Newspaper Page Text
BENJAMIN S. JONES, EDITOR.
WO UXWX WITH SLAVEHOLDER'S."
ANN PEARSON, PUBLISHING AGENT.
VOL. 16. NO. 23.
SALEM, .COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 10, 1SU1.
WHOLE NO. 797;
T II E ANTI-SLAVERY BUGLE,
rCBI.ISnED EVEIiy iATUHDAV AT SALEM, Ollln;
By the Executive Committee, of tho Western Anti
TERMS. $1.50 per annum poyable in advance.
-Communications intended for insertion, to
y addressed to Behjamim S. Jones, Editor.
'Orders for the. paper and letters containing
'monoy lo payment for tlio same, should be addres
sed to Ann Pearson, Publishing Agent, Salem.
Columbinnn County, Ohio.
J29"Money carofully enveloped and dircctod bp
above, may lis tent by mail nt our risk.
JQrWo occasionally send numbers to those who
.rt riot subscribers, but who nre believed to be
ttrterested in the dissemination of Anti-Slavery
truth, with tho hope thut they will either subscribe
themselves or use their influence to extend its
real etionamnng their frirtids
' 1 TERMS OF ADVFRT1SIXG.
One Square, (10 lines) throe week, -
" Each addi ional insertion,
" " Si months, - -
" Ono year, ' -' -
Two Squares nix month?,
" " Ouo your,
Cue Fourth Column one year, with privilege
of changing monthly, - - - - 12 00
llalT Column, changing wunthly, - 20.00
, ggy-Cards not exceeding eight lines will be in
serted one year fur ?300; bix months, $2 00.
' sjgrAdvortiseuieuts for patent medicines, speci
Bg remedies, uhance tujvjako money, &c, neither
rolioited nor published.
t 1. HUDSON, PRINTER..
The Anti-Slavery Bugle.
GOV. DENNISON ON THE LAGO CASE.
i Gov. Dennisjn in his recent message thus treats
of the obovo named ease :
During the legislative recess tho power of the
Executive of tho State tu eurrcDder fugitives from
justice has frequently been invoked, and though
as a rulo this class of cases dues not tequire spec
fat public notice, yet in two instances tho applica
tion iovolvod matters of tho gravest moment.
The reclamation in one case was founded on a
barge that the fugitive hud stolen certain slaves,
ritb ioto.-it to defraud the imputed owner; and iu
tbe other case, the demand was predicated on an
' indujtirjonr, charging the, accused, with. aiding ,a
."fomale slave" to eecapo fnin ' ber owner, and
possessor." Tbeso cases did not, in my judgment,
fall within tho scope of tho authority conferred on
me in this buhalf, and my conclusion, ' with tho
reasons therefor, was duly mndo known to the
Executives by whom the respective demands had
'best) made. Each replied, controverting the right
fulness of ny conclusion.
The ta&is'aliTe fower vested iu the General As
tembly comprehends an authority to provido for
the surrender of fugitives fnm justice in cases
sot coverod by tho Federal Constitution, and this
consideration, added to the importance of the sub
ject itbelf, seems to render it proper that tho rea
sons which, iu these instances, controlled my ac
tion, should be laid before you.
. The persons demanded by these reclamations
Vtete then sojourners withia this State, owing to
. it allegiauce, and entitled to the correlative right
of protootion. Its constitution and laws secured
. 4a theai, while dwelling here, the same measure oi
o personal freedom and personal security, which be
- longed to its own citizens. Speaking the lan
guage of the "great chat ter of English liberties,"
too State bad declared that no one within its lim-
it "should bo deprived of life, liberty or proper
ty, without due process of law." .Tbesamo prin
ciple has, in some form, been asserted by every
Other State, and Cods, conspicuous place ia tbo
Constitution of tho United States,
. Upon the requisitions being made, it wag my
'first duty lo enquire whether the cases were such
as called fur the exercise of the power thus invo
ked. It was readily ascertained that all my au
thority, in this bokalf, came from the familiar pro'
W " ' " w vv.w.w. - ft '
"surrender of fugitives from justioe. Inusmuoh as
this provision operates in restraint of liberty, it
must be rigidly ounstrued, and every case not fair
ly included must be held as beyond its scope, and
every doubt must be resolved againet its applica
tion. Rigorous as this rule seems, its existence
and wisdom are alike beyond question. It is tho
lame rule in favor of liberty which has obtained
for centuries in that country from which wo have
drawn our systoms of criminal jurisprudence, and
the same rule which is today ia all the States ap
plied to criminal proceedings in every stage of
their progress. Adopted to protect the eititeos
.against tbo exorciso of arbitrary power, tho expe
rience of many nges has proved its value, and it
till retains its place among the chief safeguards
of personal security. It has become a fixed prin
ciple of law, and yet, independent of its clear die-
tales, I am satisfied that upon no recognised rule
of construction can the constitutional provision be
Dade to cover the cases in question.
These reclamations presented substantially the
ame question, and were therefore to be determin
ed by application of the same general principles.
Eaoh of tbom charged the accused with the com'
. mission of an aot by which "an owner and mas-
ter' bad been deprived pf bis alleged "slave."
The question was thus presented, whether an act
of this nature can be considered at either "treason,
..felony or other orimo," in the sense in which
, these phrases are used by tbo Constitution. . Man
ifestly it is not treason, and manifestly, it is not
f- felony, according to the import of that word when
the Constitution was adopted.
.) Does "other crime" include every offense de
clared lobe soolt by the laws of a State? If o,
' my duly to aorrender was placed beyond queition.
' But this I conceive would be a most misohievons
and impracticable interpretation. For, if by "other
rime" ia meant any aot made criminal by the law
f a State, then tbe Execatlve of each State Is un--der
constitutional obligation to remand its cltixens
to another, for any aot whiob (be Legislature of
to? fJUtt may designate aa a crime. Ia this
sense the word "orimo" has no nthor meaning than
that which a Legislature, in its discretion, may give
it; and the constitutional obligation ot tho bxocu
tive of each State would be created by the caprice,
mid tho liberty of tbeeiiiecn would be deprived,
upon the legislation of tho others. Such a con
struction of tho constitutional provision could not
bo tolerated, for it would lead to infinite abuse; nor
could its obligations be enforced.
If, then, by "other crimo" it was not intended
to make the cittfcoos of each State liable to rendi
tion at the discretion of the Legislature of every
other State, and a more limited and definite moan
ing is to be given to the term "or othor crime,"
where shall that limitation be found t
Tho provision under consideration was introduc
ed as a rule of international law botween tho
States. As international law it must havo a deli
nito moaning, understood and recognized when en-j
into by thu States. It must have the same '
meauing in all the Sutos. Its construction, thore-
must be determined by the general and oc-'k0"
copied mcaningof the terms used at tha tiiuo tho
provision was odopted.
What, then, was tho rosaived acceptation of the
words, "treason, fel).iy, or o:hor crime'' wheti tho!
Constitution was framed ? j
T. jo common law, its jury, indictment, tulcsof
evidence, and definition of felony an! other crimes
and misdemeanors, was interwoven irith tho crim
inal jurisprudence of all tho original thirteen
States of tho Uniou. Tbi Constitution itself
more thau once, expressly, (Art. VII, amend
ments) and overy.vhoro by necessary implication,
recognir-' s this system as a part of tho national
jurisprudence; and iu tho Federal tribunals it id
constantly appealed to, not as a source of juris
diction, but as the means by which a jurisdiction,
when given, is to be exercised, and as furnibhing
the rules by whiob the grants of power, of the
Constitution are to bo interpreted and applied.
The very phrases "treason, felony, and other
crime" in the provision now in question ccino to
us from that sourco, uud without reference to it,
one at least of these phrases is utterly uriiotolli
gible. Those considerations are conclusivo that
the Coustituiiju at large, and especially this clause
of it, was drawn with direct reference to tho sys
tem of tho common law, as affording tho guide to
its oxposit'.uti and administration.
That the offenses stated in these requisitions are
unknown to the common law is too manifest to
Although lU rola of common law seems to be
sale guide in determining what are crimes within
the meaning of the Constitution, I huve not been
governed by that alunc.
This provision of the Constitution ns has already
been stated, is a rulo ot iutcruutiona! law betweeu
States. Its construction may, therefore, bo verjr
propeiiy determined by iuternatii rial law. Tbe
extradition of criminals has never been extended
to purely local offenses, growing out of domestic
insiitutiouc, and tho word "crime" would un
doubtedly to regaided in uu express compact bo
teen two Spates', as relating not merely to grave
offences deemed wrong by tho general conscience
of the Christian world, but as crimes by the laws
and usages of all civilized nations.
If, then, tho crimes referrod to in tho Constitu
tion are not nny acts whatever, which any State
may capriciously declare to be such, the incuiiin;:
the Constitution must be found in what nre de
fined to be crimes by tho common law of nations.
It is clear that neither tho common, nor interna
tional law, recognizes the acts named in theso re
quisitions as "crimes," and I cannot admit, nor do
I believe any Stato will admit thut its citizens are
subject to requisitions for any act which any
other State may declare to be a crimo.
In reaching ibis conclusion I havo not been un
mindful of the inconveniences to which it may
sometimes give rise. Occasionally it must doubt
lees happen that an offender against tho local poli
cy of one State will escapa punishment by seeking
refuge in another State. This fortune, however,
befalls all cotorminous States, and bas not been
found to entail serious mischief, or to disturb the
harmony of their peaceful relations. Besides, it
is infinitely better that an offender should occa
sionally escape, than that a State should be oblig
ed to recognize and enforoo the laws of another
jurisdiction inconsistent with her own policy, and
contrary to the goneral usages of mankind. Every
rule must be more or loss imperfect, but the ono
., I . ..--.. 1.. .-.II
Constitution itsoif, is, perhaps, us faultless as any
that could be devised. It accords with the princi
ples of natural justico, the obligations of good
neighborhood, and the comity of cations, while,
at tbe same time, it respects tbe sovereignty of tbe 1
State, and secures tbe citizen bis just nieasuro of
Such ore the considerations that determined my
aotion ia regard to the requisitions referrod to.
Had I been clothed with tbe legal authority, I
would bavo promptly surrendered the accused
parties. But my sense o duty, fortified by tb?
long established practice of this Department, did
aot permit me to treat them as malefactors for the
purposes of extradition. I iheroforo declined to!
Tu Colored Population or Georgia. A bill
bas passed tbe Georgia Legislature which provides
that every free person of color who has reached
tbe age of fourteeu years may choose an owner
and go into voluntary servitude for life ; that pa
rents may choose owners for their children when
the latter are under fourieen years of age ; and
that all free , persona of color found In that Stato
after tbe first day of May, 1803, who have taken
00 steps to select owners, shall be liable to aeizuie
and sale aa a slave for life.
Slavery" im Kansas. A ease come op before
Judge Pettit, yesterday, la the District Court for
the Territory which involved tbe constitutionality
of the Anti-Slavery Bill passed by tbe Legislature
A negro woman named Fanny, claimed by Hor
ace Haley as a slave, left bis euatody some time
ago, and went lo live at the bouse of F. R. Foard.
Haley petitioned to recover possession of the prop
erty'" and Foard demurred, oa tbe ground that
wuiou oos seeuieu 10 mo 10 uo oon-.empiuieu uy iue,ea
Funny was not a slave, an stated in tho petition.
Tho case was argued by Lecoinpte, Mathias and
Burns, lor tho plaintiff, and J. C. Douglas, Esq,
for tbo defendant. Judge I'Mit ova niUd lite de
murrer, and decided that the law prohibiting Sla
very 11 Kansas teas nut constitutional. Leaven
worth 'rimes, Jan. Int.
A SLAVE INSURRECTION APPREHENDED.
'J. togothor with cxtr.lorJinary precautions. Al
tered though the city was under strong military guard.at
'bo same time, police, pa'.roluien and mounted ran
fore, wcro on erS watching tho slightest
nuvonienls on tho jart of tho negroes. During the
day a" Ibo negro cabins wcro vifited and examin-
eJ uv members of tho vigilauce committee ; still a
ai"j;la unusual cry iu tho streots would
eause many an unconscious dreamer to start tremb-
From a letter from Montgomery, Ala., wo quote
as follows :
The 21th of December was tho night fixed upon
for tho insurrection uuion,; the negroes. Tho
it! inning accounts, concerting tho extent of tho
plot nmon;; tlij .1! aval iu this; vicinity, brought to
light by tbe investigitijiis at Pino Level, have
create 1 a good deal of excitement in tho communi-
ling front his 11'cep. Sitting hero in the quiet of
night, I havo some dim conception of what must
be that frenzy of terror which tho noar prospect
of on uprising among tho blacks would produce
tho mere suspicion that this race, so singulurly
separated by color, but bo fearfully iuwoven in tho
life of overy family, thusa foes at tho lioarthston
have felt out tho motives and weapons of war.
Tho truth is that wherever there is a strong and
an I watchful holy of whites, there is no fear of
an uprising umong tho slaves ; hero absolute secu
rity etops. In a city thero is little danger of an
insurrection ; but nearly all tho insurrections
which take place in tho country, litivo their origin
in tho citic, and should the military companies
which now embody nearly ull the young men, be
called away, w!kU would be the securities of tho
towns? I am unablo to say. The securities of tho
country uro -itiil less, I havo been in sections
tin 1 they arc nu:.-.erooj whera iu an area of six
square miieti, tho death of fivo men would leave
several hundred slaves without a itiuglo opponont,
and this, too, among a class of slaves restrained
by none of tho ties of uffection which grow up on
both sides whoio tho duties, as in cases of bouse
savants, bring them in1 pormjiialssociatioo with
aj? 5"" lfa!. Va?M: K.?i?
P.iui.lI. ' Ms.caii.ljaaUa-tacuLttt an. oppor-4
tunities of congregation and cooccrl, and bera lies
the burden of tho ovcrseei's responsibility a re
sponsibility thut knows no relaxation. Thcie aro
multitudes of cases ou tho large plantations, where
these ineu do not taLo off their clothes to go to
bed fir months, but tlcep dressed, with arms at
hand, ready at ull hours to visit tho cabins, and
sco that no slave is absent. Under tuoli guardi
anship, with no prompters, thero is little danger.
On smaller plantation where such precautions
aro iiiipobsiUc, tho chief security is tho patrol ;
here it is perfectly well known ;ho slaves pass
their nights iu tho woods or '.rt the cabius of neigh.
bJring plant'ttionp, being careful culy to bo back
before Jajbreak, and to avoid tho whip of tbo pa
trol. I dwell on these things beeause, iu the mad
ness of the moment, no sections spoak more loudly
for war thau those where tho withdrawal of a
soora of men would leave bull" a township (if we
had such divisions) without protectors. Ic appears
from tho development of Iho plot at Pino Lsvel,
that the insurrectionists bad goiio so far as lo di
vide tho anticipated booty, and so 1110 had alree.Jy
bartered off their r'ght to mules, &c. There was
tho usual number of cases of misapplied confiden
ces, &0., thus a widow, when asked if sho was tint
afraid, replied that, incase of danger, tho had on
ly to tell her coachman to lie before tho door, and
she would bo safe. The coachman, us you have
anticipated, was found to bo a ringleader. But
enough of insurrections.
SPIRIT OF THE CHARLESTON
ten thousand dol urs to tho Treusurv of the
We select tbo following paragraphs and com
munications from the Charleston Courier and
Mercury of tho 3d :
Liberal and Patriotic. We are glad to chron
icle the noblo act of Ronj. Mordecia, Esq., who
'vestordav contributed from bis individual resourc-
The Work Goes Bravkly cm. Tie learn that
150 able bodied Jree colored men of Charleston,
yesterday offered their services gratuitously to the
overnor, to hasten forward tho important work
of throwing up redoubts wherever coeded along
Acknowledgment. Tbo Surgeon General re
spectfully and gratefully acknowledges tbo patri
otic response of the ladies to the suggestion to sup
ply bandages. They are rapidly cominy in. Ihey
should be 21 audi inches wide, and 0 yards long.
The ladies of Col, Jaoobs' family have tho hon
or of having made the first contribution.
We are requested to inform the Quartermaster
General that thero are ono hundred cords uf wood,
at a convenient landing 00 Ashley Rivor, subject
to bis order, for the use of tho garrisons at Cautlo
Pickuey and on the sea shore.
We hear that some of our patriotic ladies havo
sent books to interest and amuse the often weary
hours of tbo brave soldiers at our furls. Could
Dot others be spared from some of the overflowing
private libraries of our city, to gladden the hearts
of our valiant and ready band of defendors f
REGULATIONS AT CASTLE PINCKNEY.
CASTLE PICKNEY, 1st Jan., 1861.
To th Editor oj Me Charleston Mercury :
Dear Sir : You would oonfer a favor by inser
ting tho following extract from the standing in
structions to the sentinels at Ibis fort t "No boat
shall be allowed to approach tho Castle, except by
tbe buad of tbe wharf.
" Every boat will halt instantly, upon being so
commanded by the sentinol, and will uot advance
until express permission be given,
"tbe sentinel at tbe wharf will permit no boat
to leave without tho penui-"iioti of t lie proper t Hi-
cer of tho guard."
Any a'.tcmpt to disobey thesn reula'iur.s, tuny
ontail serious consequents.
Your obt dit ni servant,
J. JOHNSTON PETTIGREW.
A DituuMEit !a wanted,
rts til lo e. en by An
l ILL the Vrnr (r,n m. r.riv rrB (f rivli
war between American States and American eit-
Let Mr. Secretary Holt answer.
!,.,, e ,1,. .. ., 1 t !
I'AiTttFli. Servant... C. I. Uaillnrd, of L p er
St. .Il.. ,f, ..;, ., .... 1
Uij tlitit labortrs wcro wuntt-J.
Oa Motioay even -
ing bo returned with twu hundred negiocs, col1
. ., , , , , , , I
leotea Irom a fuvr plantations, and by tbo reutiy!
assent and cheerful effer of I he master?, ond the
willing service of the forvants. These sturdy snd
faithful laborers aro now undjr onipetent dircc-'
lion, at work for the delenco of the harb.r.
.They cmio from the places of C. (jaillai J, CJ. '
Palmer, F. Ouillar.l, and Dr. M. N. Waring, of
Upper Hi. John's Har'.tf 1y. I
Tueiie is no found itii. u f;r tho rsjicrt poblisbt'd ,
iu Northern journal that the telegraph in this j
city mid Stato is on ler c oitri,! ol the S:ato au-.
thoiities. A prcl'eieoeo has been tendered or the. !
Statu mosslg's-, nni this is, we suppose, the pre-'
text for the n rert wo now contrail-::. !
State Loan Wo un.b rstaml i!i,,i ii,o txtA !
Banks througliout the Sta'awil) agree to mku
thuir reiuective i,ioM,r:;oo nf ti.o n,-nn l..n;, ,,r 1
four huudied thousand dollars, authorized at tho !
present session of the L'gitluturr
er ll.t uiilita-'
ry defence of tho State.
lo the Editor f the C'url?:;lun Mercury :
While ovcrjbo.ly 1 be is Voltmtteri'.ig his or her
services, to aid in this great cu-e id S juiin in in
dependence, I wou! ( n nt I c idle. M j evi-ry pulsu
beats secession, and iiijiinkirj of the wrongs c
havo suffered from Vatkce oj pi cssion, Iain uct-1
ually imbued with tbe spirit of Joan of Arc. j
I havo Concluded, .however, to ruiiniiisU this,!
and adopt the more feminine f siuou ol Florence J
I also havo many dear fiiei. li at tho forts', (not
Stimpter.) Ploass add iuy ua-iie 10 that list :
of sinter; pirils who have tendered their service.
will promise, ul-o, to m.-.ka every de'.iei.cy that a 1
soldier cm fancy. If my services arc
aecet-lH rde-asd infnraa me tbroouli tho columns :
3tyrJi O'ioaoi"t-,.! !.. .- -1
From one who is proud lo bo
The Dai'oiitcr or
a Nlllii:lr. j
STAR OF THE WEST.
CHARLESTON, Jan. 9.
Tho steamer Siur of the Wist, in cndeavoi U.p
to enter our harbor, cbout daylight ibis morning.
was opened upon by tbo gau isoii ou M .n is Island,
also by Fort .!oi.!:i ie. l'iio steamer put ubout
and went to sea. 1 have uot bceu able to ietir'i
whether the etci-uier or uuy person 0:1 bond-, was!
injured. Tho bli-f ii that no injury was bus-!
Fort Sampler did not respond. Lii ct. H.i',1, of
Fort Sumpter, ciiiiu over to li.e cit.i, about 1 1
o'clock, with a tl-ig of unco. Ho repaired to tbe'lhe
quarters of tho Guvernor, followed l y a crowd oi
citizens. Ho was iu sootet coiiin.un.e ilioii with
tho Governor and Council for two bouts. At -
o'clock ho was sent iu a varriago with the Gover
nor's aids to the wharf, aud returned to Fort
Sumpter. The object of bis mission is not known.
It is supposed that it relates to thu Star of the
The peoole aro greatly excited. Thero wcro no
demonstrations acainul Lieut. Hail, though th
wus great curiosity lo know what ho uatue lor
AUGUSTA, GA., Jan. 10.
Tho Charleston Courier of to-dav, cays, about
half past 0 o'clock yesterday morning, tho steam
... , ., 1
er Lien. Ulincn amcovcrea mo sioauser iter oi tuei
W.Dt -,! .ini;,,,l tlm R.:.i,.r..r. MortiH IslamlJ
As soon as the signals wero seen by thoso on
guard there, Morris Island wai astir with men at
l.. t mwid Imfum r.nliTK nuiild be piven to nrennrt
Tbey remained ill anxious suspense, !
v.... n.,sio fit. u-ltnl tlii.v liliftvp.d uim flora In nonip.
' - I
,, - t. . c? 'IM C... . r .1 '
a volley from iort Sumpter. ihe btar of tho,
. . . . , , , .... c, . ., I
West routtded :ho point, and took tho Ship chau-i
...... , 1 1 . 1 . r 1
nel inside the bar and proceedid straight forwaid
t 11, j
until orpofito Morris Island, ubout three quartern
11 ii..- .1 11 .. , 1. .. -.i'of
of a mila from the batteries; a ball was then bred
. . . . . . o. r .. i
athwart the bows 01 me steamer, xae stunt tne
West displayed tho Stars and Strips. .
As soon as tho flag was unfurled, the fortiCea-
tion nred a succcisiuu of heavy shots, the vessel i
continued on her course with increased speed, lut j
two shots taking effect upon her sho concluded tu ;
n , j
retire. Fort Moultrie filed a few shots at her, but
SI10 Was OUt, Ol lUHu. 1.U1. Mu.uj iv. u.uuu uu;
THE HOSTILITIES AT CHARLESTON.
CHARLESTON, Jan. 9.
About 11 o'clock this morning, a boat from Fori I
Sumpter, bearing Lieut. Hall, with a hi;e flag, i
approached the city
Lieut. Hall hud an iuterviow with Gov. Pick
ens aud was afterwards oseortel to Lis boat aud
rc-embarked for Fort Sumpter.
The communication from Major Anderson is as
To His Excellency, tie Governor cf South Car
gIH:Twoof your batteries fitod this morning
on an unarmed vessel boaring the flag of my Gov
ernment. As I have not been notified that war
hul been declared ly South Carolina against tbo
United Stales, I cannot but think this a hostile
committed without your sanction or authority.
Undor that hope I refrain from opcuing a flje on
your bmories. I have the honor, therefore, ro-
to ask whether the above mentioned aot
ono whiob I beliove without parallel iu the histo
ry of our country or uf any otter civilizod govern
ment was committed Ij obedience to your in
structions, and notify you that, if il is uot dis
claimed, I regard it as an act of war, aud 1 shall
not, after reasocable time foe tbe return of my
as an act ol Imsltlity, and in conclusion ad
.r,.'""' tmptto rut.foroo tho troops at urt
j mn-ougc 1 , pern.it any vesnd tu pas vithin range
of the j;una of my fm'.. In order to hh an far
a it is in my power the shedding of Mood, I
you will take die notification (if My deoiion, for!
the good of a!! cmcernod. II ipin;:, however, that !
your answer may justifv a further c julincr.nce of
forbear ance oil lny part, I remiiti,
Ho-Tico;! oily, BOB'T ANDERSON.
Gov. Pickens a'ter otatir.j' tho pot-i'i.m (.f Soutli
tar.;!.., t . the U,,i,ed States, taye that any at-
t'-ii fit to send United f.tiif" UoVps into Charleston
Harbor to reinforce tho Forr, wct'Id be regarded
r 1.1. ti. mill,, ..tut ..I 1 1.., i.'.ipt
. . . i.:..i. t .!
, , , , , . ., . ,
ler-oti abandoned after spiking tbo cannon nr
, . . ,
doing other damn, cannot bo regarded by the
authorities of tlu Stale as indicative of my other
purposes than tho coercion of the State by the
armed force of the G-vcrtiuicr.t. Special agent.",
t!icief.,re, tir.vo been iff the bar to warn vessels
armed or unarmed, having troops to rc-ii.foreo Fort
Sumpter aboard, not to enter the Harbor. Special
ord-rs bavo bi on civeu to Curmunndets at the
Futts rot to Sro on e::?li vessels till a s':.'t nerossjerul
their bows shoul 1 warn them of the prohibition ol
tbe S'.a'e. Under thc:o circumstance the Star cl j
tbo West this morning attempted to tntir the !
il arbor with troops tificr haviug been notified el.-e '
c.ul.l not enter, end conseqtttntlv site was G.ed !
',,ta- The aet ii perfectly jiutifiej by me. In rc-i
l-''1 ,;' Jour threat about vessels in tho Harbor,
it is only necessary for mo to say, you iiloiie must
u0 ju,,:u uf "Jur responsibility. Your pesi-
in t'' 'l-'rb bas been tolerated by tho ou-
tluiili .'S of tho State, n;;d vihila tho cct of which
y ".i complain is in perfect consistency with the
rights and duty uf the State, it is not perceived
ho'.v f ir tlio enduct you propose to adopt can find
a parallel in the hirtory of any cuuutry, or be rec-
lie.! v. i.h any other purpose than that of yoi.r :
lJoert,ir,ctit imposing on tbe stata '.he condition ol !
F. W. PICKENS.
RECORD COMMUNICATION FROM MAJOR ANDERSON.
Slit : I hu.e the houwr to acknowledge tbo rc
Fort oe ij t of your camutunication, ond say that under
llo circumstances I have deemed it prorer to ro
I ' 'I'" whole mutter to my Government, and iu
Southem ":,l! defuning tho enorso I indicated in my note
every facility ond courtesy granted to himas liear
and er of Dispatches to tbe U. S. Government, lotb iu
goin uud returning.
o His Excellency, Cw. I'ickc;is :
'' morning utiti! the arrival Jt'mJf i-Tuni'lon ol
such wtruolu.t. a. I-mtiy ... t-u.-T!:i.-rr
honnr nl.-o to express the hope- that rto bbsli net'tins
w'-l UB placed i.i tbe way, and that you will do nie
the favor of giiing every facility fur the d-'par-
t-... .r.l - 1 ! ,1. n,.,t..
tore iiuu 1 euirii 01 inu uvarer, iteui. x. linnet,
who is diraetod to make the journey.
(Signed) UOLVT ANDERSON.
Gov. Pickens immediately granted tho permis
sion desired, and directed Lieut. Talbot lo have
CHARLESTON, Jan. 10.
Lieutenant Talbot left Charleston late last night
with despatches fro :i Major Anderson to tha Pies
idtnt of tho United States. Lieutenant Talbot
goes to Washington for further instructions from
President. A party of gentlemen entertained
him at thu Charleston Hotel prorious to his dopar
parturo. Tliere is no rxcitement heie.
I"'. liuuuuuvui lUV ICUlli uiiu uivauiu Ol ilia I.IUU.
Tho necessary cuneequencos of tho alarm tbus
produced woro moht uonioralle. Imports fell ou
'V, , , , . .
with a rapidity never known before, except in timo
. , ,. , . .
Karj in tna history of our foreign commerce,
' J "
The 1 rt-asurv was unexpected! v left without t.toans
", were auver.it.cn accoruing ,o law, strn iiiui
no responsible bidder offered to take any cons.d
aot, Jevablo sum at par at a lowor rate of interest than
.twelve per cent.
From there facts it appoars that, in a govern
nnectfullv organised like tmrs, domostio strife, or even
To the & !.' and
llutise of Representatives:
At the opening of your present session I called
your attention to the dangers which threatened the
'cxistcncoof tho Union. I exprcsaed opinions free-
jly concerning the original causes of these dangers,
'and recommended such measures us I bolioved
wouU llttT0 U' c!rct of I'i'liliz'' "'8 country
raving it from the peril iu which it had been
nred!csslv and most unfortunately thrown.
J . . .
inepe l"'"ous una recouimeuuaiions 1 uo noi
propose now to repeat. My own conviction upon
the whoio subject remains unchanged. Tho fact
'that a great calamity was impending ovor the ntt-
.t..n .. .. n u,a.i at ll.nt limrt ai.lr nnwlml i..l 1. onn.
ry uiiui 1 igcu 14 emboli, ji una nniiiuj iiiiiuu tiscii
r.,. .1 ,!, !...., u ) I.I. f l-.5
. - ..
TraJo wa3 partljzeJ( manu.
f . were Btlipt.j. ,iie best publio securities'
, , , . . . m,rka, . snBciea uf nrn.ia
pcry dtfprejill,cj mole 0r less, and thousands of
poor men; who uepeuuuu upou miii. uuujr iauor
f , -r Lrcftd nt)t(J ,urue j ou, of emuluJ:
1 t. t 1.1.
I deeply regret tbat I am not alia to give you
any information upon tho state of tho Uuion
which is mora satisfactory than what I was then
obliged to communicate. Oa the eoutrary, matters
uie still worso at piesent tbuu ihey tbva were.
When Congress mot, a strong hope pervaded Iho
whole publio ciind that soma amicable uJjuotaieut
of tho subject would bo spoedily uuu'o by Iho rep
resentatives of Iho States, which might tenure
peace between the conflicting sections of tho coun
try. Thut bope bas been diminished by every
hour of delay, aud as tho prof poet of a bloodless
settlement fades away, tho publio distress becomes
uioro and more aggravated. As an evidence of
this it is only necestury to say the Treasury note.
authorized by tbo act of the 17th of December
. j : .l j! t... I.l.
a well grounded fear of Civil hostilities, is more
destructive of our publio and private iulerests than
the most forini labia foreign war.
Iu my annual Message I expressed the c'sbvio
tion, whiuii I bave long deliberately held, and
whiob recant reflection bas jnly tended to deepen
an 1 con firm, that n ?talo has tbo right of its own .
net to secede from tbo Union, or throw off its fed-
Lrg'eral obiigaiioin at pie ism s' I olsa dotMntti tut
upm'ton to be that, even if tint right existed, ana
f h ul 1 be exercised by any State in tho Confeder- -
govtiiimctit, is clear ond undeniable. But
tho dances una and h-stiio attitudo of the States
towards eecb other has already traniicnded and
cast into the shade tha ordinary executive duties
already provided for by law, arid has assumed
su.h vast a:id alarming pre portions as to place
aev, too Executive d.i;art.ncnt of this Government
had no authority under the Constitution to rooog-,
ni'ze its validity by aeknowleJting tho indepeVtd;
cnee c,f such State. This left mo no alternative as
the chief executiv. of5 tor under tho totiatttutioa .
of the United State, but to collect the publio reT-
enues ar. J protect the publio properly, so far aa
tins might bo practicable unJer existing laws.
This is still toy purpose. My province is to exe-
..,,. nnt hi khiVii dm Ua. 1 1 htdonirs to congress
.l..c!e.!. i. rot,! mi.riiV. nr nnlarire their
. . . . ... r
provisions t:i meet cliencics as they occur. , 1
j- . I ,i.,;..l ),,l nn
possess no dispensing power. 1 certainly naa no.
riht to ir.ako a;:;jr?f s:vo war cn any State, ond I
am perfectly ratified that l!io Ct-nhtitution ha
wisely wiihhc! I that power even .from Congress..
L'ut tho iiht and tho duty of her militaiy forca
defensively) against those who resist the federal
officers in the exorcise of their legal functions and
agaititt thoto who assnil l!io property of the fed-
the eulject entirely tbovoand bcyoai executive
control. The fact cannot bo disguised that wo are
in the midst of a great reve'.ut'u n. Tl.cuforo, I
commend tho question to Congress, as the orily
human tribunal uudr Provideuco, possessing tbe
power to meet the oxituii';? emergency. To thein
exclusively belongs the power to declare war, or
t authoriza tha cmp! ayincnt of military force
in ail cases contemplated by the Constitution, and
they nbno possess the power 10 remove all the
grievances that might lea I to war, and to secure
penes and ur.it 'i lo tl io distracted countiy. On
then, and ou them alon?, rests the responsibility.
The Uui in is a sacred trust left by our Revolu
tionary fathers to their defcendants. and never did
any other people inherit so rich a logaey. It has
rendered nn prosperous in peace and triumphant
in war. The national flag has ill lated in glory
over every sea, and under its shadow American
citizens bavo found protection and respect in all
lands beneath tha son. If wo descend to consid
erations of purely material interest, when, in tbe
fcivt-erj J-V'iBi-.lAcMW:'b tjti :
together by suilFstrong ties 6f -mWsal rbTerSslT -:
Each par lionlgCKtClJ eiftutJctiTPpojt all, and all
upon each portion, for prosperity and dotaostid
eecuritj; Froo trade throughout the whole sup
plies tho .rants of ono with tbo productions of
another, and scatters wealth everywhoro. The
great planting and (aiming Stales requira tbe aid
of tha commercial and navigating States td send
their productions to domejtic and foreigu markets
and furnish the naval powor to render their trans
portations secure against all hostile attacks.
Should iho Union perish in tho mid6t tf the
present excitement, we havo tlrea Jy had a sad fore
taste of tbo univcrral suffering which would result
from its destruction. Tlio calamity would bo se
vere in every part of tho Union, and would be
quite as great, to say tho least, in thu Southern at
iu tho Northern States.
The greatest aggravation of tho evil and tbat
which would place us in tho most unfavorable
light, both before tbo world und post'e.ity, is, aa I
am firmly convinced, that tho secession movement
has been chiefly based upon if.isapprehcnsioh at
the South of iho eentimento of the majority in sev
eral of the Northern States. Let the question be
answered from tha political ussembHee ta tbe bal-
lot box, uud tha people themselves would speedily
redress the sorious grievances which the Soutii
have Buffered. But, in Hcuveu's namn, Ut the tn
ttl bo mado before we plunge into an armed conflict
upon tho mere assumption tbat there ia no ether
alternative. Time is a great conservative poweri
Let us pause at the momentous point, and effort)
the people, bolb of tho North and South, an oppor
tunity for reflection. WouU that South Carolina
had been convinced of the truth before her precip
itate action. I therefore appeal through yen Id
tho people of tho country to declare in their might
that the Union must and shall be preserved by all
constitutional means. I most earnestly recom
mend that you devote your6olves to the cjucstioD;
how can this be accomplished in peace? AH other
questions when compared with this, sink into in
significance. Tho present is no time for pallia-
Pr.,rt ctS..n U roired. A dela. in
Congress to prescribe or recommend a distinct and
practical proposition for conciliation may drive us
a point ftom which it will be almost impossible
o recede. A common ground on which coooilia
tion ana uarmony may do prouucee, is surety not
unattainablo. The proposition to compromise, by
letting the North bave exclusive control of the
territory above a certain liua, aud to give South
ern institutions protection below that line, ought
to receive universal approbation. Ia itself, in
deed, it may not bo entiroly iatisfaet ;ry( but when
the alternative ia bctweoa reaeotlaulo concession
on both s idee, uud destruction of iLe Union, it is
an imputation on tho patriotism of Congress to as
sort that its members will hesitate a m meat.--
Even now tbe danger ia upon us. Ia several States
which have not yet soceded, tha forts, arsenals s,hd
magazines of the Uuitei States bave been sicted.
This is by far the most s.-rious step which baa
been taken sinco Ihe oomiuoncemeut of tbo troub
les. This publio property has long been left with
out garrisons and troops for its protection, because
no person doubted its security under the flag of
tbe country in any State of lbs Union. Besides
our small army bits scarcely been sufficient id
guard our remote frontiers agaiudt Indiitt iujuN
sions. Tho soixuro of ihiJ pfoporty, from all at
poarunees, Las been purely aggressive, and uo id
resistauod to any attempt to ooeree a State oi
Statos to remain iu tbe Union. At the beginning
uf theso unhappy lioublei I detarniiusd that no
act of mine should iuorease the excitement ia sitt
er section of tbe country. If tbe political conflict
were to ead ia olvll war, it is my determined pur
pose not to oommenco 1 not id furnirb aa tkcuad