Newspaper Page Text
BENJAMIN S. JONES, EDITOR.
"A'O US ION WITH SLAVEHOLDERS"
ANN PEARSON, PUBLISHING AGENT.
VOL. 10. NO. 10.
SALEM, COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO, SATURDAY, DFCLMBEIt 1, IStiO.
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The Anti-Slavery Bugle.
From the Watchman and Reflector.
GRECIAN AND ROMAN SLAVERY.
The population of that part of Ancient Greece,
called Attica, is reckoned at 500,000. Of that,
bout 305,000 were slaves, including women and
'children, thus making the proportion of the slave
to the free people nearly as four to one. These
alaves were not generally negroes, or blacks, but
were as white as the Athenians themBelvus. Mul
titudes of them were Greeks, and those not uu
frequently of the more cultivated olasses,
Slaves were procured in sevoral ways. Some,
being peor, and perhaps deeply in debt, went into
. Voluntary servitude as mean of scbaiBtenoe,
. Others, especially persons of a high birth, were
stolon and sold to the traders at a verv Jj iuh price
Plato and Diogenes were thus at one time sold as
. slaves. Offenders against the laws were often
eentenoed to slavery. Bion, the philosopher, with
. all his family, was sold into bondage, for a viula-
lation of some custom-house regulations. But
more than all, slaves were obtained by the chan
. cee of war, which was often waged for the express
purpose of obtaining captives, both mule and fe
male. Thuc, Homer says, in the Hi id, "These
are the evils that follow the capture of a town;
the men are killed, the city is burned to the
ground, the women and children of aU ranks arc
carried off for slaves."
The treatment of slavos in Greece was extreme
ly cruel. They were beaten with rods and scour
gea for the most trivial offences; it was even custo
mary to flog them once a year, for no offence, just
to remind them of their degradation. Thoy were
branded with a hot iron, usually in the forehead,
so deep as to leave a distinct impression of certain
letters. For offensive words tbey often bad their
tongues cut out. For thoft or desertion tlicy
were racked on the wheel, and frequently tortured
to death. Tbey were mado to serve in wars, and
sometimes they were faithful, but their vast num
ber made them dangerous to the State. They fre
quently made insurrection; overwhelmed their op
pressors, and for long periods maintained tho as
cendency. Vast numbers of slaves were employed
in the mines, and those who perished in those dis
mal recesses might be reckoned by millions.
Roman slavery presents; if possible, even darw
features. At the time of Christ, and for a centu
ry or two alter, Italy oontained a population of
about 28,000,000. Of these more than 20,000,000
were slaves, making about three slaves to one
freeman. Tbey were obtained, as in Greece, by
war, by oommerce, by the operation of law against
criminals, and by birth, it boing a Roman law that
tb children of a slave mother should be slaves.
After the conquest of Samnium, 30,000 persons
were sold. Eoiilius Paullus sold into slavery, at
one time 150,000 people, called Epirores,and 50.000
captives were at another time sent home from Car
thage. During the Macedonian, Grecian and
Spanish wars, prodigious numbers of captives were
sent to Rome and reduced to slavery. Besides all
this, a slave trade was regularly carried on in the
East, Thrace and Sarmatia being the Guinea Coast
f the Romans. Strabo tells us that at Delos, the
grsat mart of this trade, 10,000 slaves were sold
in market upon one day. Caesar, in his Gallio
wars, is estimated to have taken more than 400,000
prisoners, who were held in servitude. In coun
tries where slaves were reckoned by millions, in
dividuals would of course own a large number.
From one to five hundred was a common number,
and some persons bad 5,000, and even 3,000
The condition of slaves under the Roman law
was one of awful cruelty and suffering. The lash
and rod were ia constant use, and on the most
trivial ocoaaioni. If a slave spoke or coughed at
ft forbidden time, be was flogged by a very severe
master. The toilet of a lady of fashion was a ter
rible oideal for a slave. A stray curl was an un
pardonable offense, and the slave's back was gored
for tb faults of the mirror. Thongs loaded with
lead, and the chains with weights of bonze or tin
at the end, were common instruments of correc
tion, as were also vioe sprouts, lyre strings and
foroeps. Cruel masters often hired torturers by
profession, and kept them in their establishments,
and many horrible torments were inflicted by
them, suob as disleoation upon tb wheel, and tbe
destrootion of noree, ears, eyes and teeth. Cruoi
fixion was frequently made tbe fate of a slave for
ft trifling misconduct, or from mere oaprice, and
thousands were thrown from tho Cnpitoline rock.
Catn, tho censor, used to seizo a thong after sup
per, and flog such as ho thought had not attended
properly, or had dressed any dish ill. Tho lifo of
a Blavo was entirely in tho power of bis muster,
and tho murdor of slaves by torturo or othorwiso
was not punished by tho laws till about the time
of Constantino. It wns n question put for dlspu
union, wuetner to lighten a ship m a storm, one
should throw overboard a horse or slave. Slaves
could havo no civil rights, could not contract legal
marriage, had no power over their own property.
In regard to punishments of all kinds, no distinc
tion was mado between malo and female slaves.
Besides the domoBtic and agricultural slaves,
were the gladiators, who woro chiefly slaves, and
wore at times extremely nuniorous. The frequen
cy nnd foroeiousness of theso exhibitions is indi
cated by tho restriction imposed by Augustus, who
foibade magistrates to give shows of gladiators
nioro than twice a year or of more than sixty pairs
at a time. Julius Cassar exhibited at onco 320
pairs. Trajan exhibited tlicin for 123 days in
succession, in tho course which 10,000 gladiators
fought. Thceo horrid butcheries of slaves, for tho
amusement of tho rich and dissolute, sufficiently
indicates tho cruel disposition of the Romans, and
tho awful severities of tho slave codo under their
rule. No wonder that human nature thus crushed
and suffering, sometimes rcbollod and soizod the
reigns of power. Under tho lead of gifted and
warlike spirits and thousands of such were
among the Syriun and Grecian captives insurrec
tions wero often mndo, und a great number of tho
masters and their families slain. In tho year B.
C. 135, tho slaves in Sicily, to tho number of
70,000 hcedod by onoEuous overpowered their
oppressors, and kept the field for six years in spito
of all that Roman arms could do. In their final
defeat, 20,000 slaves pcrishod.
In many particulars, the slavery of Greece and
Rome, it will be observed, was strikingly similar
to that in our own country. Slavos hero have no
more of citizenship, no uioro rights of property,
no more of protection in fio marriage relation, no
more power over their children, than had the
bondman under pagan law. As to punishments,
the rice and cotton plantations of tho South have
hundreds of overseers who answer well for Ro
man torturers; they havo scourges fully equal to
the vino uud chain; they have tho brand, the crop
ped ear, tho slit nose, the extinguished eya or bro
ken tooth, all marks of the caprice and malic; of
irresponsible masters. Tho slave pons and auc
tion blook of Virginia show as boartless a contempt
Tor paternal and soainl tios, and tho pleading ago
oies of men and women, as did those at Delos. If
slaves in this country are not crucified, or thrown
from a precipico, they are hunted with rifles nnd
torn by dogs, for desertion. If under Roman law
the master had the power of lifo and death over
his slave, in somo of tho Southern States tho mur
der of a slavo is punished only with a fino, and if
a slave die in-. dor modorato correction, tho master
is fully acquitted. For inhumanity, fur barbarous
enactments, for the infliction of wrong and suller
ing, and derail upon slaves, wbother men or wo
men, tho slave oodes of nt least many of tho
Southern States have nothing to boast over those
of pagan Grceco oud Romo.
Even tho philosophers and authors of ancient
Groece denounced a system so against reason and
conscience. AloiUimas wrote, "A.l come from
the hands of God; nature has made no man a
slave." Philemon says, ''Though ho is a slave.
yet be has the tamo nature with ourselves. No
one was ever born a slave, though bis body by
misfortune may bo brought into subjection." Ar
islotlo makes slavery depend on superiority of
character in ono man over another. By this rulo,
tens of thousands of slaves and masters in Grceco
would have changed places, for noblo Greeks, not
ft lew. wero unione the oppressed Athenians.
Spartans, Lacedciuoriiune, Cretans, as well as
Scythians, Thracians, &c. Esop, Alcman, E- ic-
tetus, Terence, Plato and Diogcuos, took their turn
in slavery, while free men figiirod as brainless
demagogues, haranguing in tho foruii, and squan
dering the hard earned mousy of thoir supeiiors
in bondaf e. We doubt not that this reckoning
will suit the latitude of many a southern planta
tion at tho present day.
Was there ever such a monstrous absurdity on
earth as slavery f It was a remark of llomcr,
that, "in the day when Jupiter makes slaves of
men, he deprives them of half their reason," Ho
mer should have applied this to slaveholders, for
of all men, pagan or Christian, thoy most belie
reason and swallow contradictions. At tbe very
tiruo when Demosthenes was uttering his words
of eloquence to a few tboisand free Athenians,
andtimulating them to resist tho aggressions of
the Northern tyrant, TLilip, there wore 400,000
human beings iu Blavcry around bim, at the meroy
of a mOBt oruel, heartless and despotio democracy.
This is simply an illustration of what exists in our
own country, on a much broader scale, and thus it
turns out, that those who have been most jealous
ot liberty ia their own persons; havo been most
ready to tuko it from othors.
But Greeoe was corrupted, enervated and sub
dued by bor social evils, of which slavory was the
prinoipal, and was finally cwallowed up in the
Roman empire. Romo perpetuated this gigantio
evil, among others, till, on being exorcised by
Chrisrianity, she suffered prostration from whiob
it was impossible to reoover. WLetber it is to be
thus with our own Republican, a few short
years will determine.
Cuaroed witu Inciting Redellion. A corres
pondent writes to tbe Petersburg Express, from
Pittsylvania C. II. under date f October 30 :
''Our Circuit Court is now ia session, his Honor
Judge Gilmer presiding, and has just fairly com
menced upon a large dockot, upon which thoreare,
alt told, over five hundred cases. The Grand Ju
ry is now in session, and is doing a big business.
To-day an indictment was found against a man
named DodsoD, for advising and inoiting negroes
in this Stato to rebol and make insurrection. He
was examined lust night, and the proof was as
follows, almost verbatim : Dodson was overheard
to tell negroes in thoir cabin ot a late hour of the
night, ' that the children of Israel were in greater
bondage than they, (i. e. tho negroes,) and that
they threw off tho yoke of Slavery by thonwelvcs;
that the uegrocs of St. Domingo had ovorpowered
their masters and set themselves free, and if they,
(tho negroes of Virginia) wi uld only be determin
ed and show that thoy wero in earnest, the North
would send them help; that there woro five hun
dred men in this county who would help them,
ond that many of the remainder wuull do nothing
against them, and that in a short time they could
all be free.' Straws show how tho wind blows, so
I think this luni;iin.''e, when used in tho heart of
Virginia, tells the talo. I wish you would hurry
up Anderson & Co., in their armory arrangements.
We want some good shooting irons."
OUTRAGEOUS CASE OF TYRANNY AND
Tho telegraph somo weeks ago in a singlo line
stated that a young man named Brewster, who
had becu invited to Alabama to toach a school,
had been driven away by a mob. It appears that
somo ill-minded person charged him in a letter
Irom Charleston, South Carolina, with boing an
abolitionist. Thereupon, Judgo Campbell, a resi
dent reverend expounder of tho law in Somcrvillo,
where Brewster was teaching, called him to account
before a public meeting uud lead tho aforesaid
letter, In a communication to the New York
Tribune, Brewster tells tho rest of tho story as
When tho Judgo finished reading tho letter,
thero nrono from tho crowd a genoral yell of exe
cration, with cries of "haug him!" "Shoot biml"
As Boon as I could make my voice audible, 1
demanded ray right as an American citizon to bo
heard in sell'-dcfcnco, nnd offered ifopportunity
wore given mo, to vindicate myself from an accu
sation iu utterly false. The honorable Judgo re
plied iu the following language: "You aro a God
damned black hearted Abolitionist. You came
from Boston, and that is proof euough agaiuet
you. You noednn't try to viudioate yourself, for
you can't do it."
I requested him to sond for Mr. Giers, nnd in
quire for what purpose I camo to tho South, and
ask tho various negioes with whom I hud ridden
hours about tho country, if I had spoken to them
of froedom, or tampered with them in any way.
The Judge answered, "I know you havo dono
nothing amiss as yot. Y'ou are more sly than
your fellows in Texas. You want to insinuate
yourself into the confidence of our unsuspecting
oitizens, by protending to bt a teacher, and then
by-and-by giving our niggers strychnia -to fut
into tho water of tbe village."
When the Judgo had ended, a young lawyer
named Patterson mounted a sugar-box, and spoke
substantially as follows:
' Telluw-oitizens, have you not hoard of the bor
riblo outrages in Texas, caused by tbe damned
Abolitionist teachers? Have you not heard of the
plots in Talledga county, to poison tho springs and
murder our fellow citizens, all caused by the
damned Yankees? And now, fellow-eitizeus, in
our quiet village covnes another of this damned
black hearted crew to incite our negroes to deeds
of violence. The enemy is in our midst what
shall wo do with him?" Cries of "Kill him,"
"Hang him," "Put him through." Then turning
to me, ho said, "Go back to them that saut you
here, and toll them wo wish no Bostonian among
us. Fellow citizens', all who are iu favor of this
man's leaviug this town in two hours, say aye."
Thero was no voto iu tho negative, I observed,
howovor, that quito a number abstained from vot
ing. Though they may have thought that I was
unjustly treated, yet no one dared to lisp a word
in my defense.
Much of the two hours given me wero spent in
vain endeavors to procure a conveyance for myself
and trunk to Valhauioso. Returning to tho vil
lage from my fruitless search, I was met by a
mob headed by lawyer Patterson, who commanded
mo to open my trunk. Refusing to do so unless
by legal authority, it was broken open. Its con
tents wero thoroughly examined, aud tho sides of
tho trunk sounded for coneealod drawors. My
books were ransacked to find something of an in
cendiary character. Tho uowspapert which I had
wrapped about my shoes were carefully scrutini
zed. One of these was a copy of tho Boston Her
ald, which was first taken for a Black Republican
sheet, and when discovered to be a Douglas organ,
was pronounoed by the bystanders, "a damned
sight worse than a Black Republican paper."
There was a copy of the Boston Traveller, with
oue of Henry Ward Beecher's sermons, which,
however, contained no allusion to Slavery. The
name of Beechor oddod to tho excitement, but tho
climax was reached when thoy found among my
letters, one writton by tho Hon, Charles Sumner
in 1854, For a few moments I thought my time
Taking what papers they thought suspicious,
the mob left, cursing me with tho foulest oaths
that ever disgraoed human lips.
Ou colleoting my scattered property, I di-covor-ed
that ceveral articlos of clothing were missing.
What there were of an inoendiary character about
my shirts I cannot imagine. I trust that they
may havo beon tho means of bringing clean linen
into fashion iu a region where acooiding to my
own observation, it is seldom seen.
I finally bargained with a person to convey my
trunk to Valhamoso.on tbe following morning,
and immediately set out for that place on foot.
Exhausted in body and sick at heart, I dragged
my weary limbs, undor a burning mid-day sun,
over a rugged mountain road. I bad gone about
three miles, when I heard a hallooing behind me,
and presently three men upon borsoback rode up
at full speed, ordered me to stop, and dismounting
approached mo. One of them who held in bis
hand a long leather tbong or lasso, with a elip
nooee at the end, said: "We have come to bang
you, so now prepare yourself." I replied, "I am
ready," and folding my arms, awaited tbe result.
After tbe outrage and indignity I bad already suf
fered, worn out by anxiety and bodily fatigue, I
felt in the same passive state which a man some
times feels on the deck of a sinking ship, when
tbe last hope of escapo has died out in his breast.
Tbe ruffians were apparently about to put their
threats into execution, w hen tho eldest, a man of
fifty, ciiedout, "Hold on, boys, let's talk with
'him a spell first." Aeensting mo with tho mini-1
nericss oa.uj wnn wineu the Alabamians seem
wont to garnish their clcgnnt speech, but which 1
do not caro to repeat, he a.kcd, "What sent you
down South to murJer us oil?" I told him 1
camo by invitation of a slaveholder, and if they
would go wi'.li mo I would provo my innocence ol
any design ngainst their slaves. This was recei
ved with jocrs.
Finully they said, "If you will confess the truth,
that you came to utir up the slaves, and who sent
you, we will lot you go scot-free; if not, we will
kill you." I told them they could kill mo if they
pleased, but I should not perjure myself. As I
remained culm, and evinced no fears of death, the
villians supposed that I was armed, and comman
ded mo to give up iny pistols. When I told them
I had no weapon of defense, thoy seized me and
threw mo into a pond of wotor by the roadside.
The pond was ono of thoso so common in the
South a mere bog-holo, abounding with veno
mous roptilcs. I Bank kocc-ileop in the mud at
the bottom. The chief ruffian cut a large pole,
with which ho threatened to split my skull uulcss
I attempted to wade across, well knowing that I
could not extricate myself in tho deep water. 1
refused to movo, however, and nt length my val
iant assailants turned to leave me, calling out to
mo to go home und tell my Northern friends that
they would hang any one who came down thero.
Tho ruffians wore Charles England, his oldest son,
and Thomas U. Marrow, ton of the Postmaster at
After a time, I succeeded, God only knows how,
in reaching tho house of Mr. Giers. Ha was him
self ftbset,', bat the Christian kindness manifested
toward mo by his family, at a moment when I so
much neeeded it, will never bo forgotten by mo.
As my assailants had threatened to burn down
Mr. Gior'e house, if ho sheUarcd me, word was
sent to serorul plaators in ths neighborhood, who
aamc arnitd witli guild. 1 slept that night, for the
first timo, with a loaded revolver under my pillow,
which we ipou was given mo by a noblo hearted
youth, himself the sou of an extonsivo slavo own
er, with the advice to shoot tho first man who
should t.fier to molest. Several men
their regret that I should leave Alabama with so
uufuvorilla an impression of their State, but
could net advise mo under the circumstances to
lemain I let t at once, and arrived in Boston,
FridayQotobor 12.h, about the time that the distiuguihtl
Yanoey was instructing tho Bostouiaus
- io - pivlitii'ai dutjo'i.and.. depicting in glow-
in i: colon the beauties or that "peouiiar institu
tion," the Ceb-tsing and brutalizing effect of which
I had just iicen compelled so painfully to experi
ence in tho orator's own State.
Such is my story. All of tbe statements herein
made I hohi myself in readiness to substantiate.
In all essential particulars my tale is confirmed by
an articlo copied into the Charleston Conner, from
the Somorvillo Vtmocral, which gives a detailed
account of the occurrence. To this articlo I beg
leave to refer thoso who may be disposod to ques
tion the truth narutivo.
WILLIAM J. BREWSTER.
Boston, OCT. 17, 1860.
OFFICIAL EXPOSITION OF THE CONDITION
OF THE HAYTIEN REPUBLIC
A document cntitlud ' Exposition of the Condi
lion ul tho Republic" was presented to the Senate
on the -'Jill of September. From this document
it appears that the country is in a satisfactory
stale. Jt. lie various ameliorations proposed uy tlic
government are in a lair way to bo accomplished.
Tho army has been reorganized, und roduccd lrom
thirty thousand tosixteeu thousand men. The na
vy, under the old government, consisted only of a
few small vessels, but two steamers havo been or
Jcred by the Senate and are expected soon; they
ure called tho "December 21" aud tho "Gcfi'rard."
Theso two stcai&ers, well equipped and manned,
will act as a sort of shore police, and also make
trips between tho principal ports of the republic.
They will bo commanded by somo of tho young
Haitians who wore sent to France and educated!
iu the cavy school at Brest
The financial condition of the republio has been
greatly ameliorated by the economical measures
I that have been taken, and by tho reforms nado iu
! various dopartmente of the Kovcriniieut, Tho val
ue of the uatiouul money is rising daily, and the
emission of caner moaov is constantly decrcas'iutr.
Engagements contracted by the state aro punc-i
tually filled; the army is regularly paid, and the
owes it no arrears. The custom-houses
aro confided to the care of houest aud competent
men. Commerce, which is at present equal
the demands of the country, will increase with
tho increasing development of the country.
Certain sections w hich ten years ago were aban
doned, are to-day in a state of prosperity, owing
to the culture of fields which wor hitherto neg
Ioctod. The government is occupying itself with
l ho construction of good roads, so necessary to an
agricultural district, and lias iu contemplation
system of irrigation and dyking.
The negleot of tho publio buildings undor Sou
louque's reign involved the new government
considerable expense for the restoration and re
pairing of tbe edifioes, and thero still remains
tho republio many publio works to be oompletcd.
Among the new works decided on is a model
farm, where youths will be taught the use of the
different agricultural instruments recently irven
ted, and the latest improvements ia the art of cul
tivating a tropioal soil like that of Hayti. Tbe
premiums awarded for the culture of cotton, and
tho prosses and mills distributed among growers
have already had a good effoot. The price of cof
fee has already increased, and the government
will encourage tbe culture of sugar-oaue, which,
though it flourishes well in Hayti, has for several
years rcooived no attention.
The discovery of cxtonsive ooal mines, it fs hop
ed, will bring additional revenue to tbe govern
ment. New fountains have been ereoted at the capital,
and are in course of construction in other bities of
the republio, Postal fscilitioi have been increased
and improved. A census of the republic has been
ordered bv tho zovernment. which will rivo an
authentic statement of tbo condition of the coun-
Tho Louiidanian emigrants, who have settled in
the Artibonite, have gone vigorously to woik, and
their plantations promise well; immigration con
tinues on a largo sc.ilo. Tho polico is efficient and
orderly. The prisons and jails have been repaired
and improved. A penitentiary has boon establish
ed wliero convicts are taught useful trades, and
how to read and writo.
Primary instru lion is making rapid progress.
Schools for both sexes have been founded iu the
rural districts, nnd agriculture will form ono of
the regular studies.
The Pope has intereated himself in the affuirs of
liny ti, and a baud of missionary priests fresh from
Rome are expected in a low months. Efforts will
bo made to render Sunday a day of reel and wor
ship, and to increase tho sanctity of tho marriage
relation, which is now viewed with indifference
throughout Hay tt.
In the national lycsums or colleges the progross
has n it beon as dcsiraMo as was anticipated by
Four collojie, eighty-nino primary schools for
boys, twenty-ono primary schools fur gitls, fifty six
country s:houls, a boarding-school for girls, a
school of medicine, a school of music and a school
of painting, including aliogether thirteen thousand
scholars, all under the general supervision of the
government, comprise the educational forces of
Hay ti, There are also a number of private schools
for children of both sexes.
Tho relations of Hayti with foreign powers are
on the most satisfactory fueling. Hayti has min
isters at the courts of England, France and Spain,
and there is is also a Haytian Consul at Barcelo
na. A concordat has boon concluded with the
The late tour of the Presidoat through tho var
ious sectious of the country has provod his popu
larity with tho people, and shown him to bo "first
I in war, first in poace, and first in tbe hearts of his
From the Correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial.
SENATOR TRUMBULL SPEAKS FOR MR.
LINCOLN AT SPRINGFIELD, ILL.
The policy of the New Administration respecting
Slavery and Secession presented.
SPRINGFIELD, Ill., Nov. 20.
Lincjin havo expected, and still expect this, and
j they would not have voted for him, bad they cx
povormnent pected othowiso. I regard it as extremely fortu-
Eds. Com : Senator Trmbull, after congratula
ting the ns: ombled Republicans on their victory,
and eulogizing Mr. Lincoln, said : "Mr. Lincoln,
although the candidate of tho Republican party,
as Chief Magistrate, will neither belong to that
nor any other party. When inaugurated, he will
be the President of the country; and I doubt not
Kill le at ready to defend and protect the Stale in
ivltich he has not received a solitary vole, against
any encroachment upon its contlilutional rights, as
the one in which he has received tho largest majority.
While they, by whoso votes ho has been designated
as Chief Magistrate of this Republic, will expect
him to maintain and carry forward tho principles
on which ho was elected, they know that in doing
so, no encroachments will be mado on the reserved
rights of any of tho Stat-js. They know that tbe
Federal Government is one of delegated powers
that it can do nothing except tho authority for the
act can bo found in the instrument which created
it, and that all powers not conferred are reserved
to the States or tho people of the States. When
thoir politicul opponents have charged tho Repub
licans with Abolitionism, or attiibuted to them a
desiro to intcrfeio with slavery in the Suites, or
somo fanatic has insisted that they ought to do so,
the reply has invariably been, that the pcoplo who
made tho Federal Government did not think prop
er to confer on it Bach authority, and it has there
fore no more right to meddle u ith slavery in a State
than it has to meddle with serfdom in Jlussia, nor
aro the people of ucn-slavtholdir.g States, in any
way responsible for tlacry in tho States which
tolerato it, becauso on that question they are to
each other as independent governments. I have
labored in aud for the Republican organization,
w;tn ,;,. COt,fiJenoe that whenever it should bo
in pewer, each and all of tht Stales would le left
in as complete control of their own affairs respect
ively, and at us perfect liberty to choose and cm-
ploy their own means of protecting property and
preserving pcaco ODd order, within their respect
ive limits, as they had ever been under any od-
ministration. Those who have voted for Mr
nato for the peace of tho w'oolo countiy, that this
paint, upon which tho Republicans have been so
lonz md so persistently misrepresented, is now
to bo brought tu a practical test and placed be
youd the possibility of a doubt. It should be
matter of rejoicing to all trus Republicans, lhat
they will now have an opportunity of demonstra
ting to their political adversaries, and the world,
lhat they are not for interfering with the domesli:
institutions of any of the Slates, aod are not the
advocates of neAro equality or amalgamation, wiin
which political demagogues havo so often charged
them. When this is shown, a reaction will us
suredly tako place in favor of Republicanism.
Tho Southern mind even will be satisfied. The
riirhts of Northern men will he respected, and1 the
' fraternal feeling existing in olden limes when men
from all parts of tht country went forth together
to battle for a common cause, against a common
enemy, will be restored. Disuniouists per se, of
whom unfortunately there have been a few in the
country, for somo years, understand this, aud are
dow in bot haste to get out of the Union, precisely
because they perceive they cannot much longer main
tain an avurehension among the Southern people
that their homes and firesides and lives tire to be
endangered by the action of the Federal Govern
ment. With such, now or never is the maxim;
bsnoe they seek to inflame the public miod by
misrepresenting tbo objects and purposes of the
Republican party, with tbe hope of precipitating
the Southern Slates into a position from which
they cannot, without dishonor, afterwards secede,
well knowing if tbey delay till after tb new Ad-
ministration is inaugurated and tested, it will fur
uish no causo for thoir complaints. Secession 5
an impracticability, or rather ao impossibility'.
Tho Constitution provides no way by whiob a
State may withdraw from the Union no way for
the dissolution of the Government. It creates lb
general Government interferes but little wth
tho individual rights of tho citizens, .exoept. for
protection; it is chiefly felt in its benefits and its
blessing, and not in its exactions. If every fed
eral officer in South Carolina were to resign, and
their offices remain vacant, and its convention, do
olare the Stato out of the Union, it would all
amount to little except to iaconvenieuce the citi
zens of that Stat?. So long as the State did net
interfere with the collection of revenuo on tho
sea board, the people in other portions of the
Union would not be in the least inconvenienced.
What is tho South Carolina army to do whon rais
ed ? whom is it to fight? manifestly if it commen
ces a war on tho U. S. cfliocrs engaged in. collect
ing the rovenue, it becomes the aggressor. This
would be Revolution, and making war without a
cause, for South Carolina makes no complaint
against tho present revenue laws. Is she prepar.
ed for this? To become tho aggressor? Thi
only ueo I can 6eo for bor "minuto men" is, that
they will enable the people tho more readily to
suppress at:y uprisings in their midet, which thoir
misrepresentations of the purposes of tbe Repub
licans nviy have oncouraged. She oomplains that
the fugitivo slavi bw is net executed in some of
the States. This, if true, the whole country knows
to be a sham, 10 far as South Carolina is concern
ed. She is so situated that no slave can esoap
from her limits into free etates. However mu'ob.
cause the border slave states may have to complain
of tho escape of their negroes into the free states,
it is clear South Carolina can have no such com
plaint. In her resolves she professes to be pre
paring to defend herself against encroachments rl
her rights. Let her adhore to this policy and not
attempt to dictate to other etates what they shall
do, and no collision will occur, for no encroaon
ment will be made." ...
Tho speaker expressed tbe opinion that the dis
union fooling is greatly exaggerated, and that not
all the supporters of Breckinridge are DiBupioji-
ists. He asserted emphatically mat saoum iae
Disunionisls succeed in overcoming the Union men
of tho Sotith; and plunge the oountry into civil
war, an overwhelming cry that the Union must and
shall be preserved, would arise in all parts of tht
land and tear would then come home to the trailer.
Tho Bpeaker concluded by enumerating the ben
eficent measures likely to b accomplished under a
Republican government, and expressing confidence
that it will give peace and well being to the coun
try. . . ,
Hamlin will meet Lincoln in Chicago,' where a
grand conclave of Republican leaders or in
Northwest will be held. Lincoln goes to Chicago
to-morrow. Trumbull's speecn was inpir uj
him, and expresses bis views in full. V.
It is too truo. as tiio Uarrisburg Telegraph per
tinently remarks, that politics has descended from
the altitude of patriotic statesmanship to th low
level of a vulgar scramble for spoils. Not only
Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Curtio, but every otner man
elocted to an important station, tho , present sea-
-.. has ere this been inundated wita begging let
ters and importunate personal demands for ap
pointments. We pity tbe elected officials ;almost
as much after as before their success, . ueiuro,
thoy are bunted down by "strikers"; afterwardff
they aro beset by office-seekers. Never before,
probably, was there so unanimous and overwhelm
ing a rush cf applicants , for long exclusion from
the publio crib has whetted tbe appetite of th
r - aJ sT
victors to intcusest pangs of hunger. Ana noi
only bo, but it is anticipated that a clean sweep
will bo made by the incoming Governor ana 1 res
ident of tho Democratic olheiuls ; .ana nenoe luer.
will bo more nlaces in the official Paradise for thq
faithful. Politics is a fight all through. First it
is a struggle with the opposition party for success,
and then it is a strife between the co-workers to
dotormine which has tbo best claim to tho fattest
slice of tbe spoil!, Trun American.
A Trial or Color. A peculiar case is now
being tried by tbe Supreme Court in session at
Norwich, Conn., involving the questipu, "What
?" The estate of R. Increase
Stoddard, a quadroon, or person of quarter Afric
an blood, was levied on by the proper officers, and
sold in paymont of town taxos. Action 1
brought to recover the amount collected under tb
levy, upon the ground lhat the property was ex
empt from taxation by the provision of the statut
which exempts tbe property of "persons of color."
The question raised by counsel,' and reserved hf
the Court below for the advice of the Sqprem
Court is, whether persons of ons-fourth Afrioan
blood come within the jncauiug of the statute M
"persons of color". The Dullelin says thai th
question is one of considerable interest, as, if H is
deciiod that liiolovy was proper,', and the slat
au'.,je0i to taxatiou. it mates all persons of one
quarter African blood "oitizens" under th Con-i
stittitioo, so that they may b odmitted to all th
nrivilepos of an elector. Tbe decision will be ith-
er lhat they are "persons of color," aud, as suob,
exempt from taxation, or "white citisens," and, a
such, eutitled to the elective franchise. 1 nnctpia;
From the Wisconsin Free Democrat.
THE RIGHT OF SECESSION.
The right of a State to peaceably seoede from
the Union, is likoly in existing oircumstances, to
become a prominent subjoot of disoussion. Tb
New York Tribune, we perceive takes ground ia
the affirmative. We aie disiosed to agree with
the 7Vioiiiu. If a S ato deliberately males up its'
mind tbalit desires tu leave tho Union, it .sinks
us that th fundamental prinoiplo on whiob tb
Union is formed, warrants it in the unobstructed
right to fulfil its desir in that respect. Indeed
e can have no Union' on any other basis. A Un
ion of force is no Union at all. Our Union i f