Newspaper Page Text
AN OPEN LETTER TO YOU, MR. PRESIDENT-WHAT'S YOUR ANSWER?
By JOSEPH V. SHARTI'S
Whou vwa onie of the coulsel ftor IEugene V. I leb inl his
trial at Clevelaindi. (Ohio.
Mr. IPresident: 1 do l not put this in the lorn of a
petitiol for two reasons. One is. I doubt if it will ever
reacih youl on your golden t.hrlonei in France as you adl
minister democracy to a crouching world. The olher
is. I tdlo not think there is anything within your ,gif
great enough or smiall eiinoughli fot rule to acelpt. since
you allowed your undecliing tog sentence llgene V.
l)ebs to 10 Years il a feloin's cell.
You were born in Stauntonf . Virginia, in oI56. Mr.,
t'resident. 'T\\o -years later you moved wilth your fiin
ily to Augusta, (G. Your lather. Hev. .loseplh B. \\.il
so0. becamee one ofl the 1most prominent preachers ofl
the south. Andl II oe lwho undetrstan.ds hlisitorial
materialism, this is equlivalelnt to sayilng. ,your f'atther
:allthiough originally from l tlhi wa a stlltau adv-.
evale of chattel s.llverl' :----he cou o ld nt t otheiwtise haive
reltainedi his pfltli tOr popullrirty i lthe t south at that
iWhen the Slavehl ,iders lebellion burst util. aint
armed rebels Mliarcihed againist the Stas a ilit triples.
-yolur father. we are informied by youllr hii'grapher. was
tta string iupholder of the Confit'ederty.
If this m.ieans anlthiing it meani your l'ather. Mir.
P'resident,; opetity advoal\ tedl and t ed tft h.e overthi\\
oft the governmenil t of' the ;niitedl States. fopenly en
fouragedl mile to Itke gulsi t 1 shoult downt America
soldiers \f w\\ere defending the Stars ad Stripes.
W\hat woulh that be under the presetll Espionatttge
a eºbs n tever ld Iihi.t. Xr. l'resiienilt. 1 sat on tie
ptlatfolrrl \wheni lie ltlilde thlit nltllotllt spe ec(Ih iand iiheard'
very word. te S·itid iutlingi abOllut the war; he scored
the pilutoerlais fand their .oliticians: thie iunjiust nlt
R tung J Ztt z trt t
Issued Eery l vening, Eaoept Sunday, by THE BULILETIN PUBL18HING 00.
Eateretd Ba eond-lass Master, December 18, 1917. at the Postffice at Butte, Montana
nPder Act of March 8, 1879. I
PHONES: Business Office. 52; Editorial Rooms, 292
YUSINESl OFFICE AYD EDITORIAL ROOMS. lul SOUTH IDAiBO) STREHET
cOne Miath ................... .75 Six Monthsb. ..................75 t
Three Months ..................$2. By te Year.................
The Daily Bulletin is on sale every day at the following places in Butte.
Jaeques Drug Co.. Harrison and Cobban Depot Drug Store, 828 East Front St.
George A. Ames, Jr., 316 12 N. ain St . O. News Stand. West Park St.
International News Stand. S. Arizona St
Palace of Sweets, Mercury and Main Sta. Harkins" Grocery, 1028 Talbot Ave.
Everybody's News Stand, 215 S. Montana Helena Confectionery, 785 East Park St.
THURSDAY, AUG. 21, 1919.
Come down to the Bulletin office and sign
a monthly pledge :-: :-: :-:
MORE FIGURES ON THE COST OF LIVING.
Yesterday we published sitnistics furnlished by the uited,
7tt.et tlepatlutr ielt of abotr .hi\Viltt tl.lh i thle llDrie oi' ll'"" p' itl'l
t'iattl it'ictles (.1 ftod had in('retasel tithe t llli 8tf per tent siice
lie increise bus lilil ilet(' ill I' dstifiuts allittie as the ftllotw
il:ig ltale co lliletl by -the ui tioUal iiti. strial cunfereite h aurd
These lignuires arte iiased i.li the it.litiiil i amul ifitll tll cl. t - i
inig requih'red by a wo.-kingriTai andi. asi is usually the case with
guores giveli b)y these ' iuplift ' ttgaliizaliittns. thflie estiliules
' ve it .................. iudet
The figures below give the iioferet.e it the aimoluils ie
.Hired i.n 19 ..........and 191:
S 1. t.. it (ots ii
Artiicle 1f il_ M iarc.l.
S it ..... . h e.......................... ... . ).. .llI
ver o e lt .i..i 1.1+.. ......... .... . .... ..... .... .)til
- eavy trotuIset '.i, _.. . .. : )1 i l i.00it
Twoit'\\ sit ...................... . .il 0 3. ,5
T'hrel \\'twtt shirt.s .. ...... ... ........ 1. 1)i0 1. t
Thate pair.s overa.................. . .
Shoes and repair. ....................... 15.511
Eight pairt s h se .. . ............... ....... . 1.0,1
F i v e s e t s l i n i ed e r w e a t t . . .t.. .i.. ..i t t i 7 .-i
Golle. ie nd ti aties t... i.................. . ..... ._ 50 t;.itg
lat s, caps.t - gluo -es .i.i...liti .d llltts. -l5. ll il 8.itt 4
S ntdlU 'ies 3 .... ... ...... .... ... . i 1. (1
All articles .. . ....... .... ... . ..... 1 .1
[Wie do tut believe that iine. I st it l vi as gtiotl e lwe git l fl, lits
workintgnitti even at 191 i. or that he could get alongt with rally
tight pairs fli socks. lThis i is the opiitli, t ,f tlhi e ille usltrial tcoll
f'e.r1ence h) (5'1 silid 1'o1' Jul lp m'.ploses (leie ' somewlo\\ tl stingy es
timnates iarle only s!traoi el, a'gulmentt:t the 5 fact irelai.ts Ithal
the price of clothes ha , adtlva t.ced alaisi! $1) per ('cut in f'ive
years according t, these sl.atitics.
hi order' that the Ilie.- miad not feel slighted we rive the
figures furui hed by this sautle body oil the increase in \Vtltuel'S
wearing apparel. >host iii au lllli 75 per eltit increase il thte
Five year period
t:st ii Co s1 inl
Article 141 i Marth
1 1.4 1)
Coat le suitr ............ .... .. -.$1. $...(.ti
T'wtj (cottinl skirts t..... ........ . ...l. . 31. .7I 3
W\uolent skirt . .?.1t 3.t5
Ftulr W\vaits ................... ....111. i.t
ThIree apruti ....................... .
Two htuse-dresses -............. .... . .. 2.0I 3. 11
Shoes. overxshoes anud repairs ..............(.(5 i 13.0(
Corsets ....... ............. .. ........ 2.00 3.5
Six iol011 suits .......... . ........ 3.. 5 (.50
Muslin Inlderwe r - -- -- ............................ 3.20 . i
Three petticoualts --------.................. ...... 75 3.00
'Th'bree nightgowr.s - -........................ .40 3.85
ftats ........... ...... ......... .......... . ...---- .00 3.61
Gloves ...----------....--------- --------------- 0 3 .0i
Su d ies .............. .......... . ... . .... 3.00 5.00
All artlicles .. ................. ...... ... 58.15 $101.80
Thte estimlate given fur hats ini the abLove t-'ri-es us as beiug
\ictionl off Toni MiiioCe. ]uose ]asior SmStokes. and Kate
Richards I l-.H.re: he dlared I, defendl the I. W. \V.
'fronm the iunirt ous libels of the cap italist press. arid
to exle~ss hi.s sympathy fI'' the iolsheviki of RTussit.
It was fl'or this- -int ,"or iln incitementt to defy the
mirnlates of ihe 'ovecrni eni i that Ile vwas mxiarked
If 'Iene leb dese'rved il' years in ]prison for whalt
lie saiid about ii t nit'-,,l Stales in wartiime.- -what
stouhir your own ilt .' ehav, rceived, Mr. P'resideont?
Ift Mi '. tllaywtll ,i si at in is iiii. n ierl I. W . i W .s (dei
IIserved seI ti'Ii''' at Ill [5i li a ll years atiL Leiv'ln
worih. where .hotil vour 'aihcr have spenit his de
I' Mlli, Stinii r fl tthose iiher' f'our' childt'en were
Jutstly given 1 5 naiud f'. )ears in the luv I.oisuo of the
penite tiary X 'for pfu"sihig haii lbfills iin I'a.vur of peace-
was it jti that ,you father's old age should be spent
iunder the blessedl sOI. breathing the s,'weet. air of ifree
Spei aking of chillren. Mr. }Iresi 'dent. you your isetl I
.were a boy tine ye( s of age w'hen the war elosed.
VOft, hul ,dt'ten -you must Chave trssed up your- cap anul
,elidl vwithl delight iten fhe ,tsoldier's of the (o nl'ed
,'yl mnar'ehed il ba-t. Yes. and very bh.y-like. you nimust
have breathed lthe wish that you. ioi , could shoulder
a. gun aod iinarch' away ito kiill 'Yanks.
W\ihat sort of oflense would that he now. under the
IEspl,iinage Act? Ask ,l.lidge C(la.vton. ,ir any of these
other' ledef'ral ifjdues or' distriilct a'itorc'eys "xwho have
been so Zealousily executing upnti radieals, what they
helieve to he your wish.
A\mlrrgt yor ,boyhood recot'cllection. 'irnd, is one
of seeing .leffer'soin Iavi< riding by. on his way to
ipisIon, at IF'('ortress' Miour,e. nder e'gnard of federal
I el'f'er'sii I a is , on'ce seeml'tar of' war and late
. S. S solnator. had becoime atlie ehi.f' or':gaizeir of
arlned rebelliron agai st the ULinted States; he had Ia-.
the ineiiemhers (t the iiiduAitrial e"lol'eteiece boar'd. 1t is iclim
prehensiile to these worthy Inlies and genitle.Iein that a wile
tof a woikiing lan shitl d even thiiik of beinig dresset as \-el!
as lthe wI ife't i lis n1 lover. biutl it \we skit beforet , this att ti e.
nn l *s th eir figiues the liitore vailuahle.
\\We thaive p.'oved that eliilliii t and tood have lvniia til in
price mloli than S0 pter cent in lithe five yeari s ilice .1 i.
\\iWhat Iot. bee in the pel'enturie of wage iincrease dtuiinle that
lile? t ultaiiies. the lithelie[ taiti of the manuaiiiil w oirkers
imployetd 1byle te mining eolilpalnies i tliis r'il. ireceived
$1.7; ti pe day iln 101 the ciiipanties are paying i.it niowv, ai.
r tise of 1.75 or less thian iti per cent..
.As \va.ge ilncrelses ati it l\tt 1 aitiked hiec'anse iOf a rise in Ihe
ost .1' living. it is apipareni t that the $8 per lay ilemai.ildel iby
lite et].fl "T'railer evans'l, is far front exorbitalt: OiWd N if Ilte
intention ras l 'o prcserve liet prO-war .itotiilarid of living. ic
tendingI tlo ti 'itiirrs l'r.ni .tihel b t lie departmeniii'it of ltiior
niiitl the indui stril ttferemt.'r bhoard,i they w.i.td lsk l miiiii
niti n iiage iof $8.55. this leiiig an i i per cent init".rease in the
We are p-ilr well laware thtl .despilte thlie Ir',testationii.s of
i'he puhli'ity oiiruts of the "lpper inilipai.ies. that wage scales
le niol f'ixed by the cost lof living: that the philani thrah atll
liie lof the cirp.rtalia n lhead] is. all innhiug: we kunoiw that the
wvagis p.al ilt are the aimounts tha the uniions can ir l'e frain the
co.mni iii,.es by thel strength ofl' the ir .gainizati in.
Theose -attisti- are not pthblishtictl with the ihope that they
will softeni the hea.its of the mliline nieiati. They are sit.ply
i .n ld tlt litriieiili of a fact thaIt ino ii rnii iit of speritinl ptlea ing
tiili inla e ol\ be it er"wise. and tol sh... the xork'rs w.hlat thiri
WAIF WITH MEXICO.
v Ili vriili Mexico 1z, i'f'1rtait'l v)ij illil ill 60' ililcv'sl. Most o, then( are,!l
fix thl tilC 21 it ('\ l.t( L Il'cs ill'ývai u neitI,, re th xliito( .'
a1· if;ils 1) \ilatfititl II'('' war hid r'ic'iacl 11wl~ exirt'ionill o
file (\ iiui i t li p r1. j 1RIl
fI fIoi hlc et i Vfti itl' lile ti tll i a,-;l i ull iii Ier ,it l are. Ii tu
hIhi tihe k'liut i f altrl d (I' i a id of tii '111)(` ll-i 1re . pr ass h).leen ll f lo d
Iatii" el Is(l i'S I I r (IIa tIolc ne e . l le t lul-ily he (Oiuitl\ wvitII liiotlgauldi.
It i- Isith sul i 1 1l 'tolv othe flit lCllý litl driveii to
stinglitir to sat.it- flit. "'reed if, [til' I iui iia jif s t \Vifhiilft ai
this,~·R1\t xtit ' ll veiato re Its predict
tes'l' lctif~l_ \lterieaii i I-." Ilie .ils will be, nove
i'ruw\leti I ihai Ihey treile ow' wih fl miidt tutuntillnl whoi will ptrl
fi'! aaoi t wtilis te\iiitoii tIl 'iiuiile of, .k or aaill''ia1 111 M'extitilis s4t
that ~i'Nlit alisfs (1 (itiz'efii It ritiaii 1lily ut-hliit. thei .t'abl~ iolii iioi
[Pna Ittrorofitteelulig ltlny ci-otie Butte 1ieople Some
tinge hut if will & onic withouti ais~islat- Iý t'i-ail a linited Sitat's
ili-trie ttel -iff ov wimi a tcteptedt ai "jro---ri oI 1.U1tiJ fromt Wi.
to flit, I utifed Stafes -nta~te.
Speaiugi of e otifunaits t-oullltatet Ite iceittif of liiiv'e1niti
Ste wart t M( ttuta~l w~itl;hatlif0 It ;\ dilhti har ifNr~th
(Continued From Page One.)
not seriously considered in military
The American force will be with
drawn when search for the bandits
seents futile. Captain Matlack's men
are still in the saddle, with no signs
of abandoning the hunt, according to
latest iodications this morning.
(:AR RANZA ISSUES STATEMENT.
(Special United Press Wire.)
New York, Aug. 21.---"Our relt
tions with the United States are bet
ter each day," President Carranza ot
Mexico was quoted as saying in on
authorized interview published in
"'-avin, passed through a period
of war." Carranza said. "the Amuer
ican people are convinced that we re
malned absolutely neutral during the
epoch. when it would have been to
Mexico's advantage to enter the
war." He said if his administration
"mild r.eteive arms freely froml the
United States, Mexico would be pac
ified by the end of next year. with no
help from the United States beyond
vigilance on" the border.
\WILL SA.L, SEPT. I.
\\abhington, Aug. 21. --- General
Perhlting bhs cabled to the war do
p.rtmle that he will sail for the
Unitt~ l States Sept. 1.
I, - -------------------------- C
Morsels From A
Sage's Scrap Book
Why is ,salt used in freezing ire
c.reain. and, on the contrary. it i
u-cd for thawing out a punlp?
The inieting of salt and ice re
4ltlires frolm somen ourlel what used
to be called the "140 degrees of ca
tori f uidity." When solids beconme
liquid they trust have tblhe heat n.c
,asst for the liquid condition. aend
in freezing ice cream they get it
from the cream, which is cooled down
to congealation point. Affinity 1of
salt for ice promotes that action. It
does the same in the pump, but she
salt water resulting does not con
geal at the coldest point produced by
the melting, and hence may be pump
ed out from the "thawed pump."
Eulletin Want Ads Get
Results. Phone 52
h ftl 111W'M f vei tii I t o M l e mie ill 14105 fi1WdL d t l,
1 i- a ilir ators had caused the deai lii i d hulni(l'dd 01
oh(raili (I' loyal zenl.
4; clnf"tl'aredf he flisltovalty' of lcP1fersolh 1 I', \Davs "ia
doj dr) l V -~i\· ,ay "dislthe 'r lov cV' i'emrnaik, of c ts o 4 social
1.tm .W \\V.,, or a nurch ist~s florin( the tecent 1 va d
\\ hit \wds the4 puriiiiin1irot of Jel fersoni avis.' thisii
ar("h- h ailr· . ihi arch-rebel? He was confined a few
Irhs in F oil ess Mfum oe-and thienreiieaelde'. HIe
w a di i devr indted he was iier tried. He was set
SiaNOiaire Ifi vi nal naiiinoi. Iona nI wf 'iti your
I;iiiitnlin ist ratIic rteniirtlrii of its ('.ri1( NitAre \tuii ot
Illa I-ttlie go"elivci'11 lI oflt I t olned States ay re05son
reh('s'1 ? Y slooirf knotw lo-efttir tan ---ou ANlied
yor iiyhoot arid( yiio \0111 anlong the feniocir a'i beiie
ff1e in ti olitl hu 4ity of 1~fot 1411 lived1 a114d IIluui iCle
I wing the Civil Wall a &isti igijisliodrilelliber. lik tiYouro
faler anu \ol'('f .s of the deniioer'1111e [h trY. ibis
fI lie wa e. i-I~ia I~ri c 0114rly d isitjiar~i've. of the Dr liaft
ac1. "od \rithien President Lincol n. in ftlf~refieiO~sioli
of it11i'd iivliisiu(ii antit ani lufl'risig of iior'thleri doilii
41 If. of fIn sonfl(i. Sirs Jiellt'4l the fIlrivile'g of the wrt~
of irfuofe'' (it~itls. EMr I. \Oaffllidiigll-11 itdeiiunicuid it.~
tie spokef( of ii. dfeiiioeeti-t ra llyV at Mt. A 01144111 O,--,ust,
as01 (Ie lieft. 511i yeiis laterl. stoke( at a soc(ialist I allt
at 4 uutoui (I. There wats onlly I'llis dif tereiice: Va -
1. l i~~I ihriiii topenily i1eitiiiit'd ('esidelt LnI Iolndi as i
I t Irl aind 0 1 lsuefiei--vlleleas D)elb did not eito'zz
you or to(tli Will' mletisures at all.
F:r lhis- Vallauiiifighaiii was arr'ested1 af hon First
Streef rr'sidieiice,. oie Hight h.1 ere at 1) iyhoii an rit aken i
to ( llIiuiinat i. He was tried. foiurir guily----and sei
Li The End of a Perfect Day
nj 1 - e n
A p t) -\
O '----------- O i
Today We Celebrate.
M'ary. Queen of Scots.
Mystery is a charm that never
must. be broken. Not io know the
whole, is the enchantment to the hu
lman mind. At the romantic door on
which is instcrilwd the lamlle of the
beautiful and unfortunate queen, the
interest of the human race will for
ever kllock --in vain. Today we cel
ebrate the arrival in Scotland, Aug.
21, 16til. after anll absence of 13
years in Fralnce of Mary, Queen of
Scots. Beautiful. beseiged by Imen,
brokein-hearted, beheaded. there is
her life in an essence. She was born
to a throne, she ascended a. throne,
i she died on the throne of her pro
testing innocence. The hearts of men
strew thle path of .M\ary Stuart. A
gla!nce of her beautiful eyes----and
men sutccumbted to her. Around her
iname blow eternaliy counter-winds of
detraction, villification, adtilation,
profoundest. admiration, and troubled
query. Mary Stuart was horn in the
big sixteenth century, that butlges on
the map) of the great centuries. She
was the daughter of King James V
of Scotland. This was at the era of
the independent kingdom of Scot
When six years of age the little
Ibeauty was betrothed to the l)auphin
Francis. and immnledialely sailed for
France. Brought tip at the court of
iCatherine de Medici. a court thlat
equalled imperial Riome at its worst,
lit is at marvel that the flower of
Scotland was not utterly wilted in
the fevered atmosphere. Debauchery
and murders were matters of daily
At 15 years of age. in 155S, she
was married to feeble Francis Fran
cis who died two years later, when
Mary s'ailed for Scotlanid. It was on
this voyage that she c-lttposedl the
touching song. bcginnin-g.
"Adieu, piaisant Fcrance---pays de
"vii .t,. t ha t 'o .l out in Scot
-and between John Knox and his
i.. , e Queen Wowager. On
this memorable date--Aug. 21--
Mary first met John Knox. the only
man ever able to withstand her
charms. Their passage of arms is
Ian amullliig hit o' bhit-''t. nia t"" .
esqueness. One can fairly see the
pet.,onages as miet spea".ua.
"Mr. Knox. I atm. you know. Mary
Stuart. queen of Scotland. Do you
not fear mte?"
"Madam. 1 fear God so much that
I have nothing else to fear."
Mary Stuart attached to herself
and the court immediately four love
lv maidents. whom she called ''The
Queen's Marys." and whose romantic
earer like that of their royal mis
tenced toI be cnIfIined during the war!
(,Compare thlat with your adnlinistration's handling
of ilts present-day critics!
luter Preside int Iincoln. culling himi a "wi l ai
.tator,' Culnm-uted this sentence to tranispurtation into
the Conf'ederate lines.
Yoni administration has been trying its Ihad at de
portation lately. \We are informned you eonte mplale
shippingl away several thousand radicals. snatelie."
suddenly enly d o n secretely from .heir wives, litle:
ones. and friends, to he seut peiniless into ,other laIds
across the sea. where many of them will he hlung.
P'erhaps you feel that Iincoln was Ltoo 'easy"' in
deualing with his public oppolnents.
But now. Mr. President. in calling your attention,
to these Imatters I have been sir'red by ithe thougllh
thal von. as a studlent o.f historyi. yourself a \'riler 0i
history.' must knoin; thal the 'ryl Heel is arauunah -
runism: is a clumsy miakeshifit generally diserediled
ever since 3isna.rtk made his stnpenlldous effort i it aid
Istiupendous failure to crush socialism in £Germany. For
every radicaul vyo clap into jail you make :?0 who ' fee
th1.! sllh 4a llyrdomn is luliic.ative of a great and vital
Struth. For every radical yon deport you stir up a
lIlllured who re(ognize ii tIhatl the typical It (li(s ,of
IIors Una despots of all ages and of all laids.
l lay 1 nt suggest 1hat. with the red wave rullin.g
s5 tireiniclutusly wesItward fronm Rulssia. ilreiudlv in
ulndating Alustria. Ilounlania, Gernaaiy. breaking in.lo
italy-. inlo Falnce. into Eiug iltndli--- iud the allied g,,,v
ernmlents already breathlless ian bankruplt from.u the
wuorld war. it mi'ght be miiore sttatCes1mIulike. inure ll'l -
denilt. lore cmiducid v to thhe lie-al tl and safety of the
calaitalist c(lass and middle class in the periluis dla)s
to ctarne, it xout were to thriow wide lopen the prison
h(o rs andl bidl all these lpolitical prisoners an.id texiles to
i'ule for1th where the t wa.imn siali'ghit nll fresh breezes
may cleanse front their minds the ri.slna. of revenge
tress, hrurns as a tear upon tilhe cold
cheek of history forever. The bril
liant young courtier who accom
panied her from France to Scotland,
Chasterlard, was the first of her vol
untary victims. He expiated with his
head ,the offense or misfortune of
being detected at night in her apart
ments. Two years from the death of
Chastelard, she gave her heart at
first sight to her kinsman. Lord
Darnley. Tihe two were married in
secret at Stirling castle. with Cath
olic rites, in the apartment of her
secretary. t)a rid Rizzio. Darnley
was a miserable fellow. and incurred
the anger of two powerful earls of
Scot land, probably a matter of jeal
ousy over the charms of Mary. In
trigue folliowed utpont intrigue with
alarming consequences. The besot
ted Darnley, conniving with the pow
erful Earl of Bothwell, Rizzio was
murdered at night at the Palace ot
Holy Rood in'lEdinburgh. in the very
presence of the queen, and dragged
to the entrance of the queen's apart
There still is snown at Holy Rood
the authentic and dark stains in the
open floor of Rizzio's blood at the
doorway. The slayers of the hapless
Rizzio fled to England, and Darnley
succeeded in protesting his innocence.
A son was born to Mary, afterwards
,tames V1 of .cotland and I of Eng
land, at Edinburgh castle, whither
she had fled from Holy Rood under
an escort of 2.000 horsemen, con
ducted by the fatal Bothwell. In
trigues. flights, successes, sparkling
days, troubles with Elizabeth of Eng
land, assassinations, splendor, devo
tion of court.iers, abandonment by
them, imupri:onnuent in Lochleven
castle on the island of Lochleven, dis
guises, escapes, fears, errors, follow
in such anu;t ing and rapid succes
sion that. grave lhitorians confess
themselves bewildered as they at
tempt to explain her life.
The Earl of Bothweii succeeded in
his suit, and Mary divorced the mis
erable Darnley. only to go to the
arms of a more dangerous partner,
who seemed to have fascinated her
as does a serpent charm his prey.
Scotland now rose against her and
the fatal huothwell. In a moment of
despair this brave, quick-witted, re
sourceful and utterly courageous
woman, threw herself on the mercy
of Queen Elizabeth of England. Her
fatal mistake! Elizabeth, the power
ful. the relentless, nlot only jealous of
Mary's beauty and enslavement of
men. but possessed of the horrible
year that Mary. granddaughter of
Henry VII. was the real and legiti
mate heir of the English throne, and
not herself. daughter of Henry VIII,
through his scandalous romance with
Anne .uoleyn. imprisoned Mary for
20 years. At her. trial,with no ad
vocate to plead her cause, Mlary con
ducted her own defense. She was
found guilty of "conniving at the de
struction of Elizabeth," and was be
headed in 1547.
The first demand of labor unions
for an eight-hour working day was
macle at a convention held in Balti
more 53 years ago today, Aug. 21,
1866. This congress also marked the
first attempt to organize a national
federation of the various trade
unions, national and international,
then existing in the United States and
Canada. One hundred delegates
were present, representing about 60
organizations. The demand for the
eight-hour day was but an incident
in the sessions of the congress, buit
at succeeding gatherings it assumted
greater importance, and became the
leading plank of organized labor's
platform. The second convention
was held in Chicago in 1867. The
National Labor union. after meetings
in Boston. Philadelphia and Colunm
bus, went out of existence in 1 74,
but at an international congress held
at Rochester in that year, the move
ment was revived under other names.
Several organizations divided the al
Igiance of organized labor, but in
1881 the Federation of Organized
Trades and Labor Unions of the
United States and Canada was
launched, and out of this has grown
the powerful American Federation of
a - - - - - 0
Mary Lyou wan born in Buck'and,
Mass., on Feb. 2S. 1797. Her father.
a poor farmer, died about the tiume
she began attending school. A.-.
though she could not see where the
money would come from, at the early
age of 12 she had the definite pur
pose of becoming a. teacher. She ob
tiaihed what was in her day an ad
vanced education for a woman to
possess. Though Miss Lyon was with
out funds, and there was no school
of the kind ever before attempted.
she succeeded in founding Mount
HIolyoke seminar) for girls, the cor
ner stone of which was laid on Oct.
3. 1863. The seminary was planned
for the middle class, and the cost of
sending a girl for a year to Mount
Holyoke was from $50t to $100. in
cluding tuition and board. She died
on March 5. 1849.
u..etia., suoseters Should patronize