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'of British Coal Mines
FROM THE LONDON IJERALD)
THE MINES FOR THE NATION
gahkey and Majority for Ending Private Ownership: All
WORKERS' VOICE IN CONTROL
Today the ener ine sl' IIte coal illislry cnmmi.csion have is
tiued their reports. They are blir in imnhbor, al a miajorit
favors iationalization of the mines.
All the 13 members r'cconlmi.ii ali eiding of theI private
ownerh ip ofl royalties ai wvayleaves.
'T'eln are in favor of haying outit the ro.yalty ownerls. andl
Messrs. Iloldges, Snmillie 11ni Smiilh Iliik no conllpensation)l
Should be Iaid.
Seven iof [lhe 13 nmembers favor natioiii.uilization ofi the coal
mines, five are nlt-aiil-oiil el'cellers oI' pivate owit ershipli
anld Ol e (Siti A irthur Ilicllkhlallii) rl'l oses l) i Imo(llil'iition pro)'b
il.bly suggesled to hilt by (hle carte'l s'ystemI, as seen onii the col
Thile chiii ili rol)uses t.lhal all coal mii es sliouill be take ii
ovoer three 'ttyears h. ce., at a air v alua 1in. nll io i n0111ii while coal
control is to coltinIlle. al.l [lie niachiniiiery of a.diiniistraitioi do
\veloped, whichli couldh operate illidolr nltionaliza.i tion.
All agree that [lie cauise oa f I 'dsiicr d outputlll shiould Ie inivesti
Two impoIlaVnt reservaltiniis are mad. e by thle oilier six slll
p iiters iof nlatioiializutltii. They object to the pIotl'l)sedl re
strictioli oili tli.righll to strike ani they advocate the giving l'
oexteitive powers llto the -il district iiitd nalioial cotuiicils with
re.ree.entatioi till the liles of the minlers ownv bill.
Justice Sankey, chairman of the
1. Coal royalties to be acquired
for the state forthwith, the present
owners to be compensated.
2. The coal mines to be acquired
for the state at a fair value after
thibe years from the date of the re
3. Coal control to continue for
three years, and a scheme of local
administration to be at once applied
-a scheme which would operate
under state ownership.
He argues that ownership of the
coal by nearly 4,000 individuals is a
hindrance to development and causes
losses in efficiency and losses of coal
through unnecessary barriers, drain
The state ownership should be ex
brclsed, he says, through a minister
Sir John recommends that the
Value of each individual royalty own
er's interest should be assessed by
government valuers with an appeal
tb a specially-constituted tribunal.
Such valuers should not take into
consideiration properties in which
the existence of coal is "uncertain
but suspected," not underground
Private Ownership of Mines
)Dealing, with the reasons for state
bwnership ot' coal mines, the chair
iihal says that the other industries
,oid general consumers are entitled
to a voice in decidfik the amount
dld the price of coal to be produced,
which they have not had in the past.
Tllere are in the United Kingdom
abottt 3,000 pits owned by 1,500 com
ittiiies or individuals.
Sir John dismnisses any .attempt. at
ihification under private ownership.
SHe says that':a great change of
outlook has come over the workers,
and it seems iupossil;0e to better the
relationship between-the masters and
the workers with the, present system.
The Feared ILoss of Incentive.
On the other band, he thinks there
is fair reason to expect that the re
lationship between labor and the
community will be an improvement
on the relationship netween labor
Half a centuiy of education, he
says, has produced in the miners far
more than a desire for the imaterial
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advantages of higher wages and s
shorter hours. V
Some people fea.st that state e
ownership might stifle incentive, but,
says Sir John, "I think that the c
danger to be apprehended from the r
certainty of the continuance of the I
present strife in the coal-mining in- s
dustry outweighs the danger arising
from the problematical fear of the f
risk of the loss of incentive." t
Purchase Mines at Fair Value.
Sir John Sankey suggests that the
state should purchase all the col
lieries at a fair value.
In addition, further expenditure i
on development of the collieries (in- a
cluding the provis:on of houses)
should be repaid with interest at 6
per cent, less the profits earned I
As to the coke and by-product in- t
dustry, he says it is a matter for
careful consideration whether this I
should not be alloweC to remain in
The shortcomings of state manage
ment in the past, bir cohn ascribes i
to the neglect of the state to train its e
officials for the work.
He adds the reservation that, un
der state ownership, it is always pos- I
sible to lease a mine or group of I
Functiolns of Pit ('onunittees.
The chairman puts forward propo
sitions (but not as recommenda
tions) for the assistance of parlia
inent in arranging for local adminis
He proloses that the mine shall be
under the control of the manager, as
At each mine a local mining coun
cil shall be set up to advise the man
ager on all questions concerning the
direction and safety of the mine.
The council shall consist of 10
Tmembers, of whom the manager, un
der-nianager, and commercial mana
ger shall be members ex officio.
Fouir uiembers shall be elected by
the wobrkers, and the remaining three
appointed: by the ::1trict mining
The contracts of elpploynmeut of
workmen shall embod.y, Sir John
s!lggests, 4n undertaking that no
workman will conbtine to ent his
contract or cease work unless and
until the question ill dispute has
been before the local mining coun
cil, the district mnining council, and
the national mining council, and
those councils have failed to settle
Linked Up to I)istrict ('ouncils.
It is suggested that the workers
at each mine shall be entitled to an
output allowance to ba ascertained in
an approved manner and divided
among them half-yearly.
The district mining council - 14
districts are proposed-is to consist
of 14 members, equally representing
the miners, the consumers and per
sons acquainted with the commercial
and technical side of the industry.
* Subject to the direction of the
minister of mines, the district coun
cil shall manage in its district the en
tire operation of t.-e mines, prices,
wages and distribution.
The coal may be sold through local
authorities, co-operative societies, or
individuals, and a mnaximumn price
may be fixed for inland sales.
The D. M. C. shall appoint all mine
managers dind commercial mine man
agers within its area.
National Council and the Minister.
Sir John suggestssthat the nation
al mining council, consisting of one
. member for every 5,000,000 toils of
output from each district, elected by
the D. M. C.
The national mining council shall
elect a standing council of 18 to ad
vise the minister of mones. Six shall
represent the workers, six the con
sumers, and six the technical and
It is provided that any exporter to
whom coal is sold for export shall
divide all profits over is. per ton
with the D. M. C.
Among other things Sir John rec
ommends compulsory pit- head baths
and drying arrangements.
Six Supporters, With Reservations.
Messrs. Hodges, , :,ioney, Smilli,.
Smith, Tawney and Webb, in their
report, say they are in substantial
agreement with the chairman's re
They, however, believe it is neces
sary to provide for a fuller represen
tation of the workers on the district
and natidnal council., on the lines of
Mr. Straker's scheme (which pro
vided executive powers for the vari
ous committees, with half represen
tation for the miners).
They disagree with the clauses
limiting the right to strike, feeling
that it would not attain the object
i- aimed at,
They also hold that all coke and
by-product plants attached to col-.
Iferies should be acquired with the
Whatever payment is made to the
owners pending the general acquisi
tion of the mines should not, they
think, be tomputed on the tonnage
Messrs. Hodges, Smillie and Smith
do not agree that a:., ('mlnpensation
should be paid to the royalty owners,
but t.hey, would not objecct to coulpas
sionate allowances to small owners,
who would othdkwise be deprived of
Pl'it-owners Willing to Nationalize
Messrs. Balfour. Cooper, Nimmo,
Allan, Smith and Williams say they
have come to the conclusion that the
nationalization of the coal industry
in any form would no idetrimental to
the development of the industry and
to the economic life of the country.
They, however, recommend the
state ownership of the coal, with fail
and just compensation.
I On the subject of safety they rec
omnlmcnd an improVemelnt in the preos
ent system of rclporting and tahulat
Housing, they agree, should be im
proved, but they think this is a na
tional question, and not one foi col
liery companies specially.
They favor pithead baths, and r
special research branch in tile gov
ernment's new cou2:n:i of scientific
and industrial researt:.
Mines l)epartmennt and Advisory
A mines department is proposed
to exercise the functions of the state,
so far as regards the ownership of
coal, and to take over the work now
done by the home office, and the
ministry of labor in regard to the
This department should be as
1 sisted by an advisory council, on
which the owners, workers, experts
3 etc., would be represented.
It is agreed that household coal
could be more economically distrib
iuted, and it is recommended that
e local authorities should be given
- statutory powers to deal in coal.
They believe it is impracticable
c for the state to carry on an export
trade in coal.
Sir Arthur I)ucklhamt's Modified
Sir Arthur I)uckham condenins
lprivate ownership of minerals, crit
e icises private ownership of mines.
- and attacks thle present methods of
I He believes the workers should
I have full opportunity to co-operate
in the conduct of the industry, that
- they should have better conditions
r and that pit-head baths and drying
s rooms should be provided.
a He advocates state purchase of
A ministry of mines should be set
s up, and an area commission appoint
s ed to investigate and advise on econ
onmy and efficiency in working.
The mining interests in each area,
Sir Arthur thinks, should be amal
f gamated into a statutory company--
a district coal board-with a divi
dend of 4 per cent guaranteed by the
Profits in excess of 4 per cent
should go to reserve funds and to
pdiy a'further 2 per cent dividend.
- eyond that one-third might he used
for further dividend, but the re
e niatinder must be used to reduce the
s price of coal.
Under certain conditions the gov
erinment would have the right to take
over the shares of the district coal
On the board two of the directors
S.shoftld be appointed by the work
L- Pit committees are provided for,
to act in an advisory capacity.
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U. S, ATHLETES
By LAII.WRENCE S. ItAAN.
(United Press Staff l'orrspol:ndent.)
Rio Do Janeiro, Ifly Mail).
Amateur, comnpetitive athletic sports
have arrived in Brazil. and they ihave
.ome to stay. The netsw Blrazilian
.rait was brought out i trngly during
the past month, when lie I razilian
athletes cleaned up inl the entire
program of the South Allelriiin
Sports Confederation behl hei e.
Brazil was returned champio.n in all
3vents, swimmliing, watler Iolo, aeli
association football. the national nia
The victors defeated tille beat :se;'l
here by Argentina, I'ruguacy alna
Chile, and did not lose a single root
ball or water polo gamllle or swimlllling
meet. In the ater lthe Bllrazilians
3utclassedl all competiitors and for
iner crack Almerican anj i British
,wimmers here say the Ilrazilian
swimmers are as good as any proi
luced in the worll.
On the football field, Brazil, aftel
1 hard struiggle, wrested the Ilaurck
fron the liruguayans, twice South
The most noteworthy feature ii
the series of sporting events was not
Brazil's victory, but the great in
terest taken in the sports by tilt
people of all ages.
The gnlames were held on the gl'reat
field of the 1'luntinc nse club. 'fTih
;lub is one of the largest athletit
)rganizatioins on the continent. The
hilge stadiuml seats nearly forty
housand people, and thousands were
-urned away from at least four of
lhe seven big football gamnes of the
A hill, overlooking the playing
field, was black with pleople, much
like the famous Congain's Bluff of
the old days of the Polio grounds in
Twenty years ago outdoor sport
in Brazil did not exist. as it is known
and recognized in the United States
A few folreigners played teninis
Alembers of tile Englih colony
played cricket and a little football
iwhile the handful of Americans spent
their holidays on the baseball
liamnond, and there entertained the
sailors fron visiting Yankee ships.
Brazil is ambitious Lor its atlli
Ictics. The lpeople are not satisfiec
with merely staging a South Ameriu
can chanlmpionshil tournamelnt. l'The
want to make the next meet a Pani
American or even an intertiationa
one, open to the whole world. At
the first step to such a realization
Arnaldo Guinle, director of thli
lFlunlinense club, has asked the co
operation of United States Anlhass,a
dor Edwin Morgan in transmllittinli
an invitation to ihe Bethlehlem Stee
Works Football club to send a tcan
to Brazil, or to provide a leaii of thil
best almateulrs that can be secur'c
in the United States to cnicm down
and play Ihie Brazilians. The Amieri
cans are offered all expenses for thi,
1Mrs. Mapp, Bonesetter.
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.1 setter, she became famed for wollnder
working cures, apparently effclted
SmIore by boldness and personall
strength than by skill. From her
country hone in England, she used
to drive to town once a week in a
coach anld folur, and return hearing
the crutches of her patients as tro
g plhis of honor. The bonesetter's ca
reer was a brief one. Jii 17311 she
was at the height of her power, and
e at the end of 1737 she died so lpoor
that lthe parish was obliged to bury
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