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THE ANTI-SLAVERY BUGLE.
From Dickens' Household Words for January.
Several distinguished instances have Appeared
during the pt Imlf century of the compatibility
of music with optics. A coincidence exists even
la the very number of the elements on which the
respective sciences ate founded ; to rit, the seven
notes of gamut.and the seven prismntio colors into
which an angular bit of glass dissects a ray of
untight. Amongst distinguished amateurs who
hate been accomplished simultaneously in the
arts that appeal to the ear and the eyo, I will
mention no other names than those of Kitchener,
who went so far as to adapt a melody to bubble and
queak, and of Cuddington.who was senior wrang
ler and an admirable harpist. AH I want now is
to point out the occurrence of a corresponding
modification in musical art as influenced by mod
ern musical instruments, and in the visual power
attainable by man as developed by improved
adaptations of perfected lenses.
In ancient music, a breve, that is to say a short
note, was subdivided into two semibreves (its
halves), and into four miming or least notes (the
halves of semibreves), as the extreme of melodic
rapidity. The giant of harmony never dreamt of
urging Ins pace to perioral the steps now executed
by many twinkling feet. A minim was the ac
knowledged subdivision o( musical sound, as to its
temporal duration, till crotchets were invented.
Now, breves have gone the way of mammoths and
megatheriums; asemibreve is a rairety, except
when held by the unfaltering voice of the immor
tal organ; but for ordinary composers, for popular
ditties, for operas which take the town by storm
and keep possession of it during their fleeting
day, minim, once the least, is now practically the
longest extension of tone. It is parted and por
tioned out iftto.crotchets,quavers,and semiquavers;
while these again are subjected to subdivision, till
they are chopped up and minced and pounded into
double-demi-semiquavers and finer still till they
reach the innnitcsinially small fractions of sound
the quick-darting grace-notes and flashing
ornaments in short, the musical animalcules and
infusoria which are tho delight of uicdern throats
and modern fingers.
While musical performers were practising hard
to perform minim passages with proper agility,
naturalists were straining their eyes to get a peop
at tbeir organised minims mites and such like
beyond which they hnd little hopes of penetrating
further and deeper into the mysteries of animated
nature. A flea or a louse was to them a very
email thing indeed to investigate in detail ; an
itch insect, or a parasite on another insect, was a
material minim, or the least of the little. The
discoverer of the circulation of the blood, never
lived to see it circulate. Now, it is but a poor
microscope which will not show the globules
in blood j and their circulation say in the web
of a frog's foot is a spectacle which it is fur
from difficult to exhibit, and that without serious
hardship or injury to the frog itself. Our optical
double-demi-semiquavers are creatures which give
every evidence of their enjoyment of life: although
tun thousand of them may take up no more room
than that oocupied by a grain of ordinnry sand.
A dab of ditch-water on a slip of glass is at this
moment inviting me to throw down my pen, to
admire the number and varity of its inhabitants.
There are really minims ond ininimissimums all,
too, apparently beasts of prey. I see the larger
wallow the less ; which are afterwards beheld,
through tho transparent coats of their devourers'
stomachs, to be struggling in vain against tbeir
fate. But, remembering the acute connundrum,
What is smaller than a mite's mouth? Answer:
That which noes into it. I conclude that the eves
of my most utomio minims can behold coveys of
game ana enonis 01 prey wmcn to me rcranm 111
isibie. And, then, each of these least things is
endowed with life and motion, and must be made
up of muscles, nerves, a skin, intestines, nnd
circulating fluids, or, at least, of parts analogous
to such; so that however minuto they may bo
themselves, they are composed of members
minuter still. Their progression, again, is mostly
accomplished by means of countless bristles, or
1 ...l.:.. I. n:1,A. t ,1, ..... ,f a n f,.ia-nrta with a
unlit, niiiuu uibtci iavwti . " ....... -
feathering motion, like the oars of a boat. The
cilia may be seen vibrating over the entire bodies
of some animalcules, like a crop of barley on the
surface of a field waving in the summer wind.
Judgo whether the word smallest be anything more,
as fur as any definite meaning is concerned, than a
good-natured concession to popular forms of
speech 1 We now know that the realms of life are
boundless, if not in magnitude, at least in little
ness. The alchymy of optical skill has transmuted
a phial of turbid fluid into a golden treasury of
facts and inferences.
It is vulgarly supposed that when things cease
to be visible to the naked eye, there is an end
to measurement ; all further speculations touching
their magnitude, granting things invisible to
have magnitudo, are superfluous nnd a complete
waste of time. When a village dame clearly sees
nothing on a given patch of talc or glass, even
with her spectacles astride her nose, she would
consider it madness were you to tell her that the
proportions of large and less still continue to
exist within that boundary, beyond her ken: while
the superlative least has" never yet been found.
But look at this brackish drop of water, which is
part of an iron-ladleful I scooped up the other day
out of a ruined sanded up sea-port, long deserted
by human inhabitants. It is a pearly globule, the
bigness of a good fat dewdrop, and clear, except
that by looking sharp you can percoive a few
specks, which are merely bitB of dirt and rubbish.
I let my spherical little fish-pond fall gently on a
thin utrinof elass.and submit it to the microscope.
In tha umall nuantitv of saline fluid which will
hang to the tip of a common goosequill, I have
" , i . . j c :i i . I ,
CaptUTtfU a muilliuue Ul wim ciomurcB uuiu wu-
fined, whose bulk and stature vary as much as
those of the birds and beasts in Wombell's me
nagerie. The largest liv6-lion which I see as yet, has the
semblance of a great garden-slug, but is flatter and
broader. He glides gracefully along, searching
with bis mouth to the right and left for he best
knows what. Now he turns himself, and swims
idawise. so as to give me a capital profile of bis
person. lie is marvellously lean, not a bit of
fat about him, and so transparent that I can
behold, through him, oveiy object over which he
p 1S80S. lie is not at all disgusting in his looks,
and is free from every symptom of sliminess. His
surface glances with pearly hues, not from any
defective achromatism of my objectives, in plain
English, from any fault of my glasso, but, from
the extreme thinness of bis outer coat, as is tho
case in soap-bubbles and films on water. He
glides on bis way in pleased content, and is soon
out of our field of view. We might follow him by
hitching the slide on which the drop of salt water
rests, but. let him gang bit gait ; fur, enter, a band
of waluers, not keeping tiino, nor adhering very
triotly to any set figure. They make me giddy to
look at them as tbey whirl and spin. To avoid
bainir utterly bewildered. I will fix my attention on
tho movements of a single individual. The present
ballet-girl, a coryphee who dances in toe ironi
r&nk. has a bodv like a short-born carrot, only
pelluoid as crystal ; at ber root end she has a
nnintail radicla. tin. or movable peg. Where the
carrot leaves would sprout, there is a diadem of
long rays, which vibrate rapidly, but not too rapid
ly to be visible. By these evidently the dancer
met and sinks, revolves and rolls; they are
probably the moustache which surrounds her
mouth, aud alio the knife and fork with which she
eats her ninner, as well as the lingers she catcnes
it with. She it out of sight, and whisk 1 who
was that who ran across the room! swift as a
wallow, but large and seumingly spherical?
There. '. It stops for one instant, and I am in the
presence, I suppose, of one of tbo rotifers, or
wheel animalcules, but can hardly tell from such a
passing glance. I think I saw the wheels twist
Lnc about its head, and am aura I saw a yellowish
meal safelv stored in its portly paunch. Perhaps
it is Noteus quadrieornu ; wba, do I know ? as
hatha French say when a knotty soint pussies
their brain.- Another smaller wheeler it doee
ot follow that he is more tuvenile throws him
elf into the ring, like Mr. Slerriment, with a sud
den aumnieiset. He pirouettes a moment, in
t,;h ri ha is aided bv hi bell-shaped propor
tloos, and then dart off to another elation with
flea-like skip, pirouettea again, leaps asiue, anu
disappears. , He fayore us with a rery short per
formance, to4 U continuing bis part behind toe
scenes. I shift the class slide a little bit. ami fall
upon a shower of shooting stars. They flash
across the field In all directions. They are white,
clear nnd roundish ; that is all I cn see, for they
are excessively quick and extremely smnll. But
if extreme rapidity perplexes, deliberate move
ments are sometimes ludicrous. There's a droll
creature that gives you time to look nt him. lie
walks into the circus thus i he makes a bow till
he touches the floor with his htad. He then stands
on his head and mnkes another bow in the same
direction, till be touches the floor w ith his foot or
lect ; lor Ins figure is altogether that of a worthy
peasant ready-dressed to run a race in a sack. His
march, is that of a recruit cautiously practising
to the sober measure of the Dead March in Saul.
Hut is he only hoaxing us, after all? masking
his real character ? This certainly must be his
brother, who creeps in hurriedly on his belly,
never leaving hold of the ground w ith his tail
during the whole of his course What versatility ?
I begin to suspect he is only the great slug in an
other disguise ; nnd yet, no, it cannot be possible ?
But let us not be in too great a hurry about what
is possible How hungry he is. lie has seized
some unfortunate victim, and shakos it ns a terrier
ones a rat. jnow lie is tutging away at some
microscopic oyster, w hich will not be torn from its
rock, a globular creature rolls beforo bun ; lie
opens wide his mouth, or the top of his sack ; the
bolus is somewhat of the bieeest. but down it
goes. Ho gives a gulp or two, shrugs his shoulders
to make all right, and you can see the new morsel
descend to its digestive apparatus. Now he hunts
the ground for more, like a staunch hound upon a
doubtful scent j and now he pecks about, tnseing
ins ticnd, like a turkey gobbling mast in a beech
and-onk-trre wood. Perhaps, when he lias at last
got his fill, he too will take to bowing, in evidence
of his amiable disposition. Who nnd what is he?
Blank Kotifcr, Esquire,! guess. But do you hink
l know, even by sight, every creature I have cir
cumvcniad in my drop? Of the rotifers alone there
are Heaven only knows how many species
Besides the stars of the company, there are
plenty 0f second nnd third-rate performers, who
glide in and out modestly enough, keeping up the
by-play of tho scene; while others, standing stock-
still, make up parts of the fixed tableau. Amongst
tue lormer are those little things, of various size,
witn a general resemblance to a weaver s rhuttle.
some with a single hole in the middle,
others with two holes, one at each end; nnd others
with three perforations visible, which slide slowly
backwards and forwards without any evident
object, sometimes knocking against each other,
as if they were playing at blindrnan'e buff with
every one of the party blinded. There are
diatomacca), navicular what-nots ; some e.iy they
are animals, while the dons will have it they are
only plants. I should like to plead for the animal
ity of that neat little canoe-liko fellow, who feels
his way before him like a long sharp flexible
bristle ns be sails along. All tins is in the water;
but, by a touch nt the fine ndiustment.so as to shift
the focus of a shade, we catch the surface of
the drop, and on it behold a Hunting emornld with
a circlet of blistling rays surrounding it. You have
just time to look at it steadily, and lol it skips
from side to side. Its radiating fnngois a set of
agile feet and legs, with which it cuts capers on
its briny spring-board.
But tho quantity of saline liquid in our little
reservoir is sensibly diminished by evaporation ; it
is low-water here, independent of the moon's age.
I could easily create bumping spiring-tide by a
supply introduced on the tip of a quill tooth-pick ;
but we will leave, things to tako their course. The
plot thickens ; nil our characters crowd tho stage
together in alarm at the scantiness of their native
element. Excitement gains ground ; it is a wator-
riot ; it is the last scene nl Gustavus the Third ; it
is the market chorus of Masamelln, minus the mu
bio, ns far ns we can hear. By the wav, there ro
ally exists music unheard by the ears, as there are
sights unseen by the eyes, of humanity. Who will
take up the scienco of micracoustics practically,
so ns to furnish us with a magnifying ear-trumpet
which shall render the conversation of lady-birds
audible? But the catastrophe of our drama ap
proaches fast ; our grand pantomime attains the
acme of its interest. The indefatigable clowns,
demons, pantaloons, and columbines, are stranded
vn shoals, which gradually grow shallower and
shallower, till dry land appears; they flourish their
cilia, wave their bristles, contract and dilate their
bag-like bodies for a moment ; nnd then all is dry
and still in death. Fancy a multitudinous cara
van of men, horses, camels, and negro-slaves, all
scorched up and withered in the Great Desert by
the burnine breath of an arid simoon. Tho
trogedy is no more than what we have just
witnessed. The monads, the wheelers, the volvox
es, and the creepy-crawlies lie, flattened husks ;
some of them burst and emptied by the final strug
gle, like fire balloons torn through a thicket of
thorns. I he drought also mnkes mamtest to sight
what was befure unperieved ; minute crystals of
salt, in pyramids, crosses, lozenges, rbomos ; and
other sharp-poi ited angular shapes, rapidly np
appear on the field of battle, sometimes thrusting
their spear-heads into the bodies of tho slain, or
entombing them beneath a translucent mnusolem.
lhe graveyard of the department animalcules is
profusely strewn with glittering gems. Here,
lies our gallant Noteus, tho dnshing cavalry officer
with a sparkling rosetto of brilliants for his head
stone , there, reposes poor little ensign Whriligig,
with a shining cross at his Bide; further on, the
remains of general Slue are fairly crushed by a
great Egyptian pyramid built of hundreds of lay
ers ot thousands of glassy bricks.
And these are amongst the Common Things bo
much sought after now-o'-days, as if they were
distant or bard to find. The clue to them lies in
your own quicksightedness and activity of mind :
therefore it is that ninety-nine out of every hun
dred men and women quit the world without hav
ing once beheld them. Dojou wonder, now that
I have spent more than balt-an-hour in watciung
the contents of this single drop of water with
which a bit of window-glats has been smeared ?
Tha cristals alone, without the animals, are a re
markable spectacle ; they are the rapid marshall
ing, in perfect disipline, of hitherto straggling and
mutinous atoms. A hundred years ago, when
minute crystalline forms were a recent discovery,
tho learned believed that the piquant flavor of salt
and vinegar especially, was owing to the multi
tude of floating, oblong, quadrangular salts, each
of which, tapering from its middle, lias two ex
quisitely sharp ends. The theory then held was,
that saline particles, striking upon the nerves of
animal, excite the sensations ot taste and smell ;
and as their forms and dosrees of impulse are
almost infinitely diversified, the sensibility of
pain or pleasure arising therefrom must be varied
almost infinitely, according to the greater or less
delicacy of the organs tbey strike on. Are you,
ludicious reader, able to confirm or reiute the hy
notbesis Ur do you hold that the savourneis ot
salt is the result ot a delicate galvanic action on
the surface of the tongue? Unfortunately the
question is a poser for my own poor noddle.
Minute portions of what we call the larger crea
tures are not loss interesting than minute crea
tures themselves in thoir integrity. Thus: not to
risk a more precise definition, the popular notion
of a hair, or of hairs, is a something long, cylin
drical, and wire-like as to proportion, and single,
simple, or undivided as to shape; unquestionably
smooth in respect to surface. But hairs are sub
ject to all sorts of freaks and caprices; they start
off into complexities of which you never dreamt
them capable. I fancy I discover an agreement of
whim in the hairs lrom creatures of the same nat
ural family and With similar instincts. Certain
tribes seem to have made it tbeir study to supply
us with wool whose serrated or scaly edges shall
furnish us with blankets, hosen, and hats from the
close-felting properties which they induce. Mouse's
hair is jointed, ana seemingly made up ot uacx-bone-like
divirions, which are shown by alternate
bands of black and transparent material, r or ea
sier inspection, take the lock of hairs yon mean to
treasure in your casxet from the Deny or armpits
or the animal, as finer in texture and more trans
lucent. The tips in which they terminate are
poiuted and polished in most workmanlike style.
Other small redents the loir, or larger dor
meuse, for instance exhibit an analogous furry
structure. The hair of bats is still more surpris
ing. Generally, it is as if yon were to place a lot
of long-spouted funnels one within the other, so
as to leave a considerable distance from funnel to
funnel. An Indian bat ie generally selected to
furnish show-hair; but our native bats deserve at
tention, though their fur it rather spiral than cup
shaped in its pattern. Tbe mole, a worm and
insect-eater, furnishes hair which has a slight;
vespertilinoous touch superadded to the rodent
type. A scries of protuberances nro visible along
the hair, like the woodon knobs by which a flag
staff is mounted. But on the same beast nay
on man himself the constitution of bristles va
ries according to the spot on which they grow.
We may liken bnir to a genus of plants, of w hich
one species is a native of the eyebrows, another
of the beard; a thiid thrives In the lowlands of
the lego, while Alpine hairs betake thomsclves
to the summit of the bond. As u rule, the hairs
of insects are more complicated than those ol
quadrupeds. Amongst injects, the hnirs of larvie
and caterpillars arc morn elaborate than thoso ol
iiiu uivuiuiu in im ,eiici;t ui imiiui, no uuiii, wc-
cause nil is perfect) form. Nevertheless, the or-
nnge hairs from the red-tailed bee, and the black,
whito, and yellow ones from the green queen hum-
n. .......... ... .. i . . . I.. ........ lit... i i.a.
uie-bee, nro beauiiiuny transparent wnnas,
some' lung like tne stem ol too wtnto uiy wmi-
out tho flowers but with the leaves. But nnoth
er hairy dandy, Dermcstcs, the fay young larva
of a beetle who frequents bacon-shops, spurts fr
his personal ndurement a protty lot ot tcst-oo
jocts, which are, like the lilly stem, complete
with the flowers, which droop in a graceful buquel
from the top.
The next time yon meet a hairy caterpillar, stop
him, nnd even were be on the Queen's highway,
rob him of two or three turks of hair. You need
not maltreat him, or do him personal injury.
Simply twitch out with a pair of pincers tho sou
venir you want to put into vour rocket; but spare
his lift, nnd lot him go home to his anxious
friends, tossing his head disdainlully. Or, instead
of allowing him to get off so eatiily, suppose you
put him into prison, Uoniba-wise,because bis beurJ
nnd whiskers are too long to your liking, and keep
him there, without benefit of habeas corpu. By
feeding your captive, you may keep him alive till
his natural term of caterpillar existence is expired.
He will undergo metamorphosis: nnd you can com
pare the scales which he wears as a butterfly or a
moth with the bristles which brsot him while a
creeping thing, and which may have rendered good
service in his juvenile days. One young larva
whom I partially plucked, had spiny prickly fur
of two or three kinds; besides those, rome of his
longest and handsomest hairs were in shape, not
in color, like a peacock's tail-feathers. These,
thorny, branches, bharp-pointed hairs, nro a more
formidable-looking defensive armor than the quills
of the prickliest porcupine in Africa.
All theso tiny hairs arc to bo examined whole
and at once, as far as the field of the microscope
will admit thorn. But lovers of minims chop up
lnrger hairs into the thinnest possible slices, exact
ly as you would your five-shilling April cucumber,
and serve them cold with Canada balsam, instead
of with pepper, oil. and vinegar. How else could
we examine the elementary structure of tho whis
kers, Binellers, nmiiH, and tufts of sin dry wild
beasts, the spines of hedgehogs, the quills of por
cupines, and Iho horns of rliinocorosca 1 all which
are eccentric hairs in disguise, who escape run
ning mad by a narrow shave.
Let us not quite forget the hairs of vegetables.
In some, as in those of th c Tradescttniia or spider
wort, a circulation is visible. The fiesh gathered
leaf of a French Bean is adhesive to tho touch,
without being clammy or glutencus. You will find
the phenomenon to result from littlo hooked hairs
which lay hold of whatever they arc brought into
contact with. On aged worn leaves, the booklets
are broken. But lur hooks in earnest, look at
those which surround the fruit of the common bur
dock; slightly magnified, yon might do crochet
work with .hem, under a power a trifle higher, you
might hang on them haunches of venison or legs
of beef. Down may be spoken of in the same
paragraph as hairs; the down of the seeds from
many composite flowers is extremely pleasing to
eyes that can see what it is. lranaparent thorny
filaments, of Fpun gluss brightness, 4ro the winged
distributors of the wide-spiendinggerms of thistle,
groundsel, dandelion, sow-thistle, nnd a host of
their congeners. One of the prettiest is the down
of the garden lottuce-secd. Botanists tell us that
many of the parts of plants are merely hairs under
a modified form. According to this viow, n nettle-sting
is only a perverted huir, whoso disposi
tion is soured into misantninnv. nnd n nrnnen-
sity for mischief. Bring a nettle-sting into the
microscopic court, nnd ho will confess that in his
basement story he has a concealed stock of poison,
which, mounting through a central tube, like the
venom from a spider's faug.onters your skin when
piercea. isy pressing the witness, a drop ol the
deleterious fluid will appear in evidence against
I...-...: :..ii.i.i. i , .
uui.iihik in a muuuia ai ins uuL'trer h noint.
Many objects that arc simply dead white to the
naked eye, under a magnifier are beautifully trans
parent, instances, ttio mildew on a ruse-leal ; the
pollen of many flowers of tho common botage.to
take one ; the uuwn nnd bristles of manv leaves:
ami minute crystals, especially those of snow.
lidj panicles ot snow, neatly caught without
injury ns they drop from the sky, nre amongst
tne most beautilul ot winter obiects with the
drawback that you cannot comfortably observe
them, before a blazing fire, as vou nro supping
your nightcup of hot brandy an! water. But, well
wrapped up in a bearskin coat, in the cool retreat
of a garret with a nurth aspect, you may pick and
choose amongst the grand crosses of all the orders
and legions of honor that hnve ever been invented
since mankind first fell in love with stars and
garters. Sometimes the fine snowvowder that
drifts in between the rickety tiles of jour attic
win answer tne purjiose exceedingly well ; but
the microscope discriminates beautifully between
formless and forn.fu) materials. Thus, while
arsenic in powder is shapeless under tho micro
scope, there aro no distinctive characters to be
seized, unless the absonco of regular crystalline
forms the same of colophane, a powdered resin,
which is kept in the pharmacy ns a styptic. Ly
copod dust, which much resembles the latter to
the naked eye both being seen as a fine yellow
ish powder present roughly rounded grains, of
very equal diameter, which might be mistaken,
at firet sight, fur irregular-shaped pollen-grains.
Dextrine, with its clear, whito, semi-transparent,
ovoid, or ovalUb grains, has a likeness to other
pollen. Camphor, crushed as noar to puwdsr as
vou cm get it, presents the or pearance of clear
lumps of ico, as produced at table in summer
time, In art manufactures, an endless variety of hints
may be stolen from the disclosures made by the
microscope, without lear of an injunction being
Bnuea. mere is nuuiing dishonorable In bor
rowing patterns intended only for tbe gnze of
aiuiuuicuio aumirers, or in forestalling the de
sign oi touago proposed to be forthcoming next
Brinug. j gnouia oe very glad of a worsted
work foot-rug to warm mv cold inactive feet, af
ter the pattern of tho back of the narrow leaved
sage-leaf, whose peculiar style I have just dis
covered. Try it fair directresses of Berlin-wool
shops; it is a charming novelty. You will have
no difficulty with the light-green shaggy vein
ings ou the plain dark green ground: tut how
you will manage the little balls which constitute
tbe originality of its device, I must leave to
your own ingenuity to invent. Look also nt the
back of the leaf of the Deutzia scubra; it is cov
erod with hairs in the form of many-rayed stars
and would make a delightful mat. -The upper
surface of the leaf is garnished with largor stars
composed of fewer rays, mostly five. You might
border the central galaxy of your mat with a
fringe of stars of the first magnituee. Can you
contrive any semi-transparent opaline substunce
for the stars 7
Still, living creatures are the most attractive
mimims. The first wheel-animalcule I ever saw
strongly impressed me with his courage and intel
ligence I had put a oyclops, or water-flea, upon
the slide, in as large a drop of water as a pins's
head will carry. While contemplating the heart
beats nnd the intestinal motions of my black-aver)
monster (who would have made a capital dragoa
for a microscopeio St. George), I observed that bo
wes tormented by some rapid nttie creature, which
darted about him as a gad-Hy worries an ox. Its
flight through the water resembled that of the
humming-bird sphinx through the air. noisinir
itself likewise at iutervala, which allowed me to
view it at its stationary moments. It was like a
bell-shaped, cut-glass chandelier endowed with life;
the Handle ot tne aeii was a nigniy-tlexible pre
hensile, crystalline tail, cleft into a Sneer and
thumb at the tip; and around the rim of the bell
were what seemed like rapidly-circling little
wheels, whose motion the eye could only follow as
a mist. Why tha rotifer should thus dodge the
monoculus, whether to pick hit teeth, as the
trochilua of old did for the crocodilo; whether to
sting him, ns a wasn does a ti.rrlop H,, i.n
earths his hest; whether to prey on parasites that
uilest hini, as gulls are said to feed on the balani
of the whale; whether to lay eggs on or in him,
as the bat-fly does on the horse's coat and the
ichneumon Hy in tlio caterpillar's skin; 1 know
not, and I dun't know who does. Certain it !
that these unexplained relations have existed be
tween water fleas and wheelers for these hnpdred
years past. On looking at my cylops, I sa in
his stomach au undigested wheeler which he had
not long devoured; for it as still alive. The one
uncaught continued his porteeutions foarlessly,
until the watji began to fail. As tha dropevap-
iirnfpn mm r n . r . r . . -. . .
.....civj un, nine roiuer tucKcu nun
self under cyclop's body, as the dampest spot
he could select, leaving tho tip of his tail outside
to uncertain tho prospect of moister weather, ex-
"u niroion your hand out of doors to
'" wiiemer u is beginning to rain or not
could you nave done better than the animalcule
under the same circumstances? !)., it nnt ril
like a man crouching under a dying camel in a
oiiimmu Twiuurncss, nno sustaining life to the
last moment on the juices of the more massive
As to the size of our minims, living or ded,
Lcuwcnhoek measured them by grains of sand
selected of such an equal size that a hundred of
ihcm placed in a row should extend an inch in
length. Observing an animalcule swimming or
running past his standard grain.be estimated by
comparison the magntude of the for
mer. Natural objects whose size is known and
which do not vary, have since been employed as
micromctrio measures ; the sporulcs of the puff
hall fungus have a diameter tho eight thousand
lire hundredth of an inch, while those of the
lycopodium nro the nitio hundred and fortieth of
an inch across, Fixed artificial standards are
now generally substituted for natural ones. Dr.
Wollas-.on has obtained a platinum wire only the
thirty thousandth of nil inch in thickness; but
minute scales nre engraved on glass, with a
diamond point, nre now most commonly employed.
Suppose, for example, a line, the twentieth of an
inch in length, traced across the centre of a glass
disc. Let this line be divided into a hundred
equal parts.every fii'tb division being distinguished
by a longer line, nnd cvory tenth by a still longer
one. E'ich of these divisions will bo the two-
thousandth, the intorvals between the fifth divis
ions will be the four-hundredth, and those be'
tweeu the tenth divisions the two-hundredth part
oi an men.
This microscopic scalo will soem magnified with
the microscope ; and any microscopic object laid
upon it will be equally magnified, bo that its di
mensions cap be ascertained by merely counting
the divisions of the scale included between those
which mark its limits when placed in difierent po
sitions on '.lie ecle. But in truth, inches and
their fractions ought to bo utterly discarded from
measurements which nro independent of popular
prejudice. Here, at least, we may employ a deci
mal scale founded on tho metro, fearless of resist
ance from the vested interests of ells, pence, bul
lies, pennyweights, nnd other influential members
of tho Wcighta-nnd-Measures Corporation. In the
scales delivered with French instruments, a mil,
limetre (abont the twenty-fifth of an inch) is divid
ed into one hundred parts. Tho microscopist can
apply to his ecienco a reform which as yet is re
fused to our everyday affairs, and will measure his
minims by the decimal fraction ,of tbe earths me
ridian from equator to pole.
From the Republican (Belfast, Me.,) Journal.
The manner of its observance is a sti iking com
ment on the changes of time; and the stern and
austere old Puritans would shake in thoir graves
if they could see the fivlioirgs, feastings, junket
ings, and such carnal amusements ns dancing, that
hare taken the place of the solemnities that mark
ed the earlier Thanksgiving Days. Still some
show of tbe old formalities is kept up. Not uni
versally, though by many, the chief observance is
of s religious character; and in some instances of
a two fold character, the church bells playing their
part during the day, nnd the belles that go to tbe
church, playing a more bril'iant part during tbe
nigui, uy way of etiquette called tne evening.)
Therefore, from the pulpits there aro customary
laudations upon our Pilgrim Fathers, while in the
evening the Pilgrim Daughters outrage that Puri
tan Bouse of propriety that condemned tbe vanity
of stepping tu the measures cf music.
The change in the manner of' observing the
Thanksgiving Day, indicates a great change in
the times. Now the day is one of hilarity and
amusement. Holme's song to the punch bawl, is
as popular a Thanksgiving literature as the sol
emn nnd sublime hymn of Mrs. Hemnns. The
question then arises whether we have retrograded
or advanced; whether our present New England
society is any improvement on that of two hun
dred years ago? We think it is, at the risk of be
iug deemed sacrilegious wo will say why. One
who opposes the prejudices of education, and the
inwrought beliefs of boyhood, has, as the seamen
say, the laboring oar; yet our tenderness for our
ancestors igsuch that, if we churge them with glar
ing faults, we care but little whether we make out
The familiar nnd beautiful hymn to which we
have alluded, impresses upon those who look to its
poetry rather than to its truthfulness, the same
idea that is carried out in almost the whole of our
local literature, an idea of perils and hardships
endured fur the cause of free thought uud free re
ligion. "The breaking waves dashed high,
On a stern and rock-bound coast,
And the trees ngainst a stormy sky,
Their giant branches tossed."
Hardship, peril, and a savage country, were to
be endured and for what object?
"What sought they thus afar?
Bright jewels of tho mine,
The wealth of seas, the spoils of war?
They sought a faith's pure shrine,"
This is all very pretty as poetry, but wide ofthj
mark ns fact. If our forefathers had experienced
persecution in tbe old world, we are sorry to say
that they did not learn toleration by it; if, then,
their opinions bad not been allowed scope and ex
pression, it it to be regretted that they were never
i'amouB for granting the right of religious opinion
to others. The "freedom to worship God," which
they sought, they were willing to allow others, al
ways provided, others worshipped in preci
their form, und believed as they believed; and when
tbey did not, the truths of their creed were en
forced by banishment, the stocks, ear-cropping
aud such like persuasives. The "faith's pure
shrine" they sought, was tbe very exclusive shrine
of a very exclusive faith. Stern and austere
men were the Puritans; yet not wholly
bent on establishing religious rights. Mr.
Lorenzo Sabine, in hie report on the American
Fisheries, gives us to understand that "the wealth
of tbe seus" was an important consideration with
our pious forefathers. Trade, prosperity and
wealth certainly came next in consideration to the
religious objects of the Puritan exodus, and fish
and fLf were not forgotten in fasting and fervor.
It would not be esteemed reverential U elabo
rate upon the short-coinings of the Puritans.'
bow in 1G51, all Baptists were adjudged to be a
public nuisauce, how the 1'resident ot time-hon
ored Harvard was dismissed for a religious enin
ion; Jiow the Quakers were persecuted, how the
llev. cotton Mather taught that Indians bad no
souls, and bow tbe Indians wero cheated and kit
led. All these things we only daie hint at, remem
bering the benefits our forefathers did bequeath to
us, our system of popular education, our respect
for religion, our morality, intelligence, and all that
(under various forms, of which Puritanism was the
germ,) goes to constitute Now England society as
it is in our day.
Let us then proceed with tho observance of our
Thanksgiving Day, with all due reverence for
those stern, austere, (we will not add illiberal and
bigoted,) peaked-hatted, rough-bearded old Puri
tans, cherishing what they have left to us that has
germinated into good, and thankful that a more
liberal policy, a larger tolerance of opinion, has
grown up on the luuadation laid in loliu.
The man who does most, has least time to
taut uduui wuai ne aoc.
THE A N TIS L A VERY B VOLE.
rioi.isHP.D rvtnr satihdav, t ialxm, oiiio.
TERMS. $1,50 per annum payable in advance
Or, $2,00 at the end of the year.
4 We occasionally send numbers to those who
ore not subscribers, but who are believed to be in
interested in the dissemination of antislavery truth
with the Hope that they will either subscribe them
sclvcs.or use their influence to extend its circulation
among their friends.
8Sf Communication intended for Insertion, to
be addressed to Mariis B. Robi.ison, Editor. All
others to Ann I'earsos, Publishing Agent.
TERMS OF ADVERTISING.
One Sou are f 10 lincsl three wiek. . . . l nA
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changing monthly, .... 12,00
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its?" Cards not exceeding eieht lines will h in
Borwa one year for 3,00; six months, $2,00.
J. HUDSON, Pat niter
LOCAL AGENTS FOR ME ANTl-SLAVERT BUGLE.
George Roberts, Brighton, Michigan.
Phebe T. Morritt. Ionia, Michigan.
Adrian, Samuel Haybnll, Michigan,
Livonia, Harriet Fullei "
Plymouth, Isaac N. Heddcn, "
Ypsilnnti, Emeline DcGarmo, "
" Samuol D, Moore, "
Union City, John D. Ziminormnn, Michigan,
MoRoy Grove, Tho's Fox, "
Battle Creek, Phebe H. Mertitt, "
Bedford, Henry Cornell,
Farmington, Abram Powels, "
Wolf Creek. Warren Gilbert, "
Ann Arbor, R. Glazier. "
West Unity, J. II. Richardson, Ohio.
Edinburgh, Thomas C. Heighton, Ohio.
Joseph Puckett, Winchester, Indiana,
Wm. Hern, Brighton, Indiana.
G. L. Gale, Northport, Indiana.
Win. Hopkins, Froemont, "
Elizabeth Morse, Angola, "
Henry Bowman.Johnstown, Barry Co. Mich.
K. G. THOMAS, H. D.
J.C. W111NERY, D. P. 8.
THOMAS & WHINER Y,
(SUCCESSORS TO P. G.8WA1M.1
Wholesale, Retail and Prescription Druggists
MAIN-SIREET. SALE HT. O.
Keen constantly on b
sortment nnd carefully selected stock of MEDI-
uun,s, iirugs, J'AfNTS. OILS, Dye-stuffs, Var
nish. Perfumnrv. Funov nan& TI.,akn. crvn.iii7
ULA&&, mis, Physicians' Shop furniture,
MJliUICnL INSTRUMENTS AND DENTAL STOCK,
and compounding PKESCRIPTIONS.
uej areaiso agents lor tne fidle of Dp. Daniels'
TrUMte.lt. AhfJntnt'nnl KJm.lJ. J i
Artificial Limht. Fracture and other Bandaces.
uAbcii, uuiy ly, ouu,
J. C. WHINER Y D. D. S..
SOUTH SIDE OF MAIN STREET. SALK.V n
Continues to give close attention to all thechnnges
and improvements in the practice of Dentistry and
still operating extensively and satialactorily in
all branches of his Profession.
His uniform success, even in tho most difficult
operations, has been such herotoforo as to warrant
the assurance that full satisfaction will be given to
vn. no mm maj mini tnemseives ot his services.
He has procured the right of Dr. A. B. Slayton
ta use his preparation of colored Gtttta I'ercha
when desired as a base for artificial toeth.
Ba!f"All operations wnrranted.-Tjjj
Sai.em, Juno 7, 1856.-6ra.
1TB 1' ITITT, Philadelphia.
J1KM H. BIOWK, UutlloD
STITT & BRO WN.
JVb. 12 South Front Street, Philadelphia,
Mossrs. John Fnmm Pn Furnl,nn.
4 Co., Tredick.Stokes & Co., Slndo, Pratl & Reed.
Farnum, Larncd and Co., James, Kent, Santeo &
Co., Barecroff. Beaver & Co., Deal. Milligan &
Huev. Raicrle &. Co.. I.oHu-in. k'r,n,.. s. n..
Sparhawk, Dunton & Wurts; John II. Brown &
Co.; John Ely & Co., Drexol & Co., Bankers,
all of Philadelphia; Mygatt & Brown, Bankers,
Cleveland, O.; II. B. Hurlbut.Esq., Cashier, Cleve-
muu vuiu; i.i;os. m. uowe, f.q., rituhurgh; Jaj.
B. Murray. Esq., Cashier, Pittsburgh; S. Hunt,
Esa.. Cashier. Massilon. Ohio- 1. fl
Cashier, Massilon. Ohio; E. Quinby. Jr., Cashier"
Wooster, Ohio; P. S. Campbell, Esq., Cashier,
Salem. Ohio: II. W. Tnvler F.un n.!,. v
town, Ohio; Geo. Tayler, Esq., Cashier, Warren,
Ohio; Jos.'G. Young, Esq., Cashier, Piqua, Ohio;
R. D. Harrison, Esq., Cashier, Springfield, Ohio.
tsune jouu, um.
HIGH-STREET, SALEM OHIO.
MRS. C. L. CIKTRCrT int.. M. ,ii r
informing her friends, and tlm nnhlin that i. i...
permanently locate! on the North side of Hieh-et..
uuiwceu ina vuiiueiu roaa ana Lunoy-st., where
rIia i n t p ml h 1rp0n!n n mramI .... l r -nn
. .. . ....... , .v gvuvmi unoui line II V I )
TANIC MEDICINES, carefully prepared by ber-
urii uuu wurruuieu iree ot ail deleterious sub
Salem, Ohio, April 10, 1856.
D. WALTON, & SON.
SALEM, COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO;
DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF STOVES.
Also, Manufacturer of Tin Ware, Stove Furniture,
Pipe, &o. A great variety of Japaued
Wlll-A nnil T,,.
46?"01d Conner and limns Anil Hid l.nn ml
nags imen in exenange.
balem, Sep. 27, 185G.
GEO. W: MANLY,
Main Street, Salem, Ohio.
Salem, June 23, 1855.
PICTU11ES ON GLASS.
Our friend JAMES BOONE is still taking AM
B It O TYPES, tt-c, at his old stand, in Johnson 4
liornor s uuuuing.
He has succeeded in doing away with the dark
anu smutty appearance otten given to them by oth
er operators. "JEEMS" understands bia business
Call and examine his piotures.
May 3, 1850.
ENOS L. WOODS & CO.
Steam (Engine Builucrs,
ALLIANCE, STARK COUNTY, OHIO.
Engines of the best patterns built to order, on
very reasonable terms.
June 21, 1856.-ly.
BLANK DEEDS, Mortgages, Judgment
Notes,, executions and Summons for sale at
TROSPECTUS FOR 1857.
THE SATURDAY EVENING POST.
ESTABLISHED AUGUST 4TII 1821.
The publishers of this old and firmly establish
ed paper take pleasure in calling the attention of
the publio to their programme for the coming
year, Surfeited with politics, the claims of litera
ture will be more than ever appreciated by the
rending world. We have therefore already made
atrangements with the following brilliant list of
William Howitt (of England,) Alice Cary, T. S.
Arthur, Mrs. Soutbworth, Augustine Duganne,
Mrs. M. A. Denison, the author of "Zillah," At.
We design commencing, in tho first number in
Jnnunry next the following original Novelet:
Tallcngetta, or the Squatter's Home.Bj Will
iam Howitt, author or "Rural Life in England,"
"Homes of the Poets," &c- Ao.
This is a Story of Australian Life. Mr. Howitt
hn.Vtnv Vl.ifAft Ail.trali a.n...li. .Ill, .1. - .V
. ---n v. .nni j nim lug vv-
ject of acquainting himself with the novel and ro
in.nllll ..n.nl a iiaIii. wli!,.l .. J -! - .
......... u hfj'cvio uiiuoi nuiuu HB7 UUU 9VKlVJ .
present themselves in that singular region.
Th fnllnwinir YnvnlAfa will Ihnn h. t..n -
, n ..... ww iivu
though probably not in the exact order here men
The Stort oj a Country Girl.Jtj Alice Cary.
Ao original Novelet, written expressly for the Poet.
The Withered Heart. An original Novelet, writ
ten expressly for tho post, by T. S. Arthur.
Lighthouse Island. An original Novelet, by tho
author of "My Confession," "Zillah, or the Child
The Ouakrr' Vmlmr In rui.ln.l v..l.i 1
Mrs. Mary A. Denison. author of "Mark, the Sex-
tun, n'juio pictures, ao.
The Raid of Burgundy. A Tale of the Swiss
ITanlnn. An nn.mnal ATAln. 1.. a ..
Duganne, anthor of "The lost ol the Wilnene," Ac.
We hnve also the promise of a short and con
densed Novelet, by Mrs. Southworth. to run
through about six or eight numbers of the Post.
In addition to the above list uf contributions,
we design continuing the usual amount of For
eign Letters, Original Sketches, Choice Selections
from all sources, Agricultural Article's General
News, Humorous Anecdotes, View of the Pro
duce and Stock Markets, tbe Philadelphia Ketail
Markets. Bank Note List, Editorials, Ao. Ac, our
object being to give a Complete Record, as far as
our limits will admit, of the Great World.
ENGRAVINGS. In the way of Engravings,
we generally present two weekly one of an in
structive, and the other of a humorous character.
The Postage on the Post to any part of the Uni
ted States, paid quarterly or yearly in advance, at
the office whoro it is reoieved, is only 26 cents a
it-rvMS (Cash in advance) Single copy $2 a
4 copies, $5,00 a year.
8 " ( one to gottor up of Club) 10.00 "
13 " " " " 15,00 '
20 " ' " " " 20,00 "
Address, altcays post-paid,
DEACON A PETERSON,
No. 66 South Third Street, Philadelphia
BfSV. SAMPLE KITMRERK ..nt . ...
one, when requeued.
ttn TO EDITORS TM.tn,.. .l,n Lw
on! insertion, or condense the material portions of
it. the notices of new contribution, nnrl nm u,m,
foi 'heir editorial columns, shall be entitled to sa
exchange by sending a marked copy of the paper
containing the advertisement or notice.
Nov. 22, 1850.
The Subscriber bavins Purchased the Stock in
Tradoof Mr. Samuel Grove, Corner of Main and
tiiswortn streets would respectfully invite the at
tention of the citizens of Salem nnd of the sur
rounding country to hie stock of Groceries and
iTlonr, 0alt, fcc, &c.
NO CHARGE FOR SHOWING GOODS.
All articles sold warranted tn lia n. nnnit
Mv purchases beinir nil mnda with .h t fl.ii..
myself flint I can give entire satisfaction to all who
uittjr luvur jut, wan a can.
CASH PAID FOR EGGS.
Boy-Remember the Corner, Groves old stand.
LYMAN BROOKS, Agent.
I have on hand and for Twin W.L.i,.
InvipnrAtiniv PorHiul t, Ha.i1, I. Tt;,,AH. n ..... ...
n - n gum 1 oui-
edy for Jnundice, Liver Complaint, Dyspepsie.Ao..
.. ,1 . i. c . 1 1 . . . - , 1 .
mm 11 iciii, luuonor 01 me oiomacn ana Jiowels.
Also, Brooks sure remedy for Diarrhea and Dysen
tery and Cholera preventative.
warranted to Cure in all Cases or the money
will he refunded.
Price 50 cents a bottle.
Salem, Ohio, Aug. 0. 185G.
PITTSBURGH WATER CURE.
This institution for the Cure of the sick, is situ.
ated on the Ohio River and Ohio and Pa. R. R., 10
miles West of the City at
All kinds of disease successfully treated. For
particulars Address either of the physicians. Box
1304 Pittsburgh, Pa.
S. t'KKASE, M P.
II. FREASE, M. D.
MRS. C. P. FREASE, M. D.
April 13th, 1856.
SINGER'S SEWING MACHINES.
These celebrated machinos nre in practical and
profitable use in all parts cf tbe civilized world.
In all the various trades, nnd in sewing every sort
of fabric, either of cloth or leather, they have
been fully tried and approved. Sewing machine!
of other manufacturers often fail to work, but
SINGER'S MACHINES ALWAYS OPERATE
PERFECTLY, being strong, durable and complete
in contrivance and workmanship. A perfect .ow
ing machine kept employed affords a clear profit of
$1,000 a year j but an imperfect one is a cause of
constant vexation and loss. The entire reliabil
ity of our machines is one great reason for their
m,Ul!IES FOR FAMILY SEWING,
of a frail and dolicate construction, are roeom.
mended by other manufactures. Such machines
are made to catch tbe eye, not to perform substan
tial work. Tbe truth is, family sewing machines
ought to be stronger than any other, because they
go into less skilful.banda than when sold to man
ufacturers, and are used for a greater variety of
work. The machines which have proved best for
all other purposes must be best for family use, and
they are Singer's. The speed of our machines baa
lately been doublod. No other can compare with
tbem in quantity of work.
BQy New machines of the latest improved
style will be exchanged on liberal terms for old
sewing diacbines of our own muke, or for oper
ative machines of other manufacturers. Local
agents wanted to sell our machens.TBg
N. B. All persons desiring full information
about sewing machines, can obtain it by applying
for a copy of "I. M. Singer A Co.'s Gazette," a
paper devoted entirely to the subject. It will be
sent gratis. I. M. SINGER A CO.
Principal Office, 323 B.oadway, New York. '
47 Hanover street, Boston,
32 Westminster street, Providence,
274 Broad street, Newark, N. J.
347 Broadway, Albany, N. Y,
Gloversville, New York,
OH Chapel street New Haven.
11 Buchanan street, Glasgow, Scotland
142 Chestnut street, Philadelphia.
105 Baltimore street, Baltimore.
8 East Fourth street, Cincinnati.
65 North Fourth street, St. Louis. ..
81 St. Charles street. New Orleaoe
20 Daupbin street. Mobile, '
October 24, 186. 2 m.