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Anti-slavery bugle. (New-Lisbon, Ohio) 1845-1861, December 12, 1845, Image 1

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AVERY B
JLJDj
10
'ED WITH lA72IIt)lli'X3.(
VOL. 1.
SALEM Q.t FRIDAY. DECEMBER 10, 1845,
NO, 21.
ANTI-SL
ANTI-SLAVERY BUGLE
Published every Friday at
Salem, Coi.lmimana Co., O.
J A M ES HARNABV, Jr.. C,;imil ,1 ;cnt
BENJAMIN S. JONES,
J. ELIZABETH HITCHCOCK, Editors
(gj-.ill remittanci s to be made, and all Utters
relating to the pecuniary affairs of the paper,
to be addressed (post paid) to the General
risen. V'lmmunica'inM intended for iiiscr
tivn to be addressed to the Editor.
frT-Terms: SI. 50 per annum, nr S.OO if
not naiil within six mouths of the time of
subscribing.
AnvEitTisKMKNTS making less than a square
Inserted throe times tor 75 cents: one.
square $1,
I'uhmsiii-vq Commit rut:: ri'in'l Brooke
(Jeorgc Garretson, J lines U irn il.y, Jr
iJ tvia L. G ilhrenil), L t II !nu:s.
3. it. jpatmiss ysx'jss.
From the Liberator.
LETTER FROM FREDERICK DOUGLASS.
CORK, Oct. 28, 1845.
Pear Friend:
I am h-.-re, well and hearty, and I trust
doinrr somcthimr for the promotion of ourholy
cause. I have already had several meetings
in this city, all of which have 1 m very well
attended by highly intelligent and influential
people. The aboli'ionists In-re arc of the true
blainp. They l"k with the deepest interest
nn all movements for l.ie abolition ol slavery
in America. When slavery was abolished in
the West India Islands, it was proposed to
disband their organization, but they nohly
resolved never to disband, while the toul
blot and bloody stain of slavery disgraced ap
portion of the globe. And although they have
existed in an organized form for many years
longer than any of our organizations
in "America, 1 find them as w.irm-liearl-rd.
aclive and on-rcotic, as though they
h id jusl commenced operations. For w"c
nf the interest manifested toward tho Massa
chusetts A.. S. Bazar by the lauics of this
city, the cause is indebted to Charles Lenox
Rcmond. I Its labors here were abundant,
11 nd very effective. He is spoken of here in
t-rms of high approbation; and his name is
bld in aSectiou.ite remembrance by many
whose hearts were warmed into life on this
question by his soul-stirring eloquence.
My reception hero has been truly fl ittering.
Immediately alter my arrival, a public break
fist was given to receive myself and friend
II u flu m of the detiils of which, your are al
ready informed. .Since then, I have had eve
ry kindness shown mo that the most ambi
tious could desire. I am hailed hero as a
temperance man as well as an aboliticnist.
My first speech here, as well as in Dublin,
was on the temperance question. I have
spoken on temperance several times since.
On tho 21st instant, Father M ithew, the liv
ing saviour of Ireland from the curse of in
temperance, gave a splendid Soiree, as a to
konofhis sympathy and regard for friend
Buffum and myself. There were two hun
dred and fifty persons present. It was deci
dedly the brightest and happiest company, I
think, I ever saw, nny where. Every one
seemed to be enjoying himself in the tallest
winner. It was enough to delightany heart
not totally bereft of feeling, to look upon such
a company of happy faces. Among them all
I saw no one that seemed to be shocked or
disturbed at mv dark presence, rso one
cnnme.'l to fuel himself ennt-.fiinated by con
tact with inc. I think it would bo difficult
f get the same oani'ioi of persons together in
any of our Njw England cities, without somo
Inmocratic nose irrowing deformed at iny ap
proach. But then vou know white people in
America are whiter, purer, and belter than the.
people here. I Ms aeeuunts J or ii. uesiucx,
we are t'no freest nation on the globe, as well
ns the most enlightened, and can thoretoreat
ford to insult and outrage the colored man with
inmunitv. This is one of the peculiar privi
Wpb nf our neculiar institution. On tho
mnrninrr after the Soiree. Father Mathew iiv
vited us to breakfast with him at his own
house an honor qnite unexpected, and one
for which I felt myselt unpreparua. i now
ever accented his kind invitation, and went,
I found him livinrf in a vorv humble dwell
injf, and in an obscure street. As I approached
he came out of his house, and toi k mo
about thirty yard from his door, and witn up
lifted hands in a manner altogether pecu.iur
to himself, and with a face beaming with be
wavnlunt exoression. he exclaimed 'Wei
jvimp! welcome! mv dear Sir. to my humble
abode;' at tho same time taking me cordially
l,r the hand, conducted me tlirougn a rougn
unoarpeted passage to a preen door leading
m,r iote.1 tuairwav. on ascendin-r one
flight of which I found myself abruptly ush
ered Into what appeared to be both drawing
and dining room, mere was no carpei
the floor, and very little furniture of any kind
in the room: an old lasiuonea siue-uoaiu,
few chairs, three or four pictures hung care
lessly around the walls, comprisen nonny
th whole furniture of the room. 1 he break'
fast table was set when I went in. A large
orn stood in the middle surrounded by cups.
aaueers. dates, knives and forks, spoons,
tie., all of a very plain order rather
plain, I thought, for so great a mn'
trrestness. however, was not depenient
outward show; nor was it obscured from
by h plainness. It showed that he couta
be great without the ordinary attractions with
which men of his rank and means are ircner-
ally anxious to surround themselves. Upon
entering the room, Father M. introduced me
to Mr. Win. O'Conner, an invited guest, a
gentleman of property and standing, and tho'
not a teetotaller, yet an ardent admirer of
Father Matliew. As an evidence of his de
voted attachment, honor and esteem, Mr. O'
Conner has erected a splendid tower on his
own 1 and, about four miles from Cork, in a
very conspicuous place, having a comman 1
ing view of tlin harbor of Cork, and a viow
of tho beautiful bills for miles around.
The presence of this gentleman at the break
fist afforded me an excellent opportunity of
witnessing Father Mathew's faithfulness to
his fiiends. I found him entirely uncomprom-I
'PI.:- .1 I . : I - ..C I
i ma ji-iiuuiiriii i-uiiipiriiiivu a iiiuu ui i
his severity
rily towarrls the distillers ot l ork,
who had largo amounts invested in distilleries
and who could not be expected to give their
business up to their ruin. To which Father
Mathew replied in tho natural way, that such
men had no right to prosper by the ruin of
others. He said he was once met by a very
rich distiller, who asked him rather imploring
ly how he could so deliberately plot the ruin
of so many good and unoffending people, who
had their all invested in distilleries! In re
ply, Father Mathew then told with good
spirit the following excellent anecdote: A
very fat old duck went out early one morning
in pursuit of worms, and after being out
all day, she succeeded in filling her crop,
and on her return home at night, with
her crop full of worms, she had the mis
fortune to be met by a fox, who at once pro
posed to t ike her life, to satisfy his hunger.
The old duck appealed, argued, implored,
and remonstrated. She said to the fox.
You cannot be 60 wicked and har.l-'ieart :;d
as to take the life of a harmless duck, in.'wly
to satisfy your hunger. She exhorted him a
gainst the commission of so great a sin. and
I hogged him not to stain his soul with inno-
cent blood. When the fox could stan I her
cant nolonger, he said 'Out upon you, mad
am, with all your line leathers; you are a pret
ty thing, indeed, to lecture me about taking
life to satisfy my hunger is not your own
op now lull ol worm.-,: l.itln r u.uuow lias
fund of anecdotes, which ho tells in the
happies: manner, always to the point, and
with most excellent effect. Ills whole soul
ppcared to be wrapped up in the temperance
..: Li.' . .r.
cause. 1 he aim ot Ms lue appears to tie to
spread the blessings of temperance over the
iv in n ii'niM. "n nrraml, la 1 this. heSnareS
no pains. His time, strength and money
are all freely (riven to the eanse; and his sue-
. J . - . .... ....
ess is truly wonderlul. v hen ne is at Home,
!a hna S liinr-,Mv anrrnimilp.l with nersons
mn f ivhnm I,:, enmn miles to take the
nlcd.rc. He seldom takes a meal without
J . " . . . . . ..
l
n" interrupted by some one to taue me
nledre. He was called away
.i it ...oo nn., on- h-IiiIa 1
was there, to dimiss a number who had come
to take the pledge. This ho did with great
light.
Cork contains one hundred thousand in
ahitints. One hall' of this number have ta
en the pleiliro of Father Mathew. I he
-i ..i; i.. ,i..i it,. n,lii;n r
ClltllU'e illirnuv i,iii;iii. in inu .
the whole people ot Ireland is almost, llirongn
!,:. l-,Kr,r. mir.ciilni.a: and the cause is still
dvaneinor. Five millions, four hundred a a ':'y
seven thousand, three hundred and tuncly-fiee
soul.t: have received the pledge from him
and still they come.' So entirely charmed
by the goodness of this truly good man was I,
lll-s,"i n"a huij .......
that I besought him to administer the pledge
tn mo II., nmrm e with nromnlness. and
i. ;c.i ;io. i,i,rU I nnw
1?,IVU II1Q U UI-.lUl.il, 11 ij.vi.i:,.. - "
reckon myself with delight tho 5 of tho last
five of Father Mathew's 5437,J95 temper
ance children.
The naners hero leave me little to say a-
bout my anti-slavery proceedings. Ihoy
verv readilv report mv movements.
Friend UuIlum lettmo on the aist uct., to
attend tho great Anti-Corn-Law Bazaar, now
holding at Manchester, we snail meet a-n-ain
in the course of a few weeks in Belfast.
Mv love to vour dear family, and the true
that surround you.
Ever and always
Yours for freedom,
FREDERICK DOUGLASS.
GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE.
We crive such extracts from the Message
of Governor Bartley as we think will interest
-
our readers, and best suit our columns.
State Debt.
to
on
The debt of the State, both foreign and do
mestic, does not at this time vary much from
$20,000,000. This is a suhject of deep solie-
itude to the pooplo of the state, and tends
great'y to augment the burthens of taxation.
The debt has been contracted chiefly in tho
construction of o ir public improvements, and
at a time when the Mate was comparatively
new, and destitute oi me moans anu ampio
resources which she now possesses. Of the
extent to which these improvements have con-
tnbuted towards the prosperity and advance-
ment of the State, and the developemont
too resources oi mo coumry, n wouiu do uu-
., . I. II I HP
ficult to form any adequate conception.
payment of the interest and tho ultim
liquidation of the principal of this debt, the
.V. l I. 1- CJ. 1 .
Idltn and nonor oi me ouub uave uuiicriui aim
will continue to be sacredly preserved aud
kept inviolate.
Agriculture.
too
on
me
By neglect and unskillful tillage, nearly
one half of the products of this great source
of wealth and prosperity may be lost Al-
dy it is apparent in some paitsof the State,
it a deterioration of the soil hastakeo pUoe,
read
that i
and great want of skill exists in l!in produc
tion of crops. Tho agriculturists i f our
State have not adopted those improvements
and useful discoveries which h?vo been made
in the cultivation of the soil. The lights of
science and practical instruction have, with
eminent success, been applied in some coun
tries tj the art of agriculture, by which this
branch of industry has been greatly elevat?d,
the minds of those enjriged in it much en
lightened, and their labour rendered doubly
productive.
It must he admitted ny every enlightened
mind, ;hat scientific knowledge is as import
ant i:i the improvement of agriculture as it is
in the manulactunng or mechanic arts. We
learn, from reli.iblo sources, that agricultural
schools have hern established in some parts
e i. :.L i ; i 1.. I r , t. 1 .
01 i.urope, v nn niiiiy "cucueiai results, ana
that improved
proved methods nave been adopted, by
which an average crop of wheat has been in
creased from 14 to I I bushels per acre, to 2li
or 30, and in some choice soils as great as
15 and 50 bushels per aero have been raised.
I commend this subjoct to vour special at
tention and regard, and submit to your con
sideration, whether important and most ben
eficial results might not be derived from the
establishment and efficient management of an
acrieullur.il department under tho Govern
ment. A proposition for a similar depart
ment under the general government was once
zealously urged by President Washington
upon the attention ol Congress. Under the
existing state of affairs, it is probable that an
institution of this character could be more im
mediately useful by being under the control
of the State government.
Difficulty with Virginia.
I
I
I
I
of
In shore. The principle, that a country boun
the ito ded bv the shore of" a river extends to low
1
A difficulty has arisen between this State
and the State of Virginia, which I deem pro
per to bring to your attention. In the month
of July last, three citizens of Ohio, alleged to
have been engaged in aiding the escape ot
some fugitive slaves, wera captured ia the
county of Washington, in this Nt.itn, without
the authority of law by a company of armed
men from the State of Virginia, and forcibly
abducted from Ohio and incarcerated in tho
i ail of Wood county, Virginia, to answer to
a criminal charge. 1 his open resort to vio
lence and invasion of the rights of citizens of
our State, was calculated to produce much
excitement, &, endanger the peace and harmo
ny ol the two States, rains were taken to
unay me e.ciio-m.-iii,uuu jueveuv mij .muici
disturbance ot the peace, on the ground mat
lllO iransiicuou, UIU1UUIMI an uuu.15, u iw mo
rights of our citizcns.Tuid upon the civil
authority of this State, was the act of law-
i ' l : ' J . 1 ... : . 1 . : , I' 1 1,
"ess inuiviuiuiis, wmium UIB ,.....,. . ...o
State of Virginia, and that ample redress
could be obtained by a peaceful resoit to m
dicial proceedings. Accordingly the case
t,.A . .l.A t ' I 1..... ,.1 VV .uh
a preram-u ""j
in7ton county, at the September term ot the
t ourt.and an indictment regularly leturnco a-
giinst tho offenders. A special agent was
despatched to Richmond, with a requisition
made in due form, on the Governor of Vir
ginia, for their surrender as fugitives frui
the iustice of Ohio; and, I regret to say that
niter some weeks de av. Hie uovcrnor oi v ir-
. ,. - ,. f
k1'""' "" " t , T.
the order lor ttio arrest and
surrender of the
aTessors. 1 he proceedings unucr mo re
qufsition can ho more fully s?cn by a refer
ence to a correspondence on nie in mo r..e
cutive Office.
Any thing calculated to endanger the har-
. j .. ,.
mony ana mcnciiy iiu'r.-ours ,
conieueraieu .laies u uui awu..a.
deeply to be lamented; and this o-jcurrenee
, i .... i' .1 r,. ,
assumed special importance, rmn the fact
that the relations out of which it arose, are
likely to occasion similar outrages in future.
W here tree and slave states are contiguous, u
is natural for the slave to make efforts to es
cape, and for the slave holder to suspect tho
inhabitants of the free States.'of aiding in the
transit of the fusritive. If however, citizens
of the free States should actually vio'ate tho
rights of any of the citizens of the sist? r t ites
the laws of tho country give ample reuress,
without resorting to violence.
In the present case, a question of jurisdic
tion has been raised. The citizens of Ohio
who have been captured, were on the bank,
on the northwest side of the Ohio river, and
the authorities of Virginia have set up a claim
of jurisdiction over the soil where the capture
occurred. It was supposed uiui me aecis:on
of tho Supreme Court of th United States,
I l . J.- I 1 ..itlir nnA fli.allw cut.
made in 1820. had definitely and finally set
tled this question of boundary. Ordinarily,
where a river is the boundary between States,
each hold? to the middle of the stream; bi.t
Virginia, having been the original proprietor,
ceded me terriiorv nuruiwi-ai m mo
er, and therefore claims jurisdiction over the
rivr. It becomes iaiportant that some fixed
and certain line be kr.rvij as the boundary;
and this the decision of the supremo judicial
trihunal of the country ins distinctly uenneu,
under the construction oi uio uiiin.u tcawi
of 1783. to be at low water mark on this side
of the river.
It never could have been designed tii.ii
narrow str'iD of land on die beach ot the river,
I ... , . .1. Un An,.na,tn
should belong to mo oaw u
water mark, is so natural and convenient,
I . . , I atln Th.. AUtn.
i to nave secured general auujjiiuu. vmiu.
I of jurisdiction, lor Virginia, nowever, uere
set up, extends, as it seems, not only over
f . . .ii i-
the river, but also on me oans. on im iue.
The decision of the Court referred to, goes
further, and recognizes the right acquired
ih Mmmrt with Virginia, under which
Kentucky became a State, which stipulates
that tho navigation of, and jurisdiction over,
the river, should be concurrent between the
new States and the State which possessed the
opposite shore of said river. This compact
having been ratified, became binding up
on Virginia, as well as the other States bor
dering upon the river.
It would seem, therefore, that no doubt
can exist that the captured citizens were kid
napped and violently abducted from the juris
diction of Ohio, and that a due regard for the
honor of the Stale, as well as justice to the
injured citizens, demands reparation for the
wrong.
Should the Executive of Virginia persist in
his refusal to surrender the aggressors, the
btate will assume the responsibility of the
outrage perpetrated by those lawless persons
upon the rights and jurisdiction of Ohio;
and if this outrage be submitted to on the
part of Ohio, it may be made a precedent for
future insult and wrong. In the meantiinp, I
respectfully submit to your consideration the
propriety of adopting effective measures to
prevent a similar invasion of the rights of the
citizens ot Ohio.
Black Laws.
I deem it my duty again to call your atlen
tton to the laws which unjustly degrade our
colored population. It seems to me that their
repeal is demanded alike by the spirit of our
religion and the philosophy of the age.
Penitentiary.
The Penitentiary of the State has during
the year been conducted with skill, prudence
ard economy. The system of prison disci
pline wiiich has been vigilantly adhered to,
has been well calculated to accomplish the
true object of criminal punishment. Special
regard has been paid to the complaint of a
portion of cur citizens, who have, perhaps
with good cause, alleged that the system of
prison labor created an unjust competition
with their business, and tended to degrado
their pursuits. So far as practicable, with
out a violation of old contracts for prison la
bor, the employment of the convicts has very
properly, as well as profitably, been directed to
those objects which do not conflict with the
interests of any existing mechanical pursuits
of the State. Since my last communication
to the Legislature, I have seen no reason to
justify a change of my views, then expressed
on tho suuject ot prison lalmr.
The finances of the institution for the cur
rent year, show the following results:
Accruing revenue, $12,500,00
Disbursements during the year, 2 1,573,00
Balance in favor of institution, 18,025,00
The number of convicts on the 1st N ovem
ber, 1844, was -161. The number of convicts
received during the past year was 130.
Tho number of convicts in prison on the
first of November, 1845, was 171. Four
convicts made their escape during the year.
Thirteen died by disease, and two by acci
dent. Some have been discharged by writs
of error from the Supreme Court, somo have
been pardoned, and tho terms of service of a
considerable number have expired during the
year.
Asylums.
The ¬
cated at Columbus, consisting of the Lunatic
Asylum, the Asylum lor the education ot the
Deaf and Dumb, and the Asylum for the ed
ucation of the Blind, are nil in a highly flour-
shmsr condition, and each ot them has been
conducted during the past year, with eminent
skill and efficiency. These institutions are
highly eteditablo to the people of Ohio, and
constitute living and enduriug evidences of
the enlightened spirit ot the ago.
Tho number ol patients in tho Lunatic
Asylum on the 15th of November last, was
221, of which 125 were males, and !)9 fe
males. After the new adJition to the edifice
of this institution which is in progress of con
struction, shall he completed, it will be suf
ficient to accommodate the number ol about
JjO of this afflicted portion of our fellow crea
tures. The number ot pupils in the Asylum
for tho education of the Deaf and Dumb is
about one hundred. When the addition to
the buildings of this institution which is in
progress, shall be completed, the number of
about fifty more can probably beaccommoda-
ted. In the Asylum lor the education ot the
Blind, there are seventy pupils, and the in
stitution is in a condition to receive a larger
number.
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.
a
as
by
Wo give below a few extracts from this
document. Speaking of Texas and Mexico,
he says,
The terms of annexation which were offer
ed by the United States having been accept
ed by Texas, the public faith of both parties
is solemnly pledged to the compact of their
union. Nothinir remains to consummate the
event, but the passage of an act of Congress
to admit me state oi lexas mio me union
upon an equal footing with the original Stales.
Strong reasons exist why this should be done
at an early period of the session.
This accession to our territory has been
bloodless achievement. No arm of force has
been raised to produce the result. The
sword has had no part in the victory. We
have not sought to extend our territorial pos
sessions by conquest, or our republican insti
tutions over a reluctant people. It was the
deliberate homage of each people to the great
principle of our federative union.
If we consider the extent nf territory in
volved in the annexation its prospective in
fluence on America the means by which
a
it
has been accomplished, springing purely from
me choice oi mo people themselves to share
the blessings of our union, the history of
the world may be challenged to furnish a par
allel.
The jurisdiction of tho United States,
which at the formation of the federal consti
tution was bounded by the St. Mary's and th
Atlantic, has passed the Capes of Florida,
and peacefully extended to the Del Norte.
In contemplating the grandeur of this event,
it is not to be forgotten that the result was
achieved in despite of the diplomatic interfer
ence of European monarchies. Even France
thn country which had been an ancient ally
the country which has a common interest
with us in maintaining the freedom of the
seas the country which, by the cession of
Louisiana, first opened to us access to th
Gulf of Mexico the country with which w
have been every year drawing more and
more closely the bonds of successful
commerce most unexpectedly, and to our
unfeigned regret, took part in an effort to pre
vent annexation, and to impose on Texas at
a condition of the recognition of her indepen
dence by .Mexico, that she would never joia
horself to the United States. We may re
joice that the tranquil and pervading influence
of the American principle of sell-government
was sufficient to defeat the purposes of Brit
ish and French interference, and that the al
most unanimous voice of tho people of Tex
as has given to that interference a peaceful
and effective rebuke. From this example,
European governments may learn how vain
diplomatic arts and intrigues must ever prove
upon this continent, against that system of
self-government which seems natural to our
soil, and which will ever resist foreign inter
ference. Towards Texas, I do notoubt that a lib
eral and generous spirit will actuate Congress
in all that concerns her interests and prosper
ity, ana mar sue win never have cause to re
gret that she has united her "lone star" la
our glorious constellation.
Texas had declared her independence, and
maintained it by her arms for more than nine
years. She has had an organized govern
ment in successful operation during that pe
riod. Her separate existence, as ait indepen
dent State, had been recognized by the Uni
ted States and the principal Powers of Eu
rope. Treaties of commerce and navigation
had been concluded with her by different na
tions and it h?.d become manifest to the whole
world that any further attempt on the part of
muxico hi conquer ner, or overthrow her gov
ernment, would be vain. Even Mexico her.
self had become satisfied of this fact; and
w l ilst tho question of annexation was nenrl.
ing before the people of Texas, during th
past summer, the government of Mexico bjr
a formal net agreed to recognize the indepen
dence of Texas, on condition that she would
not annex herself to anv other nnwer. Tl,
agreement to acknowledge the independence
of
ic .vis, wiiciner wun or without this con-
dition, is conclusive against Mexico. Th
independence of Texas is a fact conceded bT
, ! I. !! . ...
.iiexieo nersen, anu sne nad no right or au
thority to prescribe restrictions as to the form
of government which Texas might afterwards
Loose to assume.
But though Mexico cannot comnlain of tha
United States on account of the annexation
of Texas, it is to be regretted that serious
causes of misunderstanding between the two
countries continued to exist, growing out of
unredressed injuries inflicted by the Mexican
authorities and people on the persons and
property ol citizens ol the United States,
through a long series of yearn. Mexico has
admitted these injuries, but has neglected and
reius'ju 10 repair them. Such was the char
acter of the wrongs, and such the insults re
peatedly offered to American citizens and tha
American flag by Mexico, in palpable viola
tion of the laws of nations and the treaty be
tween the two countries of the 5th April, 13
31 that they have been repeatedly brought ta
the notice of Congress by my predecessors.
Then follows a detailed account of all the
circumstances connected with the Mexican
indemnity, including the difficulties with that
government in relation to the matter. Hs
then proceeds:
Such a continued and unprovoked series of
wrongs could never have been tolerated by the
United States, had they been committed by on
of the principal nations of Europe. Mexico
was, however, a neighboring sister republic,
which following our example, had achieved
her independence, and for whose success and
prosperity all our sympathies were early en
listed. The United States were the first to
recognize her independence, and to receiv
her into the family of nations, and have ever
been desirous of cultivating with her a good
understanding. We have, therefore, born
the repented wrongs she has committed, with
great patience, in tho hope that a returning
sense of justice would ultimately guide her
councils, and that we might, if possible,
honorably avoid any hostile collision with her.
Without the previous authority of Con
gress, the Executive posscsed no power ta
adopt or enforce adequate remedies for th
injuries we had suffered, or to do more Qiao
be prepared to repel the threatened aggressioa
on the part of Mexico. After our army and
navy had remained on the frontier and coasts
of Mexico for many weeks, without any boa
tile movement on her part, though her mena
ces were continued, I deemed it Important to
put an end, if possible, to this Stat of things.
With this view, I causod steps to b takes,
in the month of September last, to aacertata
distinctly, and in an authontio form, what lira

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