what he pleased to give mem. i.ioer-
iv nartv is in an awkward dilemma also
while it admits slavery to be an immorality
or sin to be abandoned immediately and
vet in order to abolish this immediately, it
swears to support it. Or to get rid ot this
charge, dishonestly claim the right of pri
vate interpretation, or if mental reserviitiun,
or doing evil that good may come l. e.
n order to get un tnjiu:nec to get power,
swear to support slavery lor tho present,
hoping by and by to havo the Cons,'itiiiinn
amended. O, tliey siy your com Outers
from the church and government ought to
nuit the country and the Uev. Charles Ains
l ..i i .i. ..it I:.i
worth, llev. Mr. i-orter anil niium, an men
out very cavilicrly about duly. "Yes, do
duty at all events, without regard to ronse-
.. . . . i i i: i...
quences "lad yet, iiirn"ii pair, cnimi-nur,
when a word was said about abolishing sla
very from the Methodist church nnd the gov
ernment. "Oh, the dreadful consequences,"
you will have to quit the nation.
There are m any men in the Liberty party,
sincere friends of the slave, who will not re
main in the p'rty long, after they set their
position in that party in full fellowship with
tho oppressor. Many of .my choice friends
are in that party many of iliem members of
the American Anli-SI ivery society. I know
their zeal and devotion to the cause they
have not studied their relation and support
to slavery in the church and Rtate through
this party ns they ought. They wish to
have freo discussion. No, say the Liberty
nartv leaders, it is dangerous, and henceforth
Liberty party meetings are to be closed
against free discussion in Windham county,
nre thev! Porter says they are in Massa
chusetts, and he said the truth the church
and tho clergy would not attend them other
wise. Liberty party meetings in N. York,
and throughout the country, are opposed
free discussion except the diseussion ne an
on their side.
Will thr nhnlitinnists of Windham eoun
tv he paioled into such a party! I know
some who got their eyes open, at the demon
stration which that party made of its char-
ncii.f nf the ineetinir in Danielsonville.
I speak advisedly, 1 speak soberly, that
I were to act on me principle i "'"; -
that good may come," I would support the
whig or democratic party before ihe Liberty
party. Such men as John Q. Adams, are
to bo honored for their consistency, to say
flio least, while the Liberty party arc gross
ly inconsistent and immoral, nnd exniim
mnr.,1 decollation which tho other parties
never dreamed of. Thine truly for the slave,
and for "no union with tlavehotilert.
E. D. H.
From the Ohio State Journal.
We learn from tho Marietta Intelligencer
that an impression prevails that tho Grand
Jury would not ha-o found a bill against the
abducted citizens, had not a witness been
found at a lato hour, who testified that there
was water in their shoes when they were ex
amined on tho Virginia shore, and therefore
it was concluded they hud bpen in Virginia
alcr to help the negroes oscnpo. ,-Tlie tn
formation uouUiincd in Uie following nan- i
raph from the. Intelligencer, vill go Jur to .
incrtave the fueling, in this Shilo against tho '
luveliolders of Virginia, If iliw lauia.
truly represented, we must be pcruiiuu to !
ty, without wishing to indulge in mere 10-
ci'tivc, in so grave a niutltr, that it exhibits ,
our neighbors la no very favorable light, and .
roves Ui.it they are disposed to aua injury:
j insult. They have already. outraged hu'
lanily and juoliee.by their prwHiiiiiwrs: ther 1
will yet learn that they cjinuit with impuni
ty trample on the righU of citizens of Ohio.
A word aueut ball. Uail wus required irv"1
irginia. A number of cirizeHis of Ohio.
men of wenlth nnd chnnictcrt ellered to be-' '
come responsible to any cilizeiis of Viiginiar"
Who would bail the prisoners, The iudein-'
nifyiiig bond was signed by a larger number'
of our wealthy citizens, and besides this one
ot the signers oikred to give hie Individual
noto for tue amount of thu bail to a citizen of
Virginia if hu would rntcr Into reooi nizanc.
for their appearance.' Two gentlemen con-" .
snntid to give bonds if a third man could bo
obtained to crtgnge jointly - Willi them. , A .
young gonlleuun of unuoublc'd pecuniary i
tcaqiousioility voluntiriiy olhired to do so, but '
as hu was not a fieeUoldcr (his property be--
ng, HUMii portion ui ti, in bank stuck.)
le wus refused. . The sum tuUl of tho mat
ter is, that alter th: inost importunate entrea
ties, end although undoubted and abundant
secuiily was ullereii, bail ill tlie .sum of fif
teen hundred do.ljrj could not be obtained in
irioi ; nnd ourcttizcns, kidnapped by law
less ruftiius, must remain in -until tlie'
middle of November befhro they can be tried
fur acts dono in this Slate! Whether thrv
will be tried even then,' will prohubly dejieud
upon tiie health or disposition of the. Prose-'
uun Auurncy
We may ktiie further, that one of the prif.' .
oners, Thomas, is in such fieblrt health that'
u is doubllul whether he will live until the
next session of the t-ourt. ' . ", ;
The following item also appears in the Iri-'
tclligrncor. In reference to two of these men
we snspect the claim of jurisdiction is as
good as that setupinthcenseof those who are
retained in prison in defiance of law and e-'
ven the somhlanre of Justice.-' We shall n
wait, however, fuittier dcvclnpeineuts bbforo"
we sprak of what is here alluded to; prcmis-'
ing only that this is the first intimation v
have seen of the further proceedings: ' ;
Fchtiikr Iso:c rMK. ra, The Grand Jury- ,
of Wood county, at its sesiion last week not
only indicted tlie three abducted citiztns now
in Parkershurgh jail, but also three others
iviz: Uurdon Stanton, Titus Shotwrll, and
Joseph RomaincO for heimr einr-.nr,.,! with
them in aiding Ulr. escape of "liar wood's
slaves. Stanlou and Sholwell nro citizens
of Ohio. Kuuiaino is now a resident of this
State, having removed here from Virginia,
somo days alter the occurrence. It is said
that a messenger has been despatched tu
Richmond for a requisition from the (Govern
or of that Slate upon (iov. L'artlev. nf Ohio.
for their delivery asfu-iiiiesfmm jusice.
Is not this tin; true reason wliv ihn trinl nf
the men now in hil nt Purknrslmrtrh u-oa
BV Tlie Ham.ot Hot. A corropnon-
dent of the Christian Reflector writes, Juiio
"The truth is, and I wrile it with a rrW
of hallowed gratitude to (Joil slar-ery i.i ihj-
if m .uarymnn. n may linger, like a sor
cnt with a wonderful head but it must dicl
had a conversation yesterday with a Con
necticut farmer, who has moved into Ibis re-
riou, and is cultivating his lands hv five la
bor. The effect of this single effort is already
felt for miles around. Other fanners, natives
of the soil, are beginning to profit by his ex
ample. In this quiet way, with tho elo
quence of industry, his arguments being thoso
ol the plow und tlie harrow, he is plendiur
vnr i-iiuse ui emancipation, and winning his
country men to her peaceful standard. Heav
en speed such toils."
"A Kntue kim" his written a noble vin
dicatien of Cas-jiits M. Clay which wc find
in the Philadelphia Gazette. Tho writer
denies that the mass of Ihe people of Ken
tucky justify the conduct of the Lexington
mob. He insist, that Mr. Clay's views nf
slavery are "the views of three-fourths of
tho people of his native State." Nor was
tlie outrage at Lexington so much tho result
of hostility to the principle advocated by Mr,
Clay, as of enmity l i him personally. The
Wicklilfes and Marshalls of that Siato hate
him with a fiendish hatred, and they availed
themselves of some indiscreet remarks of
their noble victim to accomplish by the fury
of a mob what they were too dastard to at
tempt individually. lint what havo the
miserable cravens gained! The scattered
materials of the "True American" will prove
to be to the cause of human freedom and
lilierty of speech, what tho blood of the
martyrs always has been to religion
th? seed from which will spring up mil
lions of zealous advocates of the principle
which the Lexiiiirtnn scoundrels have sought
by violence nnd blood, tu smother.
I.evo Yarni A rope hat been completed
in Knlsml fur the AlincheMer and Liverpool
Hailusy 3 iniloa in lonslb, eight inches iu cir
cumference, and three lona iu weight.
Wn do not know absolutely what is good or
bid fortune.
Although the fanner's life is one of toil, ho ft
i whoenjnya a life of true indopendenee, hail
ing none of ths cares or (roubles of other ntln.

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