OCR Interpretation

Anti-slavery bugle. (New-Lisbon, Ohio) 1845-1861, December 26, 1845, Image 1

Image and text provided by Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, OH

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83035487/1845-12-26/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

11 1 T H I In
j s '-j f -J- J
13 U uf Jj Jlio
SALEM 0.,IKI1AY. UKCKMKr.Il 'J(!, isi;.,
A N T I-S L A V E 11 Y H U G L E.
rublisheil every Friday at
Salem, Columbiana Co., O.
JAMES 15AR.A!iV..Ii'., G.-ncral A-'cn
j. elizauei'ii iiirciicoc
Iv, Editors
(fc5.7 remittance to be. made, and all It 'ten
relating In the pecuniary affnirt if th-papr,:
to be adJrciied (post paid) to the (ienerul
Jgfsir. CummuniciUnn intended for inser
tiontobcaJJrrt.ud to the Editors.
(I3r TisrtMs: ?l,00 per annum, or !C.OO if
not paid within six months of the tine of
Advertisements making loss than a square
inserted three times lor 73 cents: onn
square C-l.
1'fni.KiiiM) ConurrritK: S -in'i Hi" "bo
(ieergo (i.irrn'-iim. I nu" II m il v, Jr
Divij I.. G ilbreM'i, I. -i il dines'.
Gov. Bartley to Gov. McDowell.
Columbus, Oct. 11, 1845.
to your ton
requisition, presented lo your Excellency
sniiio two weeks since, for the arrest arnl elo
livory to the authorities of Ohio, of I'rtnois
Lewis, WyaU Lewis, James ('nr. Ninirod
Cop. en-J C t'via Rnekinhaagb. win) were in
ilidclin the cn-er.ty of Washington,?! State
of O., for the crime ( ki In apping three white
citizens, within ti f" j n ii -'!;.' i u of this State,
ant forcing th-ai in'.') l!to Stiia of Virginia.
This act Ins pro: net-1 a ileop an! intense
feeling anions ihe people of Ohio. We are
extremdy anxbcis to preser-,r p:t aoo ar.J h?.r
mony between the States, ami we comidi'iitly
believe that peice ami harmony cannot ho
preserved, unless the authorities of each Stat"
v ill promptly execute the int"rnationl laws;
end tans check tiny act nf violence which too
o't'7?r.s of one Stttt m-'V pernetrdo on ihos?
of the other.
Al'nTii patient hearing (fall the testimony
nd-hieed, tho ('!rnd Jury of Wes'iingtoii
county foaml those live men above n-nud,
guilty of the crime charged.
They have lie 1 from this State, and are
il tjh- at large within the St-, to of Yir
irir.h. Now nil wo ask of your Excellency
is, t!i". t n.tional right which the Constitution
of the I'ni'cil St a!-;;, -n 1 nets of Corcjr-ss,
ruaniiti e to each ii'. :!e ;;nd T, rrit-TV within
the Confe'h r,;cy; r.n'l as it is liy this intcrn:'.
tion .1 I. iw, til it the onion of the States has
t ei n. rn.l must siiil he, preserve 1. wc can
r.et h"liev? your Kvcf 'icney will r;. f:!Tf f'.hio
the ri'at to punish tin pi-Ttr.:tors i-f eri;:ie.
ro:n:ni't''-.l within her juris.lictirn. Sine,. hi
these five m-n he arri"-.'.-
I. r.arl ih-live
! tj
the authorities of Ohio
prperlv rejir.lcrl. Th
th'iir rights v
V 'Vill h iV. a spee.lv.
I.itr, nnl p;;jlie. tnil liy an fnjjirtnl jury;
and wc trust tint the citizens of Ohio, who
are now impris-ined in Wood county, Vinjin
ii. will mjoy the s iiuc riirhrs. This coer ce
will pr-elude a recurrence of di "eulty he-t-.veen
the citizens on cieh side of the rivr.
iin l preserve pe.tcc andh rmony between the
V'ill your E ;cel!encv' at your (-."irlie;:! er.n-veni-nee,
apprize me r f the Executive action
on the papers referred to.
And lie assured I am, Sir, with great respect
Your E'ceciliiny's OVt Sv't,
IJis Excellency, James McDowrn.,
Coventor of Virginia.
Gov. McDowell to Gov. Bartley.
Richmond Va., Oct. 21 1815.
Sib: 1 reeivcil on yet. i!y your li lt r
nf t'lH 13th ins.., in relation to the requisi
tion which you have, recently made on the
Executive authority of this K::t" for the ar
rest and surrender of certain persons who are
therein demanded as fugitives from the jtis
tico of yours, and I answer it tho more
promptly as I was in the very ret, whi n re
ceiving it, of advising your Excellency of the
present decision of this Department upon the
requisition its. If. C isxil oireiim-;t iue.os, tr-
pether with some delay in pseert lining in.. th
rill facts not in possession of this Department
until lately, have prevented me from lorming
and from making this known at as early a day
as 1 could have wished.
I have now, however, to inform your Ex
cellency that nil of the persons named in your
requisition to wit, Francis Lewis, W'vatt
Lewis, James Coe, Niinrod Coe and Calvin
Jlockeiibaugh, are at this time under legal
process, cnm)cllinj their attendance r.s wit
nesses in a prosecution which is pending he
fore ono of our courts anrainst thn very persons
whom they are, severally; charged in tha re
quisition with having kidnapped, and are in
conseqiiencfl thereof reserved from surrender
bv B provision of a law of this State (a copy
of which is herewith sent) until they tiro ful
ly discharged irom the process by which they
are held.
Yhilst I need not say to your Excellency
that the ooligalion on my part, as r.xecutive,
In maintain the reouiroinents of our own law
In this respect is complete and imperative, I
cannot but hope that you will concur with
me in opinion upon the reasonableness anil no
cessity. of the law itself. It is not peculiar to
Virginia, but is to be found in substance
amongst the laws of several of the other states
and in all cases rests upon tho stme sound
and rational principle, that whetu v, r any one
is under the claim of law for the parpos, s of
justice, it is wrong to surrender hir.i f. f:i -y
after claim for a similar purpose until the first
shall have been satisfied anil disposed of.
Tike the very c isc which is before us at pre
sent, ana a more striking illustration ol the
truth of the principle or of the value of the
law which is founded upon it could scarcely
beofH red. Were I to deliver up to your Ex
cellency the persons whom you have deman
ded whilst the tri il for an aliedged aggression
upon tho property and rights of citizens of
thisStite.in which those persons are the
principal if not the sole witnesses, is still
pending and undetermined. were I to do
this, the ivcstiiratii'iis and authority of the
Court would he stopped the whole evidence
in the case wool. I he taken away, and taken
away forever if the persons surrendered should
he convicted of I'dony the parties implicated
acquitted without trial, and thus the purpo
ses of justice efl'i -dually defeated through an
Executive agency w hii.il was lie ant to pro! et
them. Indeed, tho surrender, i.iulerexis'ing
eireumst inces, would he, in idled, to endow
your Eeelleeey with the double privilege of
subjecting certain citizens of 'irgiui.i to an
ignominious prosecution in Ohionnd discharg
ing r.t th" same lime certain ethers of Ohio
from a similar prosecution h-re.
doiibtedly would bo th" result of
roieii tin
nnnlvinir. presi :,t, with your Exee'leiicy's demand
.Still, hov.-iver, 1 a:n p"-l'ectly confident th .t
in ma!. log it, ;,nd making it now, your Ex
cellency has acted with no design wiia'soev
er of th.v.'arti.ig the e.,ure and operation of
our laws, but with the singlo and honorable
one of maiut.ini'.ig inviolate I'm claims ef
your own.
Acting then in this same spirit r f ofliicia!
fidelity, and in cnforini'y with the provision
of law before alluded to, 1 shall H-elme giv
ing any order at prent fir the and
doll very over of the p-rsans wh ere : -in
your Excellency's requisition. V, !:'
er they Jure uishursjed fr.mt the pr. c -a
fore ft .te.l, and when tan judi'iii-i i of
Court, in ail Us bearing un-m tiie persons and
principles involved, shall he made known to
this Cep irt.nent, it will then have tho wh-de
eis- in id, hands, and will he able to proceed
;.l once la a mill iie.:i.non upon it.
1 laving thus answered y .-ur Excellency's
req listion, I have now to submit cue f,'o,,i
thU Department upon yours, demanding the
surrender of Jos. Uomamc, Titus Shotweil,
ae. 1 b rtou Si aunton, who were indided at
the Neptem-Vr term of the Circuit Superior
Court of Law and Chincory for tho county
of Wood, in tlii- State, begun and held on
the first day cf the month, upon a charge of
f'elnnieais'y r-ii'.ioing and alluring away, and
otherwise i-::Jing in the removal and abscond
ing from the service ami possession of their
owner, eert'.in s.u es the propeity of a citi
zen i f this Mat,;.
Thi.! r' ;;;i-.ii n. as your Excellency will
perceive. i Ion need upi n an indictment which
is prior even to that on which your own has
been made, and is otherwise in all constitu
tional and le-al ropods precisely the same,
i cannot dmibt, thereibre, but that its validi
ty will Ii" promptly ac!;u awledgeJ.&.if no le
gal obstide ovists, that the necessary meas
ure? will ho as promptly taken to give it ef
fect. Could I at any moment have doubted
tiiis, an I have supposed tint your Excellen
cy would bo unwilling to admit as obligato
ry upon your own Executive action, the coun
ter;' irt fli" the very e.fl'e i 'l instrument which
you have- presented as obligatory upon mine.
that d:;u,;t would have been removed in th"
most ample manner by tho very explicit and
np.iatie positions ot your letter. .Notanv',
indeed, could be stnuB-er upon this point than
e emphasis with v ' e h your Excellency
'dares it lo be your e olident belief, that
e p'T-c and harm- ( the several States
r.uot be maintain! ! i .e"p! through the faith-
1 execution ol all international laws by the
inlhoi'ilies ol each; ".ml t.iat tin; Union itsell
open. Is for its presorcMion upon the steady
nforeeinent of th it federal guarantee which
eeures to every Stite, as a pirt of its sover
eignty, tlie delivery over lj Us laws ol every
criminal against them.
This is the doctrine of Virginia tho doc
trine as we believe of patriotism and of the
Constitution; and having ofien maintained it
rl.'cs in the f.ieo of opposition, and dei.i
nd rebuff, we cannot be otherwise than
sed at having so powerful an auxiliary as
Ohio to assist us in maintaining it for the fu
Ontiued ;3 I cm at the position on thu
subject, which you have taken for your young
and powerful Commonwealth, and pspeenby
at hiving the benefit of it in advance on the
side rf the demand which I have hereitl
the honor to forward, 1 am see rely less so in
believing that your own gratification will be
'ully equal to mine at having so early an op
portunity ot stamping the doctrines ot you
letter with the seal of a practical and official
conlirmati in
In r l ition to the citizens of Ohio who are
now under trial in the county of Wood, anil
whose situation is specially referred to in
your letter, 1 trust that your Kxcellency wilt
leel entirely assured mat mo nix aid Honor
able trial whic h you invoke lor them willeer-
t inlv bo bad.
Without extending this communication
any farther, I will add only, that whilst I n
gree with your Excellency in believing that
much may be done by a faithful use of Ex
ecutive stithority to restrain thp comini 'sion
of olU'iiccs between citizens ol il iilereut St ites,
I uiil yet satisfied that our solid and effectu
al reliance for this end is in the private mor
ality of these citizens themselves and in the
prevalence amongst them of a true spirit of
justice and respect for the rights of each oth
er. With such a spirit we h ive a security
for pithlie peace iminoasar ihiy stronger than
everything which law, with ail its bonds, im
prisonments and lilies can allbr-.l. Let such
a spirit as this be extended to the constitu
tional and legal rights of the people id" Vir
ginia in their slaves let every atte-npt at the
a'hiromcc.t or removal of those, slaves from
the possession of their owners be given up,
as both illegal and immoral, by those who
disclaim them as property let this be done,
and your Ex-, ellency needs in assurance from
me tint the kindly rel itions between Ohio
and ViiL'i'iia am more likely than ever to re
main undisturbed and perpetual.
With very great respect. 1 am your Excel
lency's niO:,t obedient servant,
To His Excellency, M. Hmitlev.
Ciovernur of Ohio
(Gov. Bartley to Gov. McDowell.)
Exprt-Tivs OmcE, Ohio, )
Columbus. Nov. .Id, 1HI."). $
Sin: I bad tho honor t j n et ive a few days
since, your Excellency's communication of
the 'Jist ult., in reply to my letter of the I.'lla
lilt. Six weeks pre-'ioos to the receipt of
this communication, a requisition from this
office in due form, was presented to v., r Ex
cellency, for the arrest and delivery to the
authorities of Ohio, of l'rai c is Lew is, Wv
.... i n... v- ...
an i,i' e-, jaiue vuo, iNiaarou e.oo nil'
hilvin Rockenbnugh, agiiiist whom indict
ments were returned, in t he cou, ,yof Va:..i
u-ion, and sum oi uiiio, i, r me alrocoas
rime e.f kidnapping three fit!-., es of Ohio.
our com riunieation contains tie first in i-
ma.'. vp, i,:.-. i - ,ieii, as to any action on the part
t your ex.- a encv, on the S'lhj. ct of the re-
usinoii irom nits oua-e. : ? tno eium: on
Inch tun '.'maud tor the arrest was p.-edi-
ated, is one of no ordinary magnitude, and
s toe execution of criminal i isiico ttlw.ivs
piires promptness, yen will ..lio.y mo to
xpress to you my regret, taa! circumstances
Id have arisen, lo occasion so intu h do-
:y in your action.
learn with no small oegrre of surprise.
tin; d termination which voa have made on
subject of the requisition. You have as
it app"irs. duierred your fin d d vision, until
::io luture period, and declined, at the pre
sent, issuing a warrant far the arrest. Yon
y in your comaiuuication, after sneaking of
the delay in your action, ! have now. how
ever, to inform your Excellency, tint all this
persons named in your requisition, are at thin
time, (that is, at the date of your letter,! un-
r legil proeess.compelling lhn!r attendance
as witnes.-c?, m a prosecution, tec
1 our statement leaves urotind lor the in
ference, th t after it had become known, in
irgiuia, tint a requisition had been presen
ted to you, and during the delay which oc
curred, between the time of making the de
mand upon you, and the date of your letter.
the legal process spoken of h id been served
on the persons whose arrest was reouired.
If the persons h id bei n under ior-il process
t tno time the ilein iu I for the arrest had been
,de, it is to bo presumed the lad would
have been so stated. Permit mo further to
ay to Y'i'.ir Excellency, that tiie reasons ass
igned ler your in clining to issue the warrant
for the nrre-it, -t present, and deferring your
final decision on tho application; until a fu-
tactory. by deler your haul decision up
on the merits ef the application, and deter
mine to take the matter up for consideration,
only after the (.-".sous whoso arrest is deman
ded, shall have b"cn discharged from legal
process as witnesses! .i.it bearing the
Pigment ol a criminal court in lrjiina, can
have on the prosecution of other pers-vns. upon
a different eharg', in enabling you to firm a
re correct decision noon Ihe pendingreoui-
sition, is wholly beyond my comprehension;
and tne ueie.v inciuem 10 mis course, would
nfl'e.rl an opportunilv to tho persons h o
arr.-sl is sought, to niahe their escape; an event.
doubt not, which your Excellency would
much regret.
Jiut the provisions of the law of Virgin-!'.,
which you famish, and give as the ground on
which you lusa your r d',ial to issue a war
rant, are n-.-t applicable, to thn c.iso. By the
provision of that law, thn exemption from ar
rest, upon the requisition of the Executive of
another State, is confined to 'perm :s u:r!er
pro-:c?uiinn fir Ireumn, felony or itther rrm".
aU.'.e.l U) Hive ucn eimini u.', in Virginia,
nn-l t i per -.13 in r-i- 'a fy up in any er: utinn
or upon any writ or process." -i on do not
claim that tho persons whose arrest I have
demanded, are "in custody" upon any pro
cess. To be in custody, the person of an in
dividual must be in the keeping, and under
confinement by an nTicer entrusted with s ame
h'gil process, authorizing the imprisonment.
According to n rition il or looitiante con
struction of a law, can a per -tin under a mere
rummons or subpce-ia, to appear in a case as
a witness, be retried as in custody."
This law, therefore, does not nppe ir to me
to bo applioblo to thn case, inasmuch as,
from your own at itemed, thesn persons aro
only under a m'T' process of a subprena, as
a wilnoiS, and not " in custody," upon any
pro'-pss, or under any criminal prosecution,
in I'irL'inlct.
The requisition whi-h I have m ado upon
vou. for the arrest of Ihe persons named. wa3
made in strict conformity to thn provisions of
a law of Congrr-.-ss.ol tho l-.Uh r ehrmry,179.,
but under tho authority ol thn second oliusc
of tho second sedion of the dth article of tho
Constitution of tho United Stttei, which is
in tha words following, to wit : " a person
charged, in any Stile, with treason, felony,
or other erim", who shall 11 -o from justice,
and be found in .mother stne, she!', de.
m ind of the Executive authority of the state;
from which he lied, be delivered up, to be
removed to the state hiving jurisdiction of
the crime."
This provision of thn constitution is imper
ative. " O i i . '.-; i ''(," thn fugitive from jus
tice ahall ! I'fVen up. Thn Constitution is
subject to tu qu ililieation or condition, and is
paramount to any mere act, passed by the Le
gislature of any one of th" stabs.
it appears evident to me, that good faith
towards the national compact, require the
i'lithf.ll e'.servanen of, and strict obedience
to. the high injunctions of the United States.
If the Legisl .tore of one of the States has the
power to pass a law, annexing conditions or
qualifications to an imperative! provision ef
tho (' institution of tho L nited States; or if
tiie chief executive magistrate, from conside
rations of local expediency, has the power to
evade a compliance with tiie imperious in
junctions of that constitution, then, that sacred
chart nf our nation il liberty will 1; mere
rope of smd, and ce.no longer t a -, any pro
tection t a the respective rights of the Stites
of the l iiion.
The law of Congress, ef the I2ih February,
IT!).-!, points out the mode of making ihe de
mand for the surrender of fugitives t'.oin jus
tice. I'nder this law, it is provided, that,
whenever the executive authority ol a State
in the Cuion, shall demand anv person as a
fugitive from justice, and produce a enpy of
an indictment, or an affidavit, undo beiore a
magistrate, preferring the charge, fee, " il
j he th - duty ef the executive authority of
the State to which such person shall have
1, tj cause him or her to he arrested and
delivered ever, e."
Neither the Constitution of the United
Stites, ii"r this 1 nv of Congress, will admit
of tho construction, that the sarrendei of a
fugitive from justice, is to be subject to the
conilnion, that tho surrender is not lo lu
made, in case the lu'ritivc 13 under too mere
process of a suhpuena, to appear in a case as
a witness in court.
Tho paramount objects of our national union,
an.l the (.reservation of the friendly relations,
the peace and harmony of the several stites,
aro certainly not to yield, or be made second
ary to a mere suit, pending in a local court.
If such a construction should be given t ithis
provision of the Constitution, it would ren
der it almost a nullity;, and, whenever an of
fender should learn, that a requisition was
about to be made for bis surender and punish
ment, for a criminal depredation, perpetrated
upon the person and property of an adj loent
State, all he would have to do, would be to
get some ef his friends or accomplices, to
serve upon him a procoss to appear, as a wil
!, in some proceeding pending in a local
court, and thus defeat the purpose of justice.
In the caso now unde r consideration, in
carrying out the provisions of the internation
al law, and thereby preserving the friendly
relations between the States, there is no occa
sion, as I apprehenl, to interfere with the
proceedings, which you mention, in the crimi
nal court of Virgiuii. Tho persons whose
arrest and surrender is demanded, can, by
means of giving bail for their appearance, to
answer t i tho criminal charge, in Ohio, be
used as witnesses in the court of Virginia,
and the fid nf their testimony being necessi
ry, fir the purposes of justice, (if such be the
case.) in a criminal court of Virginia, would
be pi-d cause for continuing the trial in Ohio,
until the proceedings in Virginia be disposed
of. A friendly and amica'de disposition on
the part of the authorities nf each stale, would
certainly enable us to -ubscrvo in the most
ample in -inner, all the purposes of justice.
without doing violence to the provisions of
tiir inK rnationul law
Darin? tho period at which the difficulties
alluded to, h ivii existed, between soma of the
citizens of Ohio, and some of those of Vir
ginia, thn public authorities in Ohio, bavt
tikeu special care, and th .t too wii.li se. -ct-ss
to maintain an amicable ao I correct course on
(he put of the citizens of Ohio. Our citizens
have been assured that they would find am
pie justice in the judicial tribunals of Virgin
ia, and speedy redress of their wrongs. The
act perpetrated hy the citizens of Virginia,
whose arrest and surrender is demanded, was
a high-hnnded outrage, calculated to lead to
Teat popular excitement, it appears trmn
tho testimony received at tins oiaiee, that the
design of tho negroes to leave the'r master
an I cross the Ohio river at the very time they
lid, was known in the neighborhood where
tiie si ivcs resided far several days previous
ami tins luiurmnion was communicate i to
tho citizens on tho Ohio shore by Virginians
for the purp.-.ss of exeiling their curiosity;
else, why did they not nrrost the slaves on
the V irgioia shore! 1 bus excit-d hv the ci
tizens of Virginia, sever 'I on Iho Ohio side
collected on the hank of the river, and. as thn
slaves ascended the bank, some ten or twe
of the citizens of Virginia, bring concealed,
(hiving previously iroised the river,) ran
from their ambusc ide, arm 'd w.th musU-ts
and sabres, ordered th si ives immediately to
the boat, then, having fired et. captured, and
forced from the juris diction of ihoir own St ite,
t'ar 'n citizens of Ohio, into the Sta'e or Vir
ginia, where they aro now i lewdly im
prisoned. Tu redress the w rong done by this outrage
to the rights of our citizens, an.l to ihe sov
ereignty of the State, resort has thus fir been
had lilono to the peaceful remedies of judicial
proceedings. Hut if your Excellency is not
disposed to lend your aid, and tho exercise
of your authority, to redress these wrongs by
the couimO of legal proceedings; if tho injunc
tions of the national compact aro to be tnada
secondary t- strained constructions of mora
Stu,- rr-idments, and matters of local expe
diency; it a diabolic -il out'-age of this kind 14
to be perpetrated by citizens of Virginia upon
the persons of citizens of Ohio, and the per
petrators escape with impunity, under the pro
tection of the authorities of Virginia; be as
sured sir, thefrii ndly feelings and intercourse
between the two States will be greatly endan
uered, and it is feared the people of Ohiowilj
tike justice in their own bands, and redress
their own wrongs, without a recourse lo the
aiitii rities of Virginia. I do not say this by
way uf threat, nor without due rellection.
I be iieveyour Excellency to be acting from
gooil motives; but sir, it is not human nature
fir any people to submit tamely,and see their
people kidnapped, and imprisoned in a for
eign jurisdiction. I tell you, sir, plainly,
with proper respect, and with duo delibera
tion, that Ohio will not submit to such wrongs.
Let mo ask you then, sir, in the exercise of
your high functions, and with a disposition
which I doubt not you possess, to preserve
tin1 peace and happiness of the people of tho
whole I'nion, to it-consider the determination
which you have made on this auhjeet.
You inform nieby your communication that
Joseph Romanic, Thus Shotwe'!,and Herton
S:mton, have been indicted in Wood county,
Virginia, upon a charge of " en;l( ing and al
luring away slaves from their master in Vir
ginia," and in your letter, you demand their
S;. r.ender.
No requisition in a legal form, as yet has
been presented at this office, accompanied
with a copy of indictment. I cannot prcsumo
that, i'i a matter of so much import nice, your
Excellency expects me to dispense with the
usual legal and Constitutional requirements,
in tho surrender of citizens of Ohio.
Should a requisition come, in a proper and
legal form, accompanied by the necessary pa
pers, I will assure you. sir, it shall rpceive
all proper attention, with due regard lo iho
injunctions of the Federal Constitution.
In conclusion, permit me to say, that thn
authorities of Ohio have thus f ir been faithful
lo tho performance of their duties relative to
fugitive slaves. I am not aware that any pal
liation exists, unless in mere imagination, for
the outrage perpetrated hy thn citizens of Vir
ginia within tin; jurisdiction of Ohio. How
beiiefiei.il your salutary admonitions on tho
subject of tho morality and virtue of the citi
zens of tho two states may be, is yet left to
conjecture; but I will assure you, sir, that no
where in Iho I'nion, tho " Old Dominion"
not excepted, are the citizens more moral and
peaceable than those el u::to. .Mill, l trust
sir, the admonitions will not be entirely use-
ess. I am yd firmly of opinion that the ad
ministration of the critninil law ought not to
be relaxed, unless it be intended to let tho
people avenge their own wrongs, by a resort
to violence.
With great respect, I am, sir,
Your obedient servant.
His Excellency, J imes McDowell, Governor
of irgiuia.
We have before us 'A condensed Anu-Sla-
very llihle Argument by a citizen of Virginia,'
a pamphlet of Hit pages, New York, 1845.
We are ever pained when we see or hear
Religion and Slivery mentioned in con
nexion. Here we confess we lose all that
clnr'.ty which wo can at all times feel to
wards tho greatest criminals and the worst ot
primes. We imagine that no ono looks up
on tho lion and the snake with the same
feelings, nlthouuli deith may bo threaten-
1 by both. Ho to the held 01 haltlo,
and sec tho brains scattered irom tno crush
ed scull, or the great gush of thn heart's
blooi! and the g.eat t Work of (,'ol has been
mar:- d! This sight is horrid enough. But
go to the gloomy chamber of the victim of
secret poison! See the wasted form the
anguished eve the drenl of frienl and foo
the horrible war of tho ncessary craving
for food and the instinctive keen sense of
fita! poison now when all thd Cod has in
tended for support in the trying hour aro
turned into the bittere st curse look there,
misery and madness struggling for suprema
cy an 1 cold, certain dalh, the srle arbiter
and giver of rest! Tell us now, the untaught
impulse of the heart of man, is not this
worse than death in the battle field! Go 600
the "cat 'o nino' buried in tho flesh-of tho
nnpntee t :d slave see bis ashy shrivelled
form hi ri's his foul and comfortless hut
teir him from his home blot out from his
eyo the loved imiges of bis wife, children
and friends and who aro tho men who do
this lliingt Every cilizrn who by his vote
allows the vilest wretch to do the deed with
i eipni i'y! Hut the citizen wag born to it
love of wealth, pleasure and pride hove u
seerpel tho place of unbougbt conscience;
many paliiat.veg cmnn to bis help and if
eoi s'lenee aw.i'.;e', heaven help us mere 19
agri-it -.'.n.l uierelfi.l and omnipotent God,
who c n purify the most deep stiined 6aul.
and upon repen a ice rn .Uu the tortured spirit
hapnv on"e inoie!
Hut wh n and how shall wec'a s flint man
who knocks f.on under our titt ri j and
weary (mt this las' s-aff.ldi ig of hope, and
makes Cod himself tho worst of tyrants the
falsest of frienels the most unjust of fancied
existences! The man who lettempls to jusu
fy si ivery from tho llihle is tint man! If he
wins us to bis opinions, he makes us on infl-
dul we lose our belief in the existence of a
God aur idea of the immortality of tho soul
all distinction between right and wrong
we sink from tho mm inU the baas' ws

xml | txt