Newspaper Page Text
J'hn Grinncll expnditii.n. It will 1 remembered,
J'J ?i,.'ir,"'r ' r Xi'w-Vork toward the last nf
-1" ' "' ' "r. nm".' t
1 I :ro!i PCrous VOVri!0 In tllfl Cnn.f ill I . rnnn 1., ...1
. r i i . . v - . ' i i
M Which itntDiO III snrlit an 4 lis 1 ..f
ooe alter iuy beginning (,f J,
region of rurk i'il.lrc 1 i. e. nnd fi
ihhuig of July, it entered the
davhrin.'. .i.int.!,o.. i....: i... ..r i
and hiImi h.torM. . The effect of reii-uction in !
.1.. . ' wl .rt'"i-iK)n in
count from Ur. Knnc's ioiii-n-.! 7,.-.v ..... I
s n - , . . "
.,5k 1 , ', r"i,llll',l! l " w lh I
n...i.i. i. ."'v.itii a nun tne innn. re-!
scuii.iicil nn exi.piiil. 1 - .. .i ...
. t i i-""". i-iiiiTo.i wiiii me aeons
. . . i r """I.
- . i,,,,,, ul imagination was
Jtdioj.vy 1 t Bie i to irmol from tne truo wnlerv
in t,,e f,,!i(. r,r, 0f rrfiMctimi nle it, ninl
there to tee li.i, struelnrc lining nn jeri.il ocean-1
margin, ,S.)im, of n,tv, Kxyptinn, rubl.ili.rlog-
gd pr t.lrt, nnd lm;oiliml cwirts some tai.orinc
iiihi co.u iinai-, like J a!n:ra and l!aiill,e.- some
with luoiit.-avc mid inrtir.i, like Telmessiis or
jsWo tugiw ami gioito-like, u. U as 1
diwuj- uio.uor.e-i recalled t.fMlura and Carli. .
I.c;l" "fJlj' re;lie it ns 1 write! but it was
tri.'k or fiiu-y. The tiling were there hall-nit-hmir!
ng-. I saw them, eaprieioms ver-alile, full f ;
firms, but bright and deliniio as the pha-os 0f j
sober lile. An l n my eye, ran round upon the "
r.itrvoioua ami Min ing n-ene, every m.e of these
n!t.ia.n.,1.1 . i r .. . . . Inll
-v.. vmunrn-.'i tines r,i-,7 iiriiirn me, hunt tip tiy I
m sii?..tsivc fiMtiire of the ice.
Ait lieeborg is eno ul' i .l o.vii buildings, nrencli-l
in Uluion of humiliiv to the miniature stluc-,1""''lc!,,
lures ot man. Its material, one colossal lViit-'.i-
m.'i", the representative of power in
its distribiitinn. siunihiiin. ...,i.i. .
l4ol Kp. - J makes one smile nt thu' e classi-'
rl rvnnaut whodi our own period reproduces in j
liilii.-ine,, Mallmllas, mid (iirard Collci'e. I
li,i universal poems in the dead languages. Ni'll, I
T,-e Mn rnmpyo them with the ioobergi for tlie'"'r
mtaiiilr. nieasiires both, ns it does Chin.bo-
rnxojuid Ina Jlill ol llon tl,. J!llt the thing 0r re-!
Iui;;tMi is supernatural throughout. The wildest
ot nn opiuni e.itor's reveiy Is nothing o tho't'on
jiliumasmag-ria of the sky to-night. Karnaks off
,.i.,..u... annn, were resting upon rain- n
.i'u.e.re.i pouoaM i great needles, obelisks of i
mire whifcnc.4. k nil nn iilw... .1...:. r.i..- i. . I
V p. . i i ,:: Horizons,
.....I, u.,... ,.u iioiii-.iiiss-iiKo contraction nt their
poirrt of nnion Willi their .luplicated images, Kst
wiiiii'iirs iii ino oiiio oi i.ie upper skv.
Wiiile J was looking the sextant useless in niv
hand, lor 1 could not think of nngles a blurred
and wavy c hange came oier tho fantastic picture.
J'riimatie tiiitinn, ti o vairue to n lmit of li,,.Mi.l
analysis, h-gan to margin my architectural mar
IWc, and Ihc scene faded liko one of 1'resnci's dig
toivlng views. Suddenly, by a llash, they rcap-
(.uui; i in iu.i ovinia i inui just ns i was nogm
to n ito in toy mcmuraiiiliim-bonk the
ill t'.iis brief intertill bad produced, thev ivenl
entirely, nnd left a nearly clear horizon.
The influence o( the long summer dav in tho
Arctic retiims has ollcn been described, but sel
doc.i with mmo ton e nnd beauty than in the fol
hriHg psage :
Tlio pj.f r.uril dayiiglit lia l continued up to thin
niiiun ui nun uu.ii aieii itiare. i he sun hm re..,,. i no
cj mi ii.jiui meriiuan uiutmlo some davs before. 1
1 Ut 4ln JilA - I ...... I I j. t .... I
, ..v .. ,.,.:, nanny nwaro oi change. .tint-
lu aw ltuned chnmcter, liko lho low eum-l,rod-
suit at iMunn, but (here wns no twilight. I lous
At lir.st the novelty of this great unvarying day nn"
made it ploasing. It was curious to sec the "mid- raP'J
night Artie fuii set into sunr se," and pleasant to 1
find that, whether you ate or slept, or idled or ''
toiled, the same daylight wns alwnys there No ,ho
irkoiue night forced upon you ils system of com- often
ptilary alternations. 1 could dine at iniilnii-lit. : may
sup at be.tklittt time, nnd go to bed nt miotidav : I irou-work
and but for an nppnratus of coils nnd cogs, culled
i 'in ii, viuuiu nave ueen no pettcr ami no worse.
My feeliug ivns nt first Mi cxti-avngftBt sense of
iindcliiie l relief, uf soma va?uo rostrum r,.n,,...,.i
1 seemed to have thrown off the slavery of hours.
In taet, I eonld hardly rcalino its entirety. Tho'
simi iamp.i, standing, tlust covered, nn our lock
ers! am nunting the words of my journal pui
slod me, ns things aUoletc nnd fanciful.
fins was instinctive, nerhnns-. but 1m- nJ 1.- n
came other feelings. Tho perpetual light, garish j "
and unfluctuating, disturbed uia. 1 became gradu-
ally awuro of an unknown excitnut, a stimulus, r,r
cling aoiisUhtlv liko tho diminutive of a cup of ca,,fiht
alrong coffee. .My sleep was curtailed nnd irregu-1 at
" : my meal hours trod upon each others heels ; jftgain.
and hut for stringent regulations of my own. jm--hecks
'"i nft. my niuuue woum navo DecD completely
My lot ha 1 been cast in the xone of liriodendrons
ami sugar maples, in tho nearly midway latitude
of jJ. , I had beeu habituated to day nnd night ;
ni:d every putinu of these two great divisions bad
for mo its p'HimIs of peculiar association. Kvcn
in the tropics 1 bad mourned tho lost twilight.
How much more did 1 miss the soothing darkness,
of which twiUsdit should have been the nrnciirsui t
I began to loci, wilu more of emotion than n mnn It
writing for others likes to confess to, how ndmirn- 'M
Ida. ns a systemutic law, is the alternation of day
nnd night words that type tho two great condi-,
'tions of living nature, notion nnd rennsn. 'I',, und
tliose'who with dnily labor earn their daily hreail. '
kr.iv VIt.,11.. Il. . C .1 I n' . ,J . I
mu.ui. iuc ncisuii hi sleep i jo tno Urone
who, urgad by tho waning daylight, hastens the' 1
IdirlorTed tru,k, how fortunate that his procrastina- i
.itoa on not n six months' morrow 1 To the brain ,
vrorxors anion;' men, the enthusiasts, who bear tat
ir a... ...!.. .1.. .1 1. -If I . ii I .1.
"""'""T -u'lrn suiuuii wuiiiu tans upoii their cuiei
.day-dreams, how benignant lho dear night bles- j lll
-mg, which enforces reluctant rest I moist,
.' Befuro Christmas the s -enc had changed.
r.inractcrisiicM ol an Arctc
winter nre t..tir,l ,1
wiiii t;u) minu.o iidolity ot a D.itcli painting:
W have alnioat readied the solstice; and things
are so quiet tiiat I may ns well, before I frgct it
tell you something nwut tho cold in its sensible
.Coots, and tho tvny in which as sensible people
wo reel it. 11
You will see, l y turning tu the early part of my I
journal, that too season wy mnv loik buck upon ns
the pcrloction of suniiner contrast to tho outra"
w' wintor was in fact no summer nt all. W"o
had t!ie young ico forming round in in Baffin's
Bay, and weie nieasu.ing snow falls, while you
were swoatinundur your gruss-cloth. Yet l ro
iiiomber it an a tiiou of sunny recroution, when we
hot bears u;),.u tl.a lcs, and were scrambling
iiic.-nly over rhxiers and iiiurdnring rotu in tl,t.
' 111 eM e.n - m, ...
.i i ii 1 V fi'ii'iuii'iv. jiio erst '
thing that really struck ma was the freezing up n '"
our water-casks, tho (dip-candle anpnaranoo of the ! (,vi'r
liuug-holes, and our inability to ) ,v tdn tin cup ! I'Td
.owu lot a five minutei' p.uiso without inning itK h'
tontoiils liiado suhd. Next came tho complete in-) turned
.lorii.y tuuuiumuriuic without manufactuiing je. i light
... . "" ..uii vitju our water trom
lue beautiiul frch JiooIj of lho iccber-s and floes
jioi we hod ly quarry out lho blocks in flinty'
fctassy lumps, aud then incit it in tins lr our daily
oriuH. 'J'his wns in Wellington Channel,
-rj-iid-liy the sludga v. bull ne jut cd through
s we traveled becnuM punuuUs uud snow-balls
.U a were gtuJ un. YeL even m 1 -i; u,. n.i!
........ ... ,i . . . '
v., ui-;iiM-.-ti eulieciegj
.... ul u,,, uilv nnuninni. i.ike n Com-
'lifhiuihg brute, 1 thought it cold then 1, who am dross,
blistered ii 1 touch a brass button or a ramrod , 'y
without a woolen mit. - f.
A lJiitVAi.ii i. 11...... . Ml . I
from Barrow's InleL But ,T.. ,v,V.Y?.-.V""a 1
t be.rsn i ,;i . ,.,. "". . ,7 . "'V" uri"
nt ic.irw.u. ..r r .Vr . J' . "V"""" I"'
r". - j yruwuciiua, jit the ! hair
i,.W M liruMuirn round a can of mint-julep. Our I the
. . w.,...w v, .uiuuia wiui tiotrroidul littinir.
lumps uf dirty foot trodden ice. Tim 1...1
nightly aceniuuljti'ins of rime, aud wo ..InlcJ u,
bo ciiivful nbjiit coiled ropes and Iron omfc. Ou
l'ie iik itf October .no had a mean Ui.nx ratr.rc
B this t'uuce our lluls aterinj iaUTiway lad
Lecoiue so complets a anus of icick-s that we bod
te x'it' it up and resort to uur winter door-w av.
Tho upnuiug of a door was uur the aigiml lur u
j,ttlt id' smoke-like rspor ; every stuie tent
inil itlou J uf jjinplo strain, and a man's breath
l.iilkAll like ttbtt HrlH'r ,.f . i.i.l.J ... . ....11
r " O . j . V... ' WUUI M HiV.
All our eataliies bctsuie biughsbly eonsuJidalel
sviul IUr Uilfcrc ut rasliious, rcuuiring no small ex. U
.11 M l.l..... ir.i 1... ...... I ... . '
r ""' w umnnf mr jH-ciiu- you
ani on oi their ehnnged condition. Thus, dried
. - nin ii pwicu
ami barrel I y repented Mows will. a hcv n.
nngularities, l conglomerate of sliced chalcedony,
wnea pcncl.es the same. To get time out of the
barrel, or the hm-ml m.i r ii...... ..... . .i....
possible, We found, nfter many trials, tlmt tho
Niuni'ji ma cm pmn was to cut tip
.. 1. . .1. - I " . .
i'i'i k mu lumps iicmw to thnw.
i ... 1 . . ,M""-
.Amlil.tit miiu ......I .t . " .
with chiseled edco extracted .), , l,,, "iZmZ .
i . .. . .... . . '
Fcr""l' " Wit llmia we could re-
v',,1 ' i , ,
llt'!r formed n verv funnv rnnmniiiul T,.V..
Vf C"rk '-:i;" nnJ i--P-t therewith
, ', v- f- V ".'I'"" piJ"B I'cr" or Cftoutclioup,
"V ". "Kr.ii'n: tins extempornneous f.irniiila
" "! ko tuu nil; ; nrnwn sugir ot our winter
i noming out me
nw ill mt ..nnB ....i i i i i
. nun, n-.-s viiiuiKru, ro-
... . .
1 J 1 ' m'u "ninei. "'-'ir irne-
" '"vlioiiliil, with liamnlilie (iron oro piin
ion.n 't'10'1) rlic l'loor un.lorgors liltlo clinnge, nnd
'""'cs can nt SS' bo half scooped, half cut by
'tiff inui Indie. J
v' n,l I'l'ff nie rnro frecimens of Florentine
",ualc cmnlnting the lost art of petrified visceral
jnonstrosities seen nt the medical schools of Bo
AtoeiuvM.r 1""'m ,,ml Alill" i crow-hnr nnd handspike t for nt
dog. tho ns can hnnllr chip it. A bnrrel
no'"""0''.1" n""". nd kept for two dnvs In the ea-
"t -ru deg., wn still n's refractory as
'h n few iik-Iics below tho surface. A similar
bulk or lump oil, denuded of tho staves, stood like
iv"uw eaud-slone roller for a gravel walk,
, ,'!'" des'ert ronio of course unbidden, in
tin a. 'iti.il. 1.. m... I ....!. : i i.
. '"r, ' mm uiiiiiiniiiiiiiie Tnnexv. I nave
,r'C'i my inventive powers on some of them. A
1",,)nn pnindi, a good deal stronger than the
cr InMed, forms readily at 20
UPK- ' "",c ""Sored cranberries, with olitllo but
r"V ',rr "n'diiis water, nnd von have nn impromp
rrTVif tu strnwl 'CrrV iC. Mtlll V n. limn nt tlinii ft inn v
ll'lIe 5nm tl '0 pall in l'hiladelphia "parties'
"'I"-' 'ho h'dy hostess glides with such nicely reg
it "1'itod indifference through the complex machinery
hl" hroiight together, I have thought 1 noticed
stolen glance of nnxietv nt tho cooing doves,
whose icy bnsoma wero mefting into one upon the
"'IT" 'nhle before their time. We order thec
'"'inj.'s bettor in the Arctic. Such is the " compo
tro.io and fierce minli.-y" of our ices, that they arc
''rought in served on the shaft of a hickory broom:
'r""xmg roil, w Inch wo uso ns a stirrer first
n,ul a tork iilterwnrd. So hard is this terminating
...ln. ..p .i.. ...... to
n ic, mai n inignt serve ns a truncheon
The only difficulty is in the
It is the work of limo and
knock down nn ox
processes that follow.
energy (o impress it w ith tho rnrvinir knife. nnH
must handle your moon deftly, or it fastens to
your t iniruc. One of our mrsn t,nni,i .i.
other day by the crystal transparency of nn icicle
break it in his mouth : ono niece from to l,i
longuo iin.i two others to his lips, nnd each carried
the skin i the thoriuoiuoier wns nt 2X dcg.
Thus much for our Arctic grub. I need not sny
our preserved meats would make very fair
cannon-balls, canister shot I
in"rW I0-' u"",u"t r,,t "I'on ft walk, clothed in
Arctic costume. Tho thermometer
say 2i dcg.. not lower, nnd the wind I, I,
,.;,i i i.. e
lose tho lips for the lirst minute or two, and
admit the nir suspiciously through nostril and
mustache I'rescntly you broathe in a dry, pun-
but 21'aci.HlS mill mi-reonbln
benrd, eyebrow, eyelashes, nnd tho downv
punescenco oi the ears, ncnuire a delicate, whito.
I f . t 1 .! '
pericctiy enveloping cover of venernblo honr
nigiit lho mustache and under lip form pondu
nier's beads of dangling iee. l'ut out your tongue.
it instantly frccjos to this icy crusting, and a
effort and some hand aid will bo required to
1'bernto it. The less you talk the better. Your
has a trick of frccsing to your upper jaw by
luting aid of your beard ; even my eyca hnvc
heon so glued as to show that even a wink
bo unsafe. As vou walk on. vou find that th
uf your gnu begins to penctruto thronth
rwiie oi wuoien uiittens, witn a sensation like
Hut wo have been supposing your back to the
; and, if you are a good Arcticized subject, a
glow has already been followed by a profuse
Now turn about and face the wind i w-hni
devil of a chniigol how the atmosnhores are
off! how penotratingly tho cold trickles
your necK, nna in nt your pockets 1 how !
iack knife, herntnfiirn liLn lt..i. .Sawnr'.
unpleasantly warm," in the breeches pocket, has
idiangcd to something as cold as ico nnd hot ns
I '""ko your way bnck to tho ship! I wns once
three miles off with a freshening wind, nnd
time feared that I would hardly see tho brig
Morton, who accompanied mo, lind his
froxen, nnd I felt thnt lethargic numbness
meiiuoneu in mo suiry nooKs
seems even to extend to vonr brain. Its ineni.i
augmented; everything nbout you seems of n
ponder jus sort j nnd the vholo nmo'unt of pleasure
xrratir inj; the disposition to reiiinin nt rest,
Miaro vourscdf nn encounter wiin iliein Ininm
i"eiil:iiiceH. This is, I suppose, tho pleasurable
,.C .1. ... 1 . i 4
I c 1 m- sinry-uooKS.
could Cll page after page with tho ludicrous
'!'''' f our ship hoard life. We have two cli-
'""to, liygroinctricully ns well ns thcrmometricnllv
1 posito ends ol tho scale. A pot ket-handker-
I..!' 1. ... 1 I I ' .1 . 1 a
pocKoiua neiow in tno region ot stoves, comes
unchanged, tio below again, nnd it becomes
ll acci I, and almost wet. Go on deck nain,
n re-einoies a fiungitf coverca with linen. 1
picK my tcetli with it.
will toll you what this feels like, for I have
twice "caught out." Sleepiness is not the
sensation, llavti you ever received tho shocks of
iiiiftit'i.r-i;ii;i:ii iu IllltC 11 1 l!C, OIH1 nnU II1C pCCUIiari
bonumhing sensation of "can't let go," extending I
to your elbow joints? Deprive this of its pnr-nc'e
oxysmai character; subline, but diffuse it over
part ot tho system, an yon havo the so,
called pleasurable feelings of incipient freezing.
You nre noxious to know how I mnnne-e tn stnnrl
remorseless lempcrnture. It is n short story,
perhaps worththe telling. " Tho Doctor" still
remiiis three luxuries, remnants of better times
next his skin, a tooth-brush for bis nose.
riverythiiig clso is Arctic and hairy fur, fur, fur.
silk is light nnd washablo, needing noithcr
clean dirt of starch nor the uncomfortable
trouble of flat-irons. It secures to me a clean
between my epidermoid and tcal-skiu in
teguments. try tu be a practical man ns to eLthing and
etceteras of a travolcr. All bnggapo beyond
essential I regard ns iuiprdimnila, and boliove
tho w isdom of Titian l'eale, who, when prepar
ing for au exploring tuur round tho world, pur
chased a I'll run. For the sake of poor devils
coiuicinneii to cola winters, 1 givo In detail inv
much trial, and, I think, iicur
ls, from tip to toe :
till !4- ill enltrit, aiwlru 11,1. .1.. 1
..A l . . :Z r V V ": V'-Vf
' "J iiii oi rioocu women SKx'KingM, ris-
the knee and half way up tho thigh
'l,t'"6 11 pir of Ksquimaux water-proof boo'u
by a hoi k of dog-skin, the hair insido ; the
of dressod neal-hido; a sole with tho edges
up, and crimpled so as tu Ibrui a waler-
cup; tlio lurreil edge of a dog kkin sock in
coiuicinneii id com wn
the result of mu
perfect. Hero it Is,
Feet. A pair of
n u lining; and some c ean straw liil
smoothly at tho bottom, which forms the cloatic
ou which you tread.
Legs. A pair of coarse woolen drawers, and
of ten skin breaks over them, stitched with
Client. A jumper or short eoat, double, of
tkin and reindeer fur. 'J'his iimilnnl.lr. rt;,.l
1 .: . . . . .
I ,ur J.r"7. u'"ing a good
"". '"' ,,n" ""ecru. It consist
an imicr-linodcit slurt of rcindoer-skiu
le. reaching on fur as l ie ui.i.er rl.. .. i
so as to allow free swing to the legs? ami
uliout the throat crv cloae v. It in . !.... .
.1 ,1.. : . --v.
ww ..v hick, im ner-
, - ,
like the shirt, ami, except
..-! . -
touee aim uiiiiinding.
.irerid.Our pcopV generally wear fur enps.
mm no car-ridge, a liura, to sjieak heroically, of
vro!fUu- Excellent is thin Moruinn fur.' Jav
inibe entire poll bare to the elements, it piianls
and lorbenil etfcctuallv; in any ordinary
t tJ.o wind alsive 15 dcr.. I nm n,( ii-.m!
with the cold. Before I resorted to this, my
was litlld" frvJin water, stiff and iineomfort-
, . 1 . " iiiiii'iiiii'ii-
all tlie cnudeusntinn turning to Ico the mo-
niiddliiig hreeae (uiite iid
i wear on clastic jjlii m
I lini-owiH'O. hcu the lventliep iu
I up hood; w)u colder, say 0 J0.
ciiniioli I ..,.
i '""V' "!"."" 1
htcp ... add,w.,., IIP,vtt
one of a pair forced on me l.y a certain brother of
mine ns i was n-rv i ii jt in cw-fork, drawn over mr
,, . .1 r. i: t r.i. , .. . .
n.-.iu niivi litre, nun IHICfl Willi It niAflK 01 WOlt Skill
fo prcrent excessive condensation. I cut onlv two
evo hole-, And leave a largo aperture below the
point of the none for talking mid breathing. A
i trim looking object in this wolf-skin mask, Its
opening lined with wntor-proof oiled silk.
J ho only changes in tho nhove ore n pair of
cinm pnm mr mr, wnon ino tncrniometer strays
nhove 15 dog., nnd n pair of heavy woolen wnd
ninil leainiis, drawn nter my fur nnntn. nnd worn
Mocking fiihiun, within my hoots, in windy wcnth-
or . ,.i i in ...
I Al..nK waistearf. worn like the kumhund rf!
the Hindoos, is ft line protection whilo walking, to
keep the cold from intruding at the bockcta and
wnist ; it consiiinates, ns it floats martinlly on the
nrcezo, tno grotcsquo Harmonics ol my attire,
From the London National Temperance Chronicle.
Composed for the Innueiirntinn of tho United
Kingdom Alliance, for the LcnislatiTe Kunnression
oi me jrarao in etrong Uruiks
Ood help our snfTering race
Strong Drink's dark curse to chase
t'rem the w hole earth I
Send blessings from above,
Truth, mercy, pence, nnd love,
Oh, lot thy .Spirit movo,
And hope have birth I
Thy gifts the earth adorn
Water, and waving corn,
And luscious fruit
Fach season, climo, and place,
Hnth its peculiar grace,
Some care or wo to chase
Somo lack to suit!
A whilo the young earth stood,
Ucauteous and " very good,"
In God's puro sight;
Hut fraud and folly strange
Now good to evil change,
And from our hearts estrange
His holy light!
No deeper stream of wo,
Can curse this world below,
Thnn Strong Prink's flood!
t here every wavo in wrath,
And passion's stormy brenth,
Honrs man to sin nnd death,
Through tears and blood!
Twice Cursed Traffic vile!
"iVhoro hope, on funcrnl pile,
Meets dark despair!
Shall men, for sordid gain,
Deal out disease and pain,
And rproad their country's bane
With artful snare?
Shall Law its sanction give,
And license men to live,
Jly dealing dcathf
Forbid it, Ood or Truth!
Look with patornal ruth !
Send, to inspire our youth,
Thy Spirit's breath!
Lord, bless our suffering race,
That soon from every place,
Strong Drink be hurled!
May this "Almanci" prove
A holy band of love,
And through tho futuro move,
To bless the world !
Manchuter, Eng. Kxcitsion.
THE LITTLE COURTESIES OF LIFE.
III seems, said he, if he so vnlient be
That ho should be so stern to stranger wight J
For seldom yet did living creatures sco
That courtusie and manhood ever disagree."
Tho little things of life have far moro effect up
on the character, reputation, friendship and for
tune, thnn tho heartless nnd superficial are apt to
imagine There nre few indeed, however rou"h
nuturo, w ho nro not touched nnd softened by
kindness nnd courtesy. A civil word, a frionrllv
remark, a gcnernuacompliment, an nffuhle bow of
. . " .0 . I "'l " "' v iri
rCl'"Pn"l."nTB , havo nn influence whilo surli
up ''i'ltv. harshness nnd ill temper, naturally
enough, produce nn cUcct exactly the reverse. Tho
American people, as u whole, afo perhaps not ro
markablo lor courtesy. They nro so actively en
gaged in the bustle of lire, in tho onward movo
incuts of connncrco and trade, that they have little
leisure tncultiratc and practise these
fineincntc, wliinh are tho ronulto of eduvntiun. ofi
travul. nnd of cnlurirpd intoronurNn will. i..i;,.iv
.Nevertheless, wo nre nut a discourteous people, nnd I
tho great cities the proprieties of manner, and
civiiuics in i.irm aro attcnacil to with a com
mendable tlegreo ot exactness.
i.auy j.tnciino niunrt Vtortlcy, who soino time
since travelled in this country, 'describes tho citi
r.cns of the I'nitod States as '" particular courteous
oi.iiging. uu( a lady ol refinement and
accomplishment, mid travelling as well for iiftir-
lli.lli.n . P... IJ . . .. .. ..' M
ii'mmi' ior oiunsui c, couiu scarcciv frntlier tn
....... ., . . c
oiu!r opinion, lor ino commanders ol our stenm
w,,n, uim vwiiuuuiuin ui uur rnuroaa cars, nre
proverbially polite; whilo in intc brent circle.
every wnero throughout tho Lniou, a reputable
"'"'B' nouiu ui cuuiso icccivo ninrked and
Btiil, wo are bound to confess that wo aro defic
in many ot the littlo courtesies nf ffir.r.,,
tosics thut aro admirably caculated to sweeten the
intercourse of society, tlio interchange of friendly
iceniig, nnu mo general communion that takes
tdnco from day to dav. between
ouipanions. lho excuse with the manv is. tlmt
nno urn nino in prnciico the civilities to
which wo refer that they are too much engaged
more important matters. Thus a friendly visit
not be repaid, a polito note will be left unan
swered, a neighbor's call will bo disregarded, a
pleasant smile will be met with a cold look of in
difference, and a cordiul grasp of tho hand will lie
responded to with reluctance, if not KiirririKA A 11
may mean nothing, and yot tho effect upon the
and heart is chilling and painful
J ho niisluko that too many of us make is in sun-
liiimiur tlntl Ilia m.M.l.iu. L ... I . 1 1 ... . .'
..,v,, M W u un ono side,
we are to rerrire everv kind of atienii.m ...a
return nothing.' And this is nn error which' pro
vails in many phases of lifo. and to a t,ruJ
than people are apt to imagine. The affairs
this world should be reciprocal. A person nmv
willing to confer an obligation again and again
unless there be some manifestation of gratitude
of appreciation unless, indeed, the disposition
ri;- - o.imuiuig. in return the party
conlers favor nftcr fnvur, will in the end grow
of v.cll-doing, and seek out some
or more sympathining object. We are all more
less selfish, and that description of selfishness
exalts an acknowledgement by word or by
cither for friendship extended or affections
.' ' ." T. " "" iiuraine it any ot
!'V".TL ..I. J" -T n"-H '"dead,
J . ... .. " ' "iniy. tie navo some-
............ .... v.iiu, uini mere is no such
as unrcnuitcd love that hue I, ;.
- , ... - va. w nut V
uncu win soon cease to exist, inasmuch as the
nature of the passion renders mutual regard
essential to itscontiuued existence.. In Dm r,r..w.i
this theory way U correct, but there are, of j
therefore, iu grave matters of tho heart, mat
ters in which our all of earthlv bannine.. ... !,.
to le involved, rcc'pprocity or a kiudred feel
iw is absolutely essential, how much more will
doctrine apidy to the little courtesies of lifo!
friendship of many years standing, has often.
We lint A tt rtfMKUil. in L.m... 1.. -I :n..i , .
i , - . ' ciiiucu into
indiffcrenco, toldnoss and restraint.! some ncttv
or m)lalk. v.fUwx Tgy
en n uouoi, a suspicion lias been engendered
nun ino unwavorins: oont dene, thai i a..
h ' t Diiaiii mr
. , 1 u 'eo,, tokn at once and forever.
. Th.e ,','m"" "t Washington has passed the Home
..can i.i.i . witn a clause added, on motion of
r,g., u, i ennsyivania, excluding colored poople
,:"'"V" """ "nsiaraiy meanness was
never exhibited. It would seem that "democracy"
and eoloniiation combined, were determined that
these injured people should not have room on this
oronu comment, oven lor ft grave llbrtland Inq
CRIME OHIO IN 1853.
We havo gathorcd from tho report of Attorney
(Icneral I'iioh, for the year ending on the 1st of
I'ocemner, ino luuowing interesting statistics:
In convictions for crimes, seven have been fur
murder in tho second degree, twenty for man
slaughter, nino for rape, ono for bigamy, five for
nisoii, mo ijr-iour mr Durgiary, ten lor assault, with
intent to murder, two with intent to ravish, two
with intent to rob, forty-three for grand larceny
of winch tho "County cf Hamilton'' furnishod sev
enteen, seven for rojhcry, throe for forgery, sev
enteen Counterfeiters, two for mnlie.inna al..u.lir.
and four for malicious stabbing, seventeen horse
thieves, and several for nther priinni Allnr.nll.AH
tho prisonors wero sentenced Inst year to 185 years
,ulu .Bvon oi tno prisoners for lira.
These prosecutions cost the State f 14,9!)9,83. The
number of acquittals lor crime wan fill; the nnll
pnwquis 112; of the former were throe cases of
iiiiieuiieiiis nir miiruor in the Orst degree.
The convictions for misdemeanors, by which wo
mean potit larceny, assaults, c, wero 15d ; ae
rjuittals and nolles 055. There are somo 100 in
dictments for crimes nnd misdemeanors now pend
ing, among thorn five cases for murdor in the first
iicgreo, no. including one or two cases now in
error, or determined since Mr. I'ugh's report was
This report differs Tery little from that of the
year 1H;"2, when the prisoners in all were scnteno-
oi to iv years, and six imprisoned for lifo, and
three capital convictions,
A BOUNCING GIRL.
Miss Rosinn Policht Richardson, aeenrdinrr In
writer in tho Boston Journal, is n delectable arm-
nil, belonging to the State or Now Hampshire,
where she resides with her father, a substantial
farmer. She is thus describod :
" Miss Rosina is nineteen yeafs of age, is five
feet three and quarter inches in height, measures
fivo feet four nnd a quarter Inches nround the
waist, six feet two inches nround the hips, twenty
two inches around tho arm nliove tho elbow, four
teen inches around tho arm below tho cIIkiw, and
two foot ten inches in n straight lino across the
shoulders. At birth, sho weighed six pounds; nt
five years, ono hundred and forty-eight pounds; at
fifteen yours, throo hundred and sixty-five pounds ;
nnd now, nt nineteen years of ago, she weighs four
hundred and seventy-eight pounds! On estimat
ing the quantity of clothing whon drosscd for a
rido on a winter' day, we found it to contain ninety-eight
nnd n hnlf yards of three quarter yard
wido cloth. Sho has brown hair, dark bluo eyes,
of fair complexion, and has whnt phrenologists
v.iil.l ..nil H . ..IT I . I , , 1 . . . "
r..,u,u ...... nun uiuniiccu ncaci, tno perceptive or
gans predominating. She can knit, spin, weave,
mnko a shirt or batch of bread, is a good singer
nnd plays the piano with taste nnrl skill . r...2j.
ercd one of the best scholars in the town where she
resides, is courteous and affable, and lively in con-
",'"i "u evinces a general unowlotlgo which
might raise it blush on the cheeks of some of our
cuy Denes. '
Scottiso JcsTici. A poor man, half a century
firm nv m n.n wn. I . a ... . .' . . I . . ,
y nvii,..n,K ,u viointe tne game
laws by shooting a door, the penalty for the offence
being a fine of hvo pounds, or, in default of funds,
thirty lnshcs. He C&VQ llftlf the floor tck a nniiklin
who had the meanness afterwards to complain of"
in nrrlnn t.
usuua iiib HUM 111 U HI, rrn wn t in In nsnias
half to the king. The offender was oonvictcd
fined accordingly, but plendod that he had no
money. "Weel, mon," said the magistrate, " we
maun ha'e the lashes then." The poor man was
submissive. Tho magistrate then said to the
Sheriff, " Tak' that mon, the informor, tie him till
yon tree, and gi'e him fifteen lashes, which will he
half; nnd whon King Georgo conies over, wo
gi'e him his hnlf. Half till the informor and
half to the king."
Vunc ehoots iroin tho woodn. with i.mwrl..
which vou can truin iha 1.t.inl..n . , r' .1 .
tomato, frim the lower branches, nnd keep the
Tomato Cultcri. Verr few rnirHsiuim
stand tho propor mode of cultivnting this delicious
w iiinesuino vogaiaoie. i.ot tlio seed bo sown
a cox in tno mullo of winter let the plants
K.nu ... uui ucu-iuum, uini i,( wuoiosomo they
suck in tho carbonic acid which is generated
tho stove nnd your breathing, wdiilo they will
.....v . .. u.s,KU, ...o .,.u-j;niiig pnncipio lor man
un uiiimain. jiemovo them in tho spring
when danger from frost is over, nnd set thorn nt a
regular uismneo oi lour leet npart. When thoy
iwv iuvi uigu pui, stiiKos to thorn, fresh cut
vines trom the crouud. either hv lrlli.,nb
strings interlinking, or by placing the branches
tno boughs ot tho shoots. After tho plants
have boon in the ground about three weeks, hoe
tho ground around, destroy every weed nnd
manure tho roots. By this moans you will secure
supply oi ricn (omaiocs constantly,
Professor Agassis, in his lecture before tho Lo
well Instifuto in Boston, says the human race
existed on tho globo a hundred and f fly thousand
Heart ago. He points out differences in the phy-
.iim.iuid . mu uiuuruni races oi mon, great
er than thoso existing between the ournng-outang
...u inn. i,uiir.ct; nuimnis which naturalists
regard as uniercnt species. Ito concludos, thero-
iuiiv men sprang iroin dincrent stocks.
LlUKR.IL Sl'IRIT. f)n Rnnilnv nir.rt.ir.. t... I
w....i n....,..r -
j ... u iiutoiiit gnvo notice that a sorinon
wouiu no preached thnt nftni-nnnii l,o rl.r. !) m.
Furncss (L'nituriun), of Philadelphia, at tho church
Rev. Mr. Chuniii (L'nivorsnlisti.
.r I. 1 i .. .." ' .
i .mjiicui ivengion." lie supposed some
peoplo would think it slrnngo that he, an Orthodox
clergyman, should give such a notice ) but thuugh
f urness ontortuiued a differont system of the-
Hum inui, je. no was right on the great
.....mio , uuiuun rigius anu Human progress,
an emineutly practical Christioa. He added
some men lived bettor with a bad system of
uieoiogy inuii niunv men did who hml r,,u.rl
tlmt "tome men could do more teirt a jack'
man other men eould with a whole chest of
.vii, im, ly . urn rnci t o.
Ri'lers or the WoKi.o in 1853. Perhaps the
following tublo, recently mot with in a foroign
journal, may be thought oi sufficient interest to
a note ol. Iu these unsettled times, and in
of a general war, how much might it be
There are at present eighty-throe empires, mon
archies, republics, principalities, duchies, and
Thoro are six emperors, Including his sable high
ness, Faustin 1., of Sl Domingo; sixteen kings,
numbering among them Jumaco, King of all the
.Mosquitoes, and also those of Dahomey and the
Sandwich Islands; live queens, including Kanava
loua, of Madagascar, and Pomara. ol tha Soiootv
Islands eighteen presidents, ton reigning princes,
grand dukes, ten dukes, one none, two sul
of Borneo and Turkey ; two governors, of
nuissnu vorneiiies ; one viceroy, ol gypt;
shah, of Persia; one iuiauo. of Muscat: nnu
of Cabul; ono bey, of Tunis; and lastly,
director, of Nicaragua.
Several of tlio Senators who toed the mark In
for tho ronoal of tho Missouri Cmnnromise
considered as dead as noor Gardiner. Tim
difference in their cases is that Gardiner took
strychnine aud they took Nebraska.
GREAT EXCITEMENT IX SAL EMU
NEW STORE AND NEW GOODS!!
A GREAT excitoment prevailed In this town,
iow unys since, in consequence of an arrival ol
train ot Cars, loaded with New Ooods, for tho
NEW CLOTHING STORE
We therefore think it expedient to call the atten
tion or Win atucns or Salem and vicinity to our
: ... . .1 . 1 r- i i -
IIIIIIICIISO OlOCK OI UOOCIS.
Among our new Stock of Clothing aro the fol
Over Coats of every description, sort aud sine
Cloth Frock, Dress and Snck Cents.
Tweed. Cassinntte. and Vclrei
Black, Fancy, Silk, Satin, Cloth Cassimere and
Fancy, Hlack. Cassimere and Doe-Slln Pnl.
do do Satinett, Tweed and Bovertcen Pants
Under-Shirts and Drawers of everv discrintinn
Hosiery, Ulores Cravats. Stocks. Handkerchief.
Striped snd Fancy Shirts of all kinds; Whit
snirts, i oiinrs, ac, c.
Also, Hats, Caps, Carpel Bngs and Trunks.
A large assortment of Bovs Clothinir. of ev,
We will offer our Ooods as cheap and cheaper
lh.H ...a. ..1.1. K..I ..A 1- .1 . S - ri .
"ii '7 vi-wiiiiniiintni in me i? csiern lyountry
we feel confident that by fair treatment to custom
crs, you will give us ft share of your patronage,
HIII. IIUllA V it t ii..
Eatt Room of Johmon d Hurner't Kao Building.
Halnm 0,1 Oil IU',1 "
SIPEB10R STREET,' CLETELl.ND, OniO.
II. It. BRYANT. JAS. WASIIIXOTOX I.trSK
H. DWIGHT STRATTON.
BRYANT, Professor of the Suionco of Ac-
II. DWIGHT STRA.TT0N, Asseciato Trof. In the
J. WASHINGTON M'SK. and P. R.SPENCER
Author, Professors of the Spencerian System of
l cnmnnship and (. nmmercial Correspondence.
SARAH L. SPENCER. Instructress in th. La
dies' Writing Department.
W. W. HARDER. Assistant Prof., in tho Book-
Homs. JlbOE STARKWEATHER and II. D
CLARK, Lecturers on Cuinmeroial Law.
Pars. ASA MAHAN, Lecturor on Political Econ
EMERSON K. WHITE, Leoturor on Commercial
For full course in Doublo Entry Book-keeping
nnd other Departments, rime vnlimiled, $40,00
For full course in Lndics Department. ... 30.01)
ror separate course in Practical Penmanship, 8,00
For various stylos in Ornamental Writing ns
The Principals of this Institution, design making
it one of the best mediums in tho United Ktntr
for imparting a thorough procticnl know lcdgo of
.no miiuus UUUCB Ul lUQ VOUUIlPg 11O0U1 and PUS1'
ncss pursuits in eonerul.
THE COURSE OF INSTRUCTION, embraces
Book-keeping by Doublo Entry, as applied to the
various departments of Trade, Commerce, nnd
Manufactures, comprehending tho best forms now
used by tho most flourishing nnd eminent estnli-
lishments, cniraged individually or in nnrtnershin.
Wholesale and Retail, on Commission or Joint
speculation, Including Hanking, Stenmboating.
Insurance, Kailroad aud Joint Stock Books. Ac..
Commercial Calculations and Correspondence, em
bracing every variety of business computation,
and familiarising the student with tho Commercial
Technicalities and Phraseology of Correspondence.
COMMERCI AL GEOGRAPHY is a new feature
Morcantil'o Schools, nnd hnvinir its origin n it
does in this Institution, much will bednno to make
nn Instructive and proflttnble branch in tho Lcc
Tho Spencerian System of Practicnl Pcnmnnship
all its forms, will bo taught by its Author, P. R.
Spencer, nnd J. W. Lnsk. No Institution in
America offors superior facilities to this for imnnrt.
mg a Itapid and Systematic Hand Writing. Gcn
tlomen and Ladies iu all parts of tlio country,
desirous of qualifying themselves for Teachers of
mis unnvnlled and popular tiystem, will find thoir
warns met ai mis i oiicge.
J11N LADIES' DEPARTMENT is entimlr
separate from tho gentlemen's, nnd is fitted up iu
splendid and convenient style. Many Ladies
now reaping tho benefits o"f a thorough Mer
cantile Education, by occupying lucrative and
rcsponsioio situations, females desirous of at
tending a Mercantile School, will find tho facilities
study offered at this Institution, superior to
other in tlio tinted States.
Applicants can enter upon a course of study at
miiu miring mo year.
Diplomas aro awarded to students who sustain a
The Principals have an extensive acquaintance
with businoss men throughout the West, nud can
rendor efficient aid to graduates in securing situ
ations. The suit of Rooms occupied bv this College, nre
more spacions. and aro fittod un in a mom elnrrr.ni
convenient mannor than any other like iusti-
iiuiun in me uuiicu states.
tSf Send for a Circular by mail.
Dee. 31, 18o3.-ly
THE PLACE TO GET YOUR LIKENESS.
HUNT & KOON1
Have openod. in Johnson .1 II nrnnr'a lihuitr (Im
largest and finest Daguorrcian Rooms in Eastern
where they aro constantly taking pictures
(exclusively on Galvanized I'l.it.mi .urn .11
others in durability, beauty of finish ailS artistic
Our facilities for operation aro of the most
ample and Improved order, consisting In part of ma
chinery to polish the plato. By it we are enabled
givo the highest polish, without which a fine jdo-
. ...... I ..I... r
littililUb tUKUIl. VUr
OF MAMMOTH SIZE AND SUFFICIENT
TO TAK P. R1TW I'l'ltunX'O mr a
- -j.-. . . J 1.IUII.IU Oil A
PRICIS BANGS IBOH 3,7f CTS. TO TEN DOLLARS.
Ladies and gentlemen are requested to call and
cAnuiino uur specimens.
(Milem, Deo. 17, 1853.
Hail ttoai, (Engineering!!
INSTRUCTION In tl 1AM h ran ! nf flu...! I
Science wi 1 be given at tho Union School, Marp
, Stark Co., during the Snrinir Term, com
mencing March 14th and coutiuuing fourteen
llecular FIELD PRinTinii" -,:n. .u. n
i?ii?!r'"f I11? Tn,r.?U .lntrument. accompanied
CiUculations, 1'lottinir and Dnftinr, : i r.
essential part of the course. '
Tuition per 11 weeks, $5,50. With the privilege
Mat ujmatics, Geology ExnerimouUl Chemistry,
.S le Book KeeP-
Common Branches. t.1.(V). It;..i... ti i .
$3,50, Engineerine (leriiian I.n .,.. .
Pro"',eo''v Drawing, each foSo'
For particulars, address the Prinoipal,
ii. t n. . A' HOLliltOOK.
Marlboro, Jan. 21, 1854.
WESTERN FARMERS' INSURANCE CO.,
New Cicbon, CD.
OFFICE, Oil) 1IASK DClLPIXff.
JAMES KELLY, Phm.
Lrvi Mahtin, Sce'y.
Dec. 31, 1853.-3m.
TO THE PUBLIC.
THE Subscriber hnving assumed the business1'
formerly carried nn by the firm of Tomlinson, Strat
ton Co., takes this plnn of tendering his ac
knowledgments for the liberality with which they
havo been patrotiir.ed and hopes by close ftttentiou
to business tn meritn sontiuunnce of past favor.
' THOMAS D. TOMLINSON.
Snlom, Feb. 10, lMd.
Blank Dtedt, Article rf Anrcertierit, Judgment
Xotet, Summons and Exerutiont fc lalt at this
SALC.tl, OHIO. DI'ALEIt IN
OFFERS tho largest nnd most varied assnrtmen
of Ooods in his liuo, to be found In this pnrt of the
State; which the public nre respectfully solicited
His Stock comprises in part, the
Ilittoriean h'orkt of Joteiliut, ltollin, Roliertton,
biooon, Jlume, .vamuley, n lUutra, IM
dreth, f-c, rf-c.
Too numerous to mention," embracing all th
principal Poets from, Shakcspcar, to Alexander
THE SC IF.M'iriC nOKKS
of Ure, llumbolt, l.yell, Iilchrock, St. John, Brtek'
I letby, Atami, Jluyh Miller and Uuytot.
ALL THE PRINCIPAL
Ncdical Works, now Iu u.
BIBLES AND TESTAMENTS. IN GREAT
FOWLIT IUPL JA7CS.
A Splendid assortment of FANCY GIFT BOOKS
and ALBUMS, for the Hollidays.
THE LIFE OF HOPPER. NARRATIVE Of
NORTH It W;
Lady's Voyago Round the Wortd, aud an end
less variety of other Miscellaneous Books.
BOOKS FOR LITTLE FOLKS, ndnptod lo eve
ry ngn nnd of all sizes and prices. MUSIu
BOOKS, Wholesale and Retail.
OF EVERY KIND USED IN THIS REGION?
Vliolesalo and Kclail.
Blank Books, Memorandums and Pass Books,
Fifty doxen Slates. Writing Pnpcr of every des-
ription. Ink, Drawing Paper and Materials
Materials for Flowers.
(JOI.D AJVD STEEL, TENS,
Penknivos, Envelopes, Pencils, Fancy Cards, Prin
ters' Cards, Pictures, Accordions, Toys, Fancy
Articles, &c, ic.
In addition to which, is a large Stock of WALL
rVND WINDOW PAPER. All of which will be
sold cheap for C'A SII.
October 28, 1853.
The Sngnr Crcok Water Cure.
TWELVE miles South of Mnssillon under the
hargn of Dr. Frcac, is supplied with pure soft
priug wutor, nnd I'liudtictcd on pure llvdropnthie
principles. Wc givo no drut". They aro only
lindranecs to the radical cure o! disease. J he suc
cess which has thus far attended our efforts to allu-
viato the sufferings of humanity, enables us to speak
confidently of the virtues of jmre toft veutcr, a pro
por diet, &e.
Terms ?,) in ordinary casos, payablo weekly.
Dr. T. L. Nichols, of tho American Hydropathic
Institute, nnd Editor nf tho Nichols' Health Jour
nal, in noticing tho Wator Cuto movements of tin
country, snys of us:
"Dr. Fries, a most thorough and energetio phr
sician, lias a Water Cure at Sueur Creek Falls, 6.
terms nro very inodcrnto, but thoro aro few
places we could recommend with greater confi
dence." Address, Dr. S. Frcase, Deardoff's Mills, Tusca
rawas Co., O.
Dll. EO. W. I'ETTIT
Respectfully tenders his professional services to
citizens of Marlboro nnd surrounding country.
Offico in the room recently occupied by Dr. K. 0.
North Side Mtin-St., One Door Ve.it of th Salem
Book-Store, Salem, Ohio.
Coats, Vests, Punts, Ac, Mudo to Order and 'War
runted to Give Satisfaction.
The Tailoring Business in all his Branches, ear-
on as heretofore.
1U.UEY k CARPENTER'S PREXll'V
now complotod, and ready for reception. We
gone to considerable expense in fitting un. t
operate with advantngo, and with reference to tha
comfort and convenience of those who may favoi
with a call ; in short, we are permanently lo-.
Our rooms aro in tire
AMERICAN HOUSE, SALEM, O.
and sco us. You will find our reception rooms
bo surpassed no where in the State. Our.
CAMERA, is a powerful qiiicld-workor. We war-.
our work, iiikoiiesses of all ages, taken Lira
i.iki, or no ciiarok! I Our prices ronse from 40
to 20 dollars. Past cxerionc(und present
advantages, enuhlo us to take Uoodj'nettetk ati
reatonahle Ratet. Being, also, Jtted In still
recent improvements of the art, our time and.
attention shall bo to render full satisfaction.
or deceased persons taken at thoir rooms
motto, is EXCELSIOR.
N. B. Persons wislnnz Pictures taken on Gnl.
vanized Plates, can do so without extra chorga.
sVtir Rooms open from 6 o'clock, A. M., until
Juno 31s, 1853.
SCHOOL FOR LADIES & GENTLEMEN.
The subscriber having located in this place, is
propared to instruct students in the science
Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene, or the.
practice uf Medicine and Surgery. And in addi
tion to his former extensive means for demonstrat
ing the various subjsect, has recently added largely
them by expensive purchases from France.
Demonstrations in Anatomy will commence the
of March, and to those desirous of availing
themselves of the summer oourso of studies, it
be advisable to bo here at least two weeks
previously. Ho would also annniinco that he is
prepared to practice in his profession.
K. G. THOMAS, M, P.
Salem, Jn. 21, 18.H-4w