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ME M P H I S .
TUESDAY MORNING MARCH 17, 1857.
CHIEF JUSTICE TANEY'S DECISION THE
SOUTH SECURED IK HER RIGHTS. j
We have previously spoken of this impor
Unfadjudlcation. Tbis raorning we publish In
full the learned and imposing opinion of the
Supreme Court, as pronounced by Chief Jus
tice Taney, in the Dred Scott case, which,
by reason of the Important principles involved,
has recently clajmed so much of the atten-tion'ofXhe-press.
It is said that the venerable
'Justice who gave the opinion of the Court, has
signified his desire to retire from the Bench,
but was unwilling to surrender the trmint
which he had honored and dignified for near a
quarter of a century, until he had entered ot.
record his opinion upon this, the most important
subject that has ever come before the highest
judicature of the United States.
It will be observed that two important points
were decided: one having reference to the con
stitutionality of the Missouri Compromise, and
the other the citizenship of the wgro, and his
right to appear as a party ia the Supreme Court.
Both points are adjudicated in the nervous and
conclusive manner for which the Chief Justice
has ever been remarkable, which, while it
strengthens the Southern States by giving assu
rance that the Constitution is to be faithfully
administered, will also go far, if anything can,
to give quiet to the slavery agitation.
Yet it must not be supposed all the fanatical
agitators will abide by this decision. The fol
lowing taken from the New York Tribune, indi
cates the revolutionary course which some of
them are prepared to take;
" The Slavery question has at length found
Its way into tee Supreme Uoart jn ail its length
and breadth, and that body has fully justified all
predictions and all anticipations that the sys
tem woukl find tnerein a borne and a bulwark.
The members of that body have done for it all
that it was ever alleged they would do by those
wno, lite Jolin r. line, iiave always consider
d and characterized that Court as the ' Citadel
"Alas! that the character of the Supreme
Court of the United States, as an impartial ju
dicial body, has gone ! It has abdicated its just
functions and descended into the political arena.
Jthas sullied its ermine; it has draggled and
pouaieu 11a gyjmenis in me liiia or iro-aiaverr
1 ; , : T u : i .v. -. . . ,
uiiud. xiuiu uiib ui) loriu ii must suna in
the inexorable judgment of impartial history
as a self-disgraced tribunal. And from this
day forth it will be one of the ereat and
leading aims of the people of the Free States
to obliterae the shameful record, and undo
what it has done. What has been done will be
undone. For that Court, instead of planting
kmu upon me immutable principles ot justice
and righteousness, has chosen to go upon a
temporary and decaying foundation. If there
is such & thing as Eternal Justice in the Uni
verse, that foundation must crumble and fall,
and carry an wno repose upon it into inevitable
"The Court decides that the Constitution of
the United States recognizes property in man,
and that under it and by force of it, human
Slavery is nationalized, and must be protected
and defended in its spread and perpetuation
whithersoever that Constitution is carried and
is legitimately in fores.
GEN. JOHN A. QUITMAN.
We were, says the Philadelphia Argus, look
ers-on at the grand Inaugural procession which
escorted Mr. Buchanan to the Capitol, on the
4th of March. The display of military ex
ceeded asythiBg we ever beheld. There was
one feature, however, about it, which filled
every -American who looked on with pleasure.
It was that the brave and gallant veteran,
Qbitman, had been assigned the position of
Commander-in-Chief of the military cortege.
The well arranged column was attributable to
the keen military precision with which tbis
ebleftiaa had marched them into line. There
he sat es a fifie gray horse, clothed in full mili
tary MiferBijWith all the trappings of a Major
General, the most complete specimen of a gen
eral we ever beheld. We heard an officer who
W2B ia Mexico with him say that "he had seen
that old general, (pointing to General Quit
iian as he headed the column of military,)
march i&to the battle of Cerro Gordo with as
amch coolness as he was then heading those
regiments on a peaceful inarch to the Capitol."
We regarded Geu. Quitman and command as
the ha&diomfst part of the whole affair.
On the 13th inst the U. S. Senate con
firmed Isaac H. Stubqeon as Assistant Trea
surer at St. Louis.
(fpTLe Governor of Ohio has commuted
the sentence of James Summons from death to
Imprisonment for life.
3 Dr. D. F. Skith, charged with the
murder of Dr. Blackburn, at Cairo, has been
The dwelling house ot Mr. James G.
Harrison, in Lincoln county, was totally de
stroyed by fire oa the night of the 9th inst.
g"JoHX L. Buckley, President of the
Corn Exchange, died at New York suddenly on
.the 13th inst.
fcS The Democracy of Henderson and Wil
son counties have declared themselves in f avor
of Hon. Iskam G. Harris for next Governor.
The Democratic State Convention of
Louisiana will be held at Baton Rouge, on the
18th of May.
(jy The Emperor of RuBsia, according to
the Paris correspondent of the London Xetct
will visit the capital of France in April.
gy The dwelling and out-houses of Txft-
ke Wesson, Esq., in McNairy count)-, were
entirely consumed by fire on the night of the
Captain Gould and Mr. Ciias. II,
Lee, were robbed at the St, Cloud hotel, Nash'
ville, on the 10th inst., of $30 or $40, and a
gold watch valued at $150.
g5r The brick church property, in New
York, offered to the government for a post
office, sold on the 13th init., for $360,000, the
owners reserving the corner lot.
Hons. Samuel Medart and J. Patton
Andeuon were confirmed by the Senate on the
11th inst., as Governors of Minnesota and
Among the confirmations by the U. S.
Senate, on the 13th inst., were those of five
senior commanders of the Navy to be Captains;
seven senior Lieutenants to be Commanders,
and all the Mastery, with four Midshipmen, to
Furniture tor the Exzcutive Mansion,
Ax. Congress, ere adjourning, appropriated
$20,000 to renew the furniture of the Executive
Mansion; also, $11,000 for the repair of the
public grounds in Washington city.
OS?" Mr. Pickens, a respectable citizen of
Maury county, was murdered a few days since.
He was found dead upon the highway, from
pistol wounds, where he had fallen from his
hone. The act was committed in the open.
day, as me deceased was returning from Co
lumbia to his home. The murderer has so far
Murderer Arrested. Some time since we
referred to the murder of Mr. Norcross, a cit
izen of Mississippi, by a man named McKim,
near Altona, Pennsylvania. From the follow
ing dispatch it will be seen that the murderer
has been attested ;
"Bloomsbubg, Pa., March 12. McKim, the
murderer of Norcross. was arrested yesterday
afternoon by Aaron Wolf, at the Long Pond,
on North Mountain, in Luzerne county. He
was brought to Bloomsburg and put in jail last
tilnhf Mr TVOf 9 i'itu.r In hi. hxA
when he arrested him. McKim made r o re
sistance. On the way to Bloomsburg he ac
knowledged to Mr. Wolf that he was the man i
fraveliugwith Norcross." 1
Kkow-Notiung Candidate for Congress.
A correspondent of the Panola Star, under the
signature of "Belmont," suggests Col. Jas. L.
Alcorn, of Coahoma county, as a suitable per
son to head the Know-Nolhing battalion (not i
,. ,., , ... M
"corporal's guard" as some have supposed) in
Vnrth Miaiiiilnni. Ar.roiiif is. neriiaDS one 01 I
the very ablest men Know-Nothingism may
boast of In North Mississippi, but it is a mat
ter of serious doubt whether he has the power
to collect together and consolidate the scattered
fragments of bis party so as to make even a re
spectable opposition to the conquering hosts of
the Democracy. Whoever consents to take the
position of Know-Nothing candidate for Con-
gress in the First District, must most assured-',
ly have first obtained his own consent to be-!
come an apmui iui utj ua.su . "
in Congress. Strange as it may seem, such de
feat has been regarded in the First Dislrict as
auhonorjand to prove this it is only necessa-
ry to mention the fact that the First District ;
has never yet been represented by a Whig nom- ; vested that there is no hope for them but sur
t, alrhough the Democracy for near a quar- I der. On the 16th we cut from under their
. , . ; camion the steamer . N. Scott, the largest
ter of a century have encountered opposition. . d finMt boat on lLft r-Tef Some
Shields L. Husset, 1.eq. J.M gentleman,
the efficient and trustworthy incumbent of the 1
offlre of State Treasurer. is, we learn, a candi- i
date for re-nomination, which is equivalent to
r.lwlfnn in MissisiiDDl. If the State Con
, . ... ....
vention should adopt the policy of retainin
the present SUte officers, we are confident that
me precui o.ic "'"')
they will most cheerfully avail themselves of
Mr. Hossey's services. Col. M. D.,Haynes,
. ir.. u QMffri.id for the same of-
Hon. D. B. Wright. The Hernando Prttt
runs up to its mast head the name of this dis-
tin,t.h and unconouerable D?mocrat for re-
election to Congress in the First District. He
has been twice elected to Congress in the first
instance against the Union Aumiug, and in the
second against the still greater imposture of
Know-Nothingism. His course in Congress
has been so eminently acceptable to his con
stituents, that, judging by the tone of the Mis
sissippi press, no objection will be offered to
his re-nomiuation, should he desire it.
Calhoun Democrat. This paper is offered
for sale. It is published at Pittsboro. The
proprietors say that the location is advanta-
zeou. and that the paper has a good subscrip-
tion list. A bargain is offered in it.
Incendiarhm. TheVicksburg l'his,ot the
12th inst., learns that a daring attempt was
made the day previous to fire the frame build
ings adjoining Prof. Young's Female Academy
in that city.
Hon. A. B. Dilworth. The Jacinto Rt
pMicah takes ground for this gentleman as a
candidate for Secretary of Stale, an office which
he has filled most acceptably to the people.
Democratic Meeting. The Democracy of
Tishomingo held a meeting on the 23d inst. to
appoint delegates to the State and District
A New Papsr. Mr. B. F. Owen has pur
chased the lrgut office at Houston, Miss., and
changed its name to that of The Pttrtl, after
the bird of that name whose appearance, mari
ners say, betokens an approaching storm. The
Pttrtl thinks that the Union is only kept to
gether by the election of James Buchanan as
President, How fortunate it is, therefore, that
the people have made such a selection.
Masonic Tribute to the Memory or
Mathew Owens. The Little Rock True
Democrat contains a series of resolutions passed
by Yell Lodge No. 64 on the 17th ult, in regard
to the untimely death of Mr. Mathew Owens,
of Marion county. The resolutions set forth
that he was murdered by Calvin Coker, with
out provocation on the 7th of February last,
and pay an appropriate tribute to his memory.
The deceased was born in Claibourne county,
Tenn., and emigrated several years ago to
Madison county, Ark. He leaves a wife and
four children to mourn his loss.
High Water. We learn that a large ex
tent of country, below the mouth of the Ar
kansas, is oversowed the levees having bro
ken in many places. Arkansas river was very
high at ihe last accounts. Ileltna Shield, 14A
The same paper speaks in the highest terms
of commendation of Mr. W. B. Gaw, recently
appointed by Gov. QonwaV to the office of
Swamp Land Commissioner at Helena.
Liquor Sellin6 in the Indian Country.
Hon. A. B. Greenwood, has introduced a bill
in fie House of Representatives, to remedy the
defect in existing laws in regard to punishing
persons for introducing spirituous liquors or
wines into the Indian country.
... . . - -,
n e copy me roiiowing rrom me uuie nock
True Democrat, of the 10th inst:
" Supreme Court. We state, for the infor
mation of those interested, tint the Supreme
Court, on Saturday last, decided the case of
Maxwell vs. Moore", involving ih title to the
town of Searcy, in White county, in favor of
the defendant, affirming the judgment of the
Court below. We understand that the appel-
ant will sue out a writ of error to the Supreme
court of tne united Mates."
Found Dead. The Eutaw Obterrer of the
6th says :
"Yesterday an inquest was heM upon the body
of a man, found upon the lands of Dr. Alexan
der, some four miles from Eutaw. It was
identified as the body of Mr. Carter Roden,
who left here on the 15th of January, in a state
of lunacy. It is supposed he died from star
vation, or tint he was frozen."
The following gentlemen were elected as
Intendant and Coui.cilmen of the town of Tuj
kegee on the 2d inst.:
Intendant F.' M. Lagon.
Councilmen Milton Stevens, E. M. Moore,
J. M. Swan s on, LittJebury.Strange.
Cotton Factory Burned. We regret to
learn, fro n the Tuscaloosa Observer, that the
cotton mill of Hardy Clements, Esq., in the
immediate vicinity of bis residence in that
county, some eighteen miles East of Tuscaloosa,
with all its contents, was burned on Thursday
night last The amount of property destroyed,
is estimated to be about thirty-five thousand
dollars and not being covered by insurance, is
a total ksjt
Sudden Death. The Mobile Register, of
the 26th ult, records the sudden death, in tha'
city, on the day previous, of J. W. Rice, Esq.,
at the residence of his father-in-law, Judge
Hopkins. The deceased was setting up
versing with his wife and a female friend who
had called in, when he complained of pain
bis chest, and in a moment afterwards was
seized with a convulsion which terminated his
life almost instantly.
Mr. S. S. Taylor has been elected
Mayor of Cairo, Illinois.
Appointments by the President. The
f tllowing appointments were confirmed by the
Senate on the 12th inst:
J, C. Ramsey, United States Attorney for the
Eastern District of Tennessee; Wm. M. Lowry,
United States Marshal for the Eastern District
of Tennessee; Jesse B. Clement, United States
Marshal for the Middle District of the same
State; Joseph S. Smith, U. S. Attorney for
Washington Territory; J. H. Harralson, Sur
veyor of the Port of Selma, Ala.; Orin L.
Cochran, Postmaster, Houston, Texas; John L.
Buck, Postmaster, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; A. H.
McKIssick, of Arkansas, Indian Agent for the
Wychetas and the neighboring tribes west of
the Choctaws and Chickasaws ; F. S. Lovejoy,
of Miss., Attorney for the Northern District of
that State, in place of Mr. Orr, resigned ; Jas.
W. Nesmith, Superintendent of Indian Affairs
for Washington and Oregon Territories ; H. C.
Lowell, Register of the .Land UiUce of Minne
sota; Wm. E. Mustaphy, Indian Agent for the
rouawoltomle Indians; Jr. .Livingston, col
lector for the District of Fernandina. Florida:
Joseph Genois, Naval Officer at New Orleans;
vm. v. nay burn, Additional Appraiser Ciene
ral ; J. J. McCermlck, Appraiser of Merchan
dise at New Orleans: F. II Hatch. Collector
for the District of New Orleans: Joseph L.
ioiuns, inuian oupenntenuent in XSew Mexico;
Elias S. Dennis, Marshal for Kansas lerrilorv:
Hampden McClanahau, Marshal for the West
ern District of Tennessee : John Walker. In.
dlan Agent for New Mexico,
r.-oatha N. O. Delta, Match 11 J .
till RECENT ESGAGXUtSTSr
The W. I. Royal Mail steamer Trent ar
rived at Aspinwall, from San Juan del Norte,
on the 21st ult.
Tl I! 1 - t i . - L . . ....In
rarucuidm m me recent cncaiicujeiiin aic
" . .
envon In Ine mrrennniulenr nf the Asnlnwall
j Courier, and the statement of the purser of the
. r . .
Castillo, February 17. Mr. Editor : On
the 13th of this month, at 0 a. m., we opened
the ball with the enemy in fine sryle; three
brass six pounders and 250 rifles, sending our
friends in and about Serapiqui a pressing invi
tation to leave for home. In ten hours we threw
400 round shots among them, knocking the fort
amj houses to pieces, and making it too hot for
Costa Rican courage to withstand,
tby eyac'iaUd the fort, leaving 4 bis
35l Minnie rifles, a large quantity of p
ami amunltion, ard all their wounded. At day
l'gbt on the 14th wc took possession, and the
same evening our little boat, (Ihe fescue-,) with
150 men. started for Castillo, arriving on the
Tilth. We put off the preater nart nf !h n
emv fCOmthe fort, which is now so clo.elv In
prisoners tell us that the enemy have no pro
The poor prisoners are isgrateful for a good
raeai of victuals as men can De: tntir wound
ed are receiving the same rations and treatment
as our own men.
Our loss atSerapique was three killed and
J ei en wounueu-iue enemy leic seventy Kii.eu
and forty wounded in the fort. The forces
were nearl e , our number having been
i 410, and that of the enemy 430, as we ascer-
tained by their own muster rolls.
'As so6n as the prisoners are able, they will
, be furnished with canoes ana allowed to go
; nome as tne great part of them have been
! pressed into the army. To-morrow, February
i 18th our gus, (now9 six pounders,) will open
on tne last Hold UoBta iuca nas on me can
Juan river, and fall it must.
In haste, yours, &c,
P. S. I forgot to state our killed and woutd
ed at (Jastillo were Killed, 1 ; wounded, J.
San Juan del Norte, Feb. 18, 1837.
On the 13th two deserters from the Walker
party arrived here, and on the following day
tnree more ; they reported tne Costa Kican
at Serapiqui strongly fortified, and as having
successfully restated several attacks.
On Monday last the news reached here lint
Serapiqui was it) possession of Colonel .Loci:
ridge, having been abandoned by the Costa
Ricans on the Saturday morning previous, after
. . r. . tit -ii 1...
a licit.!; uauiiuiiauc iiuui luc ituhci Jailjr vu
Friday, and that Colonel Lockridge had pro
ceeded up the river to take the frt at Castillo
Yesterday the iJejctre arrived down here wii
Colonel Lockridge ami iiveral officers, but, as
usual, very little information could be obtained
from them; four men, taking advantage of cir
cumstances, left tne Hiacue at rontu Arenas,
and are here now. They, with several others
leave here on the English steamer. The first
rumor was, that Castillo and one or two steam
era were taken, but from the last information
the present state of things seems to be that th
Costa Rirans have burnt all the houses at Cas
tillo, and also the river steamers which were
below the Rapids, and are in possession of the
tort. Tne lletcve, after taking on board some
provisions, &c, returned up tne river aain
Before 'leaving, Colonel Lockridge posted th
following proclamation m various places in
Notice To the citizens of Nicaragua am!
all whom it may concern : Having succeeded
in opening the San Juan river as far as Castillo
Rapids, I now inform all those who with to
pass or trade on the river that I offer the fullest
guaranty that they shall be protected in their
rights, property and persons, on all occasions
which I have promulgated aa orders to all who
are subject to my control to be strictly carried
I make the proclamation from the fact that
evi'-disposed persons and enemies of the Re
public of Nicaragua have accused me of the
most heineous -crimes, all of which are false.
I come to restore tranquility and peace to
Nicaragua, and not to molest peceable and
well-disposed persons or any nation, save
those belonging to the Central American States,
witn wnicit we are now at war.
S. A. LOCKRIDGE,
Emigration Aeent for the Republic of Nica
ragua. Done at Castillo Rapids, tbis 17th
Feb., A. D. IS57.
The proceedings of Col. Titus and his men
after taking possession of Codj'd Point, on
I the 7lh ult, are thus detailed by Lieut. Col
E. II. McDonald:
The next morning, Com. DeBrlssot and
volunteer called "Kentuck" went over in a ca
noe, pulled down the Costa Rica flag and hoist
ed the "Lor.e Star" cf Nicaragua all the ene
my having abandoned the point in the night.
IT 1 . ' r I fin .. . l t T i : .
kets were left scattered on the ground. Col.
Frank Anilei son's command crossed in th
steamer and took possession of the enemy
works, rhattles, i:c, finding thirteen dead
bodies in the principal fort, probably all killed
by the artillery of Gen. Wheat. Fifty men of
tins command were detatcnedTor burying m
dead of me enemy, wmcu -i mounted to mirty
three. Persons taken said they had been bad
ly treated and worse fed, livirg on beans and
t Luaiuaum aium:. ntc pieces u
alone. ive pieces or artillery
. four bra8, c a iece - anJ one iro 9 - nd
piece, with corresponding ammunition, were
found; also fifty thousand rounds of Mini
rifle cartridges in good condition, and a largi
quantity of damaged ammunition, 1ZW pairs
pantaloons, 4U busuela of beans and o barrel
j of salt, but enough kettles and pans for ten
The same night the steamer Rescue, or Filli
buster, as-some of the boys call it, took up th
forces of Col. Titus and one 4 pound run to th
Island of San Carlos, which waa taken without
any resistance; the boat returned to Serapioui
and took up all the stores needed at the above
post, and then proceeded up the river in pursuit
of the steamer Charles Morgan, which had
gone on with the news of the Costa Ricans
having left Serapiqui. The latter boat had
four hours start, and tbe Rescue came in sight
of, ner just as sue went over Castillo Kapids.
The Costa Ricans had tar and rosin on the
steamer Scott and Cacanuca and all the build
ings of the town. At the moment the' saw
the Rescue they set fire to the boats and build
ings, and at the same time they opened a heavy
fire of round shot and grape from the fort on
the hill. The lower fort on the river was
takn by storm by Captain West's company, of
Col. Titus' command. Four men jumped from
the steamer, swam against a six-mile current,
cut loose and saved the steamer Scott, although
the machinery was very much injured. All th
furniture and bedding of the National Hotel
were saved. All other houses, with all their
contents, were destroyed. ,
In tiking the fort,' the enemy lost forty-five.
while we only lost one, killed.
Tbe Costa Ricans are still fifty strong on th
high fort of Castillo, cut off from water and
provisions, and surrounded by our forces. On
the 18th the fort was to have been taken by
storm. By this time that is done, and commu
nidation has been established to Walker.
E. h. Mcdonald,
Lieut Cul. 2d Rifles.
Mr. Jewry, the purser of the Trent, gives
some important informatiqnv He says:
The Royal Mail steamship Trent arrived at
Grevtown on me lim tel., and found there
the British men-of-war, the Cossack, Tartar,
Victor, Pioneer and Intrepid. The Orion had
gone to Pearl Bay in consequence of the unsafe
anchorage outside, ner draugnt of water ueln.
too great lo permit her coming into the harbor
the crews are said to be all healthy
After the capture of the river boats the other
day, Mr. Scott tne agent, wun surprising speed
and energy, prepared a boat (called the Res
cue) and dispatched her up the river, but from
her not having returned, reasonable fears were
entertained of her Having raiien into tne nanus
of the Costa Ricans, but which were dispelled
by her making her appearance.
Ou Sunday news reached Grey town that Walk-
r hail rennnneasea UimBeuoi ojuuiqui : ll um
the inquiries I have made of those there, it
would appear that, on the 13th, Walker's party
attacked that place about o a. m., wuu a iorce
of 200 men and two nine-pounders, the Costa
Ricans holding on till about tne same time me
fnllnwiner ilav. VlDeil mey evacuai.ru, nau
W!,iL-r neonla took possession after sustain
im a ins, of two men killed and three wounded.
t rom a statement or a pnconur ui uusjuiai,
. . . . . - t k 1.
appears the Costa Ricanshada loss of fourteen
killed and about twenty wouaaeo.
The Riscut, above referred to, confirmed the
Ssrapiqui accounts, and brought further news
of the fall of Castillo into the hands of Walk
er's people on Monday, with a loss of eight
killed and twenty wounueu ; ii sunjctium.
the Costa Ricans lost not fewer than thirty
t nrn lriii and oivtv wounded i sotot of the ac
counts say many more. They also repossessed
themselves of the steamer J. N. Scott, but her
machinery had been so much injured that they
were unable to bring her down till repairs are
effected. The Riscut had on board Colonel
fLockridge, who came down for provisions
of wnicli mere are an airanuance aifiticunii
Greytown. The British naval authorities'
here are jireventlug recruits from being!
forcibly compelled to join Walker, who claim 1
their protection. Some yery'dfegraceful scenes ;
are at timeB enacted on boardlhosSriver boats.
It was only the other day a man's cries of mur
der awakened the attention of the commander
of the Victor, (moored over by Scott's factory)
uu unpovercu mai uc iiaa neen threatened
with his life, and a pistol held at his head for
protesting against going up lo fight. Of course
the interference had the effect of rescuing the
man, anu auuui iiueeii outers, wno rell out 01
the ranks, upon their being mustered at the de
sire of the naval authorities. A renort also
was aflnat that two Englishmen had been
hanged on board the last river boat that went
up, in consequence of whi h Captain Cock
burn, of the Vouack, at present senior naval
officer, detained Colonel Lockridge and the Ra
cut, on her arrival yesterday, until he fully in
vestigated tlie case, and after rescuing three
men claiming uruisn protection, he allowed
them to proceed, Tnuppose, being satisfied of
the falsity of the report,
The Aspinwall Couritr adds : We have also
another statement in private letter, declaring
Serapiqui, Castillo and ban oarios to nave
been taken by Walker's forces. This last ac
count elves the number of killed and wounded
4s follows: 7 killed, 10 or 12 wounded, of the
fillibusters; 100 killed, uu to 230 wounded, or
the Costa Ricans.
We are informed that among the papers ta
ken at the fort were dispatches signed by Gen.
Mora, and addressed to President Mora, suppli
cating for reinforcements, and declaring it im
possible for him to hold on much longer with
out tn em
FnoM the South Pacific. The Pacific
Steam Navigation Company's steamer Nob
Granada arrived at Panama, February 2l8t.
From Peru we learn that Castillo has taken
Paita and Pura. We are alao informed that
the mission of the Ministerto Lica, from Costa
llica, wno went to negotiate a. loan Has been
unsuccessful, ana considerable bail feeling nas
been engendered by the conduct of the Minis.
ter, and the treatment of him by the Peruvian
. We take th following from the Valparaiso
3fertury, of the 31st of January : " Through
the representations of a young.gentleman, Mr.
William Cox, Government has decreed the or
ganization of a party to explore the river Rio
Negro, in the South, by which, according to
traditional rumors, a water'communication may
be found uniting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
With this object an expense of 3410 has been
decreed; but that, convinced of its insufficiency
for the object proposed, Government intends
increasing tne sum in or.ler to insure the suc
cess of the expedition in all respects.
Bolivia. Our last advices state that Re
public to have remained in peace after the
revolutionary attempt which was discovered
and overcome in time.
Brazil. The yellow fever was ravaging the
country, and on this account the ships arriving
thence at Montevideo and Buenos Ajers were
subjected to quarantine.
From Bogota. The Aspinwall Courier, of
the 27th ult.. publishes the following:
On the 27th and 23th of January, Mr. Morse
was presented to the Secretary of Forei ;n Af
fairs and the Acting President of this Republic,
but no ' definite understanding had transpired
from these interviews. Congress met on the
first of February. The President's Message
and the reports of the Secretaries had been re
ceived and published. The message takes the
position heretofore assumed, respecting the
loth of April affair, by the Secretary of For
eign Affairs, though the tone of the message it
moderate, and the Secretary is more violent,
more prolix and more unconciliatory than ever.
Thn opinion in Carthagena and in some other
parts of the interior, among the foreigners,
seems to be that the mission of Mr. Morse will
not have a peaceful result, We cannot see any
cause for apprehension ; Mr. Morse was well
received, and the unfavorable messages to
which we have referred, emanated from the
outgoing Administration. The incoming one
is now organized, and with it he has to nego
tiate. THE DEED SCOTT CASE.
TI1E DECISION' VI' TI1E SLPRKMK COURT OK THE
Chief Justice Taney, in delivering theopin
iou of the Court, said that this case, after ar
gument at the last term, was directed to be re
argued at the present term, owing to difference
of opinion existing among members of the
Court, atid in order to give the case more ma
There were two leading questions : first, bad
the Circuit Court of the United States for the
district of Missouri jurisdiction in the case?
and if it had jurisdiction, was its decision erro
neous or notV
the Jurisdiction of the Circuit Court of the
United States on me ground that the plaintiff
"is a negro of Airican descent, his ancestors
were of pure African blood, and were brought
into this country and sold as slaves;" and there
fore the plaintiff" is not a citizen of tbe State
of Missouri." To this plea the plaintiff de
Therwmon the lUfVn.iant ni.a,i..i m.r t,a :.,!
murred, and me court sustained tne demurrer.
tilled the trespass on the ground that the plain-
tiff and his family were his negro slaves : and
a statement of facts, agreed to by both parties,
was read in evidence.
The Chief Justice having stated the facts in
the case, proceeded (in a tone of voice almost
inaudible) to say, in substance, that the ques
tion first to be decided wa's, whether the plain
tiff was entitled to sue in a Court of tbe United
States. This was a peculiar question, and for
Jhe first time brought before the Court under
such circumstances; but it had been brought
here, and it was the duty of the Court to meet
and to decide it The question was simply this
can a negro, whose ancestors were imported
and sold as slaves, become a member of the
political community formed and brought into
existence by the Constitution of the United
States, and as such, become entitled to all the
rights and immunities of a citizen, one of which
rights is suing in the courts of the United States
in cases therein specified? In discussing this
question we must not confound the right of a
citizen which a State may confer within its
own limits, with the rights ot a citizen within
the United States. No one can be a citizen of
the United States unless under the provisions
of the Constitution ; but it does not follow that
a man, being a citizen of one State, must be
recognized as such by every State in the Union.
He may be a citizen in one State and not recog
nizee as sucu in anomer. .previous to tne adop.
tion of the Constitution every State might con-1
fer the character of a citizen, and endow a man
with all the rights pertaining to it. This was
confined to the boundaries of a State, and gave
him no rights beyond its limits. Nor have the
several States surrendered thia power by the
adoption of the Constitution. Every State
may confer the right upon an alien or upon any
other class or descriptions of persons who
would, to all intents and purposes, be a citizen
of the State, but not a citizen iti the sense used
in the Constitution of the United States. He
would not thereby become a citizen of the
United States, and therefore could not sue in
any court in the United States ; nor could he
enjoy its immunities of a citizen in the other
States. His rights would be strictly confined
to uis own atate. me constitution gives Con
gress the power to establish " a uniform rule
of naturalization;" consequently, no State, by
naturalizing an alien, could confer upon him
the r ghts and immunities of all the States un
der the general government It is very clear,
therefore, that no State can,- by any act, intro
duce a new member into the political union
created by the Consti'ution. Tbe question then
arises, whether the provisions of the Constitu
tion of the United States in'relation to personal
rights, to which a citizen of a State is entitled,
embraced negroes of the African race, at that
time in the country, or afterwards imported,
or made free from any State ; and whether it is
in the power of any State to make such a one
a citizen of the State, and endow him with
full citizenship in any other State without their
consent ? Does the Constitution of the United
States act upon him, and clothe him with all
the rights fit a citizeu? The Court think the
affirmative cannot be maintained : and if not.
the plaintiff could not be a citizen of Missouri
within the meaning of the Constitution; nor a
citizen of the United States, and, consequently,
not eiiimeu iu sue in me courts.
It is true that every pereon, and every class
anu uescripuon oi persons, at me time of tne
adoption of the Constitution, regarded as citi
zens of the several States, became citizens. of
mis new political oouy, and none other. It
was formed for them and their nosteritv. and
for nobody else; and all the rights and immu
nities were intended to embrace only those of
State communities, or those who became mem
bers according to tbe principles on which the
Censtitution Was adopted. It was a union of
those who were members of the political com
munities, whose power, for certain specified
purposes, extended over the whole territories of
tbe United States, and gave each citizen rights
outside his State which he did not before pos
sess, and placed all rights of persons and prop
erty on an equality.
It becomes necessary, therefore, to determine
who were citizens of the several States- when
the Constitution waa adopted. In order to do
this we must recur to the Colonies when they
separated from ureal iiritatn, formed new
communities, and took their place among the
family of nations. They who were recognized
as citizens of tne htates declared their inde
pendence of Great Britain, anJ defended it by
force of arms. Another class of persons, who
had been imported aa slaves, or their descend
ants, were not recognized, or intended to be in
cluded in that memorable instrument the De
claration of Independence. It is difficult at tbis
day to realize the state of public opinion re-
specting.tbat unfortunate class, with the civi
lized 4nd enligtitened portion of the world, at
the time of the Declaration of Independence
and the adoption of the Constitution; but his
;tory shows they have for rnoro thsn a century
been regarded as beings of an inferior order,
and unfit associates for the whole race, either
socially or politically, and had no rights which
white men were bound to resoectt and the
black man might be reduced to slavery, bought
and sold, and treated as an ordinary article
of merchandise. This opinion, at that time,
was fixed and universal with the civilized por
tion of the white race. Jt was reearded as an
axiom in morals, which no one thought ot dis
puting, and every one habitually acted upon it.
without doubting for a moment the correctness
of the opinion. And in no nation was this
opinion more fixed and generally acted upon
than in England, the subjects of which covern-
ment not only seized them on the coast of Afri
ca, but took them as ordinary merchandise to
where they couldmake a profit on them. The
opinion thus entertained was universally Im-
piessedupon the Colonies this side of the At
lantic; accordingly, negroes of the African
race were regarded by them as property, and
ueia ana Dougat and sold as sucn m every one
of the thirteen Colonies which united iii the
Declaration of Independence, and afterward
formed the Constitution. The doctrine of
which we have spoken was strikingly enforced
by the Declaration of Independence. It be
gins" thus: "When in the course of human
events it becomes necessary for one people to
dissolve the political bands which have con
nected them with another, and to assume among
the powers of the earth the separate and equal
station to which the laws of nature and of na
ture's God entitle them, ar decent respect to the
opinions or mankind requires ttiat ttiey sQould
j declare the causes which impel them to the
separation ;" and tnen proceeds: "We bold
tnese trutns to be self-evident mat all men
are created' equal ; that they are endowed by
their Creator with certain unalienable rights;
mat among tnene are lire, liberty, and tne pur
' suit of happiness; that tp secure these rights
governments are instituted among men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the gov
erned," &c. The words before quoted would
seem to embrace the whole human family; and
if used in a similar instrument at this day
would be bo understood. But it is too clear for
dispute that the enslaved African race were
not intended to be included, for in that case,
i the distinguished, men who framed the Decla-
ration of independence would be flagrantly
against the principles- which they asserted.
They. who framed the Declaration of Indepen
dence were men of too much houor, education
and intelligence, to say what they did not ba
lieve ; and they knew that in lo part ot the
civilized world were the negro race, by com
mon consent, admitted to the rights of freemen.
They spoke and acted according to the practi
ces, doctrines and usages of the day. That
unfortunate race was supposed to be separate
from the whites, and was never thought or
spoken of except as property. There opinions
underwent no change when the constitution
was adopted. The preamble sets forth for
what purpose, and for whose benefit it was
formed. It was formed by the people such as
had been members of the original States and'
tne great object was to "secure the bleisings
of liberty to ourselves and to our posterity."
it speaks in general terms or citizens and peo
ple of the United States when providing for the
powers granted, without defining what descrip
tion of persons should be included, or who
flhould be regarded as citizens. But two clauses
of the constitution point to the negro race as
separate, and not regarded as citizens, for whom
the constitution was adopted. One clause re
serves the right to import slaves until 180S, and
in the second the States pledge themselves, one
to another, to preserve the rights of the mas
ter, and to deliver up slaves escaping to their
respective territories. By the first clause the
right to purchase and hold this property is di
rectly sanctioned and autnorizeu by tne person
who framed the constitution, for twenty years
and the States pledged themselves to uphold
me ngnc or me master as long as me govern
ment then formed should endure. And this
shows conclusively that another description of
persons were embraced in the other provisions
of the constitution. These two clauses were
not intended to confer upon then or their pos
terity me Diessings ot liberty so carefully con
ferred upon the whites. None of this clas
ever emigrated to ihe United States voluntarily,
iney were an articles or mercnandise. Tn
number emancipated was few -as compare
with those who were held In slavery, and not
sumclently numerous to attract public atten
tion as a separate class, and were reearded as
I a part ot tne slave population rather than free.
i It cannot be supposed that the States con
! ferred citizenship upon them ; for all those
"'ll"M " ume esiaoiwuin ponce regnia
tions for the security ot themselves and fami
lies, aa wen as ot property. Jn some minor
cases there were different modes of trial, and
could not be supposed that those States would
have formed or consented to a government
which abolished this right, and took from them
i the safeguards essential to their own orotec
,ion- uave not tbe riSht to bear arma
1 aud Mpearat public meetings to discuss politi
cal questions, or urge measures of reform which
tney miglit deem advisable. They cannot vote
at elections, nor serve as jurors, nor appear as
witnesses where whites are concerned. These
rights are Becured in every State to white men.
It is impossible to believe that the men ol
slaveholding States, who took so large a share
in tbe formation of the Constitution, could
so regardless of themselves and the safety of
mose wno trusted and confided in tnem
Every law of naturalization confines citizen
ship to white persons. This Is a marked sepa
ration trom me blacks. Under tlie confedera
tion, every State had a right to decide for it
self, and the term "free inhabitant," the gene
rality of form, certainly excluded the African
race. Laws were framed for me latter espe
cially. Under the Constitution, the wcrd " citi
zen'is substituted for free inhabitant " Af
ter further elaboration on thin point, tbe Chief
Justice said, from the best consideration we
have come to the conclusion that the African
race who came to this country, whether free or
slave, were not intended to be included in thi
Co'istitution for the enjoyment of any persona
rights or benefits ; and the two provisions which
point to them treat them aa property, and make
it the duty of the Government to protect them
as such. Hence, the Court ia of oninion. from
! the facts stated in the plea in abatement, that
Dred Scott is not a citizen of Missouri, and is
not, therefore, entitled to sue in the United
The following facts appear on the record
in me )ear 15J4, me piatntitt was a negro
siave, Duouging to Dr. Lmtrson, wno was ;
surgeon in the army of the United States. I
that year (1834) said Dr. Emerson took th
plaintiff from the State of Missouri to the mil
i itary post at Rock Island, in the State of Illi
nois, and held him there as a slave until th
month of April, 1836. At the time last men
tioned, Dr. Emerson; removed the plaint'
from said military post at Rock Island to th
military post at Fort Snelling, situated on the
west bank cE the Mississippi river, in tbe ler
ritory known as Upper Louisiana, acquired
by the United States from France, and situated
norm of tne latitude of 3b deg. 30 mm. north
and north of the State of Missouri. Said Dr.
Emerson held the plaintiff in slavery at Fort
Snelling until the year 1838.
In the year 1835, Harriet, (who is named in
me second count of tlie plaintiff's declaration.
was tbe slave of Major Taliaferro, who belor-g
ed to the army of the United States. In that
year, (1835,) said Major Taliaferre took said
Harriet to said Fort Snelling, a military post
siiuaieu as uereinueiore siaieu, anu Kept ner
mere as a slave at tort knelling unto said Dr.
Emerson, hereinbefore named : aud said Dr.
Emerson held, said Harriet in slavery at Fort
aliening until me year lom
In the year 1836, the plaintiff and said Har
riet, at said Fort Snelling, with the consent of
said Dr. Emerson, who then claimed to be their
master and owner, intermarried and took each
other for husband and wife. Eliza and Lizzie
named in the third count of tbe plaintiff's de
claration, are the fruit of that marriage. Eliza
is about fourteen years old, and was on board
of the steamboat Gipsey, north ot the north line
of tbe State of fllisso-iri, and upon the Missis
sippi river; Lizzie is about seven years old,
and was born in the State of Missouri, at the
military post caned jeueraon's Barracks.
In the year 1338, said Dr. Emerson removed
the plaintifl and said Harriet, and their said
daughter kliza, from said iort Snelling to the
State of Missouri, where they have ever since
Jierore me commencement of this suit said
Dr. Emerson sold and conveyed the nlaintifr.
said Harriet, Eliza aud Lizzie, to the de
as slaves, anu me ueienaant claimed to IioM
eacu oi tnem as slaves.
, At the times mentioned in the DlainlifP J.
claration, the defendant, claiming
as aioreuaiu, idiu uis nanus upon said plaintiff,
Harriet, Eliza and Lizzie, and imprisoned ln.m .
; I i.-ii- x i . .
doing in this respect, however, no more than
wnat ue migui lawruiiy do if Ihey were of
iiUb uid murcj ai sucu umes.
The Chief Justice proceeded to examine ihe
statement, assuming mat this part of the con
troversy presented two questions.
Firstly. .Was he (Scott) and all his family
free in Missouri? and
Secondly. If not were they free by reason
of their removal to Rock Inland, lllinnin?
The act of Congress oa which the plaintiff
renca cutuainB me clause, mat slavery and in
voluntary servitude, excent for crime, shall ba
forever prohibited in that part of the territorr
acquired by treaty from Louisiana, and not in
cluded within the limits of the State of Louis
iana. The difficulty which meets us at the
threshold is, whether Congress" is authorized
to pass such a law under tho poweis granted
to it by.thc constitution ? The plaintiffdwells
mucn on tne clause wnicn gives congress pow
er "to make all needful rules and regulations
respecting the territory or other property of
me united States." But this provision nas no
bearing on the present controversy. The pow
er there given is confined to the territory which
then belonged to the United States, and can
have no influence on territory which was ac
quired from foreign governments. The Justice
then referred to the cessions of land by Virgin
la and other States, saying the only object was
to put an end to existing controversies, and to
enable Congress to dispose of the lands for the
common benefit. Undoubtedly the power of
sovereignty and eminent domain was cede! in
the act This was proper and essential. There
was then no government In existence with enu
merated independent colonies which entered
into confederation for -mutual protection. It
nas miis more man a congress of ambassa
dors, in which all had a common concern. It
was this congress which accepted the cession
from Virginia. They had no right to do so un
der the articles of confederation, but they had
a right as independent powers to accept the
land for the common benefit; and it is equally
clear, having no superior to control them, thty
had a right to exercise absolute dominion, sub
ject only to the restrictions which Virginia im
posed. The ordinance of 1787 was adopted,
by which the Territory should be governed,
and among other provisions was one that sla-
cijr ui luvuiuDiary servitude anouid be pro
hibited except for crime.
inis was th state of thlnrg when th con
stitution was formed. The territorr ceded bv
Virginia belonged to the
states as common property. The States were
about to dissolve the confederation and surren
der a portion of their power for the formation
ot anew government. and the hnnuce mH
limited and specified the objects to be accom
plished. It was obvious that some provision
was now necessary to give the new government
the power to carry fnto effect every object for
wmcu me territory was ceded, it was neces
8rythat the lands should be sold to pav the
war debt, and that power should be given to
protect me citizens wno mignt emigrate, with
their rights of property, arms, military stores,
s wen as nips ot war,) were tne "common
property of the States existing in their inde
pendent character, and they had a right to
take their property to the Territory, without
the authority of the States." The object was
to place tnese tnings under the guardianship of
a new government, which gives Congress the
power "to make all needful rules and regulations
respecting the territory or other property of the
United States." It applied only to property
neiu in common at tne time, anu not witn refer'
ence to any property which the sovereignty
might subsequently acquire. It applied to the
territory then in existence and known as the
territory of the United States then in the
mind of theframers of the constitution. It
refers to the sale or raising of money. Tbi3 is
different from the power to legislate over the
Territories. With the words "to make all
needful rules and regulations respecting the ter
ritory," are coupled the words vnd other pro
perty oi mz united aiaies." Andtneconclud
ing words render this construction irresistible
"and nothing in this constitution shall be so
construed as to prejudice any claim of tbe
United States or of any particular State."
It is obvious that the Congress, under the
new gov.ernment, regarded the above clause as
necessary to cairy into effectthe principles and
provisions of the ordinance of 1787, which they
regarded as an act of the States in the exercise
ot their political power at the time ;-and these
representatives of the same States under tbe
new government, did not think proper to de
part from any essential principle and did not
attempt to undo anything that was done.
as to territory acquired wimont the limits
of the United States, it remains territory until
admitted into the Union. No power is given in
the Constitution to acquire territorv to be held
and governed in that character ; and, conse
quently, there cannot be found in the Constitu
tion any definition of power which Congress
may lawfully exercise before it becomes a State.
The power to acquire territory until it is in a
condition to become a State on an equal footing
with the other States must necessarily rest oa
sound discretion, and it becomes the duty of the
govsrnment to administer the laws of the Uni
ted States for the protection of personal rights
and property therein.
Whatever territory is acquired is for the corn
men benefit of the people of the United States,
which is but a trustee. At tbe time that terri
tory was obtained from France it contained no
population to be admitted aa a State, and it
therefore became necessary to hold possession
of it un.il settled and inhabited by a civilized
community, capable of self-government and
for admission into tbe Union. But, as we have
said, it was acquired by the federal govern
ment as the representative and trustee of the
people of tbe United States, and must be held
for their common and equal benefit ; for it was
the acquisition of the people of the United
States, acting through their agen's, and gov
ernment held it for the common benefit until
it should become associated as a memberpf
the Union. Until that time arrived it waa un
doubtedly necessary that some government be
established to protect tbe inhabitants in their
persons and property. The power to acquire
carries with it the power to preserve. The
form of government necessarily rests on the
discretion of Congress. It is their duty to es
tablish the best suited for the United States,
and that must depend on the number of its in
habitants, and tbe character and situation of
the territory. What government is the best
must depend on the condition of the territory
at the time, to be continued until it shall be
come a State. But there can lever be a mere
discretionary power over persons and property.
These are plainly defined by tbe Constitution.
ine constitution provides that" Congress shall
mike no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibking the free exercise there
6f ; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of
the.press; or the right of the people peaceably
to assemble, and to petition the government for
a reurcss or grievances," iic. 'inus the rights
of nrnnprtv ar nnitpil u-ith th narannol -iit
and this extends to the territories as well aa to
tne States. Congress cannot authorize to do
what it cannot do itself; it cannot confer on
the territories power to violate the provisions
of the Constitution.
It seems, however, that there is supposed to
nt a umerence between slaves and other prop
erty-. The people, in the formation ot the Con
stitution, delegated to the general Government
ccnam enumerateu powers and forbade trie ex
erclse of others. It has no power over per
amis duu jjiofjeiijf citizens except tnosi
enumerated in the Constitution. If ihe Con
stitution recognizes the right of master and
stave, anu makes no uinerence between slave
and other property, no tribunal acting wider
me auiuuTiiy oi me united states can draw
such a distinction and deny the provisions and
guaranties secured against the encroachment
of the Government. As we have already said,
the right of property in a slave is expressly
conferred in the Constitution, arjd guarantied
iu evciy ciaie. xuis is m .language too plain
to bemisunderstool; and no words can be found
in me Constitution giving Congress a greater
power over slaves than over any other descrip
tion of property.
It is, therefore, the opinion of thia Cnnrf
that the act of Congress which prohibits citi
zens from holding 'property of this character
north of a certain line is not warranted in ih
.Constitution, and i3 therefore void ; and neither
Droll ... .... r ,!
wwv, auj uue vl uis idcuuy were
made free by their resilience in Illinois. The
plaintiff was not a citizen of Mi niiri. hut vi-aa
still a slave, and therefore had no right to sue
iu t iuun oi me untied states.
The Court, having thus examined th ra a
it stands under the Constitution, proceeded to
other points sayinr. as Scott wan a alavit irhn
he was brought back to Missouri from Illinois,
uc dB unuer me law of tue former and not of
me latter, it has been settled by the highest
tribunals that an individual does not acquire
his freedom under such circumstances. As it
appears to the Court that the plaintiff is not a
citizen of Missouri, nor a citizen of the United
States who could sue in the United Stat
courts, tbis court can rire no iud?ment. and
hence the suit must be dismissed for want of
Associate Justice Nelson stated the grounds
on which he had arrived at the conclusion that
the argument of tbe Court below must be af
firmed. Having stated the case, substantially
as auove, ue procecaeu 10 examine It on Its
merits. The question was, whether the remo
val of the plaintiff, with his master, to Illinois.
mui a view iu a. icuiuiAry xeaiuence, anu af
ter his return to Missouri, was such a residence
in a free State as - worked emancipation. He
maintained that it did not. Such Questions be
longed to -the States to decide for themselves.
As to whether Missouri will recognize, o- give
effect to tbe laws of Illinois on the subject of
slavery, is for Missouri herself to determine.
nor is there any constitutional power rightfully
to control her. Every State or nation possesses
exclusive sovereignty and lurisdiction within
her own territory, and laws affect and bind all
property witnin ner limits. No State or nation
can affect or bind persons or property outside
of her territory. The question is fully estab
lished that it belongs to the sovereign State of
Missouri to determine the Question of slavery
within her own jurisdiction, subject only to
such limitations as may be found in the consti
tution. This is the result of the Independent
and sovereign character of the Stale. It is
equally applicable to the other States belong
ing to the Confederacy. It tuuitbe admitted
that Congress possesses no power to create" or,
abolish slavery in a State, and if Congresv
possesses power under the constitution to abol
hb slavery in the Territories, it must necessa
rily possess the power to establish it. Tbis
he denied, and then proceeded to show that the
question involved in the case now before the
court, was one depending solely on the law of
Missouri, concluding with the remark that the
judgment of tbe Court below should be af
Associate Justice Catron also stated the
history of the case, and said that if the Court
has no power to decide tne question further
than to dismiss It, it bad no rignt to discuss its
merits; hut he held that the Court has jurisdic
tion to decide tbe merits of the case, which he
proceeded to examine. It was now too late to
question the power to govern the Territories as
lnclnient States, and fit them for admission.
The only question was, how far the power of
n ? . i !.. KT i I
Congress IB Jimiicu at) w lUDiviiumakKiir
tory. Virginia had the ngntio aoousn slavery
there, and did so, by an agreement, in 1787,
with the otUcr States; nut mis am not prevent
new States being admitted with or without
slavery. Subsequently North Carolina and
Georgia had ceded their lands for the common
benefit, and Congress had no more power to
legislate slavery out of those cessions than it
had to legislate slavery in the territory north
of the Oh.o. mere was no power to legislate
on slavery In either case. The inhabitants
stood fprotected after as they did before the
cessions were made. In Louisiana slavery
was not only lawful, but waa most valuable.
At tbe date of me treaty me lnnabitants were
left free to enjoy their property, freedom and
liberty, and were to be protected therein until
tcey came into tne union as a state, ine
Missouri line of 3b:3U was an actor aggression.
Congress cannot do indirectly what it cannot
perform directlv. If a Southern man cannot
go to the Territories with his slaves it follows
that a Northern farmer or mechanic cannot
bring with him bis implementsof toil. If Con
gress could prohibit any species of lawful prop
erty tnrougnout Louisiana wnen it was ac
quired, so it could exclude all descriptions of
property, rat rignt to legislate in tns lerri
tories depends on the contract of cession. His
opinion was that the third article of the treaty
by which Louisiana was acquired stands pro
tected by tne Constitution, and cannot be re
pealed by Congress, and mat the act of 1820,
known as the Missouri Compromise, violates
the leading features of the Constitution, on
which the Union depends, and which secures to
all citizens common rights. He therefore held
that the act was void, and concurred with his
brotner judges mat the plaintiff Dred Scott, is
a slave, and was one wnen this suit was brought
A LL persona indebted t I.MBa OPSHAW. by note
JL or accun:, are reqawtea anti nouned la eaU aad aet-
iiemesame oeiore me irai or Apru next, larthtrla
diligence will not be siren.
ilEMrjus, Varch IS. 1857. raarn-lawlw
MT Wile ELI2ABBTH. harln; kit me without any
cause, I hereby notify all pereona that I wui not be
responsible for any ot her debt' made en ray account
marl7-w3t WM. W. DSABMOXD.
fj THE abore reward wui be paid upon th dellrery
SO? of a Ji'egrj Boy named BOB, of dark cumplexion, 17
yara old, 3 feet 2 or 3 inches high, and knock-kneed
VTlHe left on Satnrday, the 7lh Init., aad had on when
he left Hack pants, grey vest and bine blanket coat.
Wlf . T. WILLIAMS.
Memphis, Marrh 17, 1SSI llw
PER steamer lngomar
S5 bbia red Yam Sweet Potatoes ;
2S " yellow -On
consignment and for sale ch-ap by the barret.
GOODLBTT, JfABKTtS h. CO.,
mar!7-dlt Front Bow.
Arkansas Laud for Sale Cheap.
i mi a a lew inousaaaacrra or uutu sDoul
thlrty-dre miles uoita of west of M-mphl, which
I offer for sale at a low price, if application be
madednrlng the pn-srnl week. I will convey In
lota of 40 acres atd npwatds, to anit purchase! a. One
third of the purchase monry will be required in cash; the
balance In one and two years, without tntereat.
M L. BALL,
At J. H. Vnthank'a oHce,
marl7-3t South side ot Court Sanare.
Premium Coal :
WE have lust received fifteen thousand bu hels ot the
best COAL eer brought to this market, and are
ready and willing to deliver at tbe lowest caih price, at
ine loot or waantsgion street, or uentr Landing. This
Cal has taken the premium at the Prnnsyiranla and
Kentucky Fairs, Call and see f.r yoursolves. Apply to
rnarl7-dtt V. F. JACKSOX.
-VNB HO XT) RED AMD FIFTY bbls. Mess Pork, for
W SSieoy HANCOCK, CLAKK. CO.
FOP.TT THOCSAN'D pands Balk Park, for sale by
faar!7 IIAXCOCK, CLARE k. CO
THRKK HUNDRED kegs Ho. I Leaf Lard, for sale by
raarI7 HAKCOCK, CLARK CO.
EODR HUNDRED MX. Flour, for sale by
m.17 HANCOCK. CLARE i CO.
rp WO HUNDRED AND FIFTT bags CoffVe, for tale by
A. min i UlSl Utlt, CLARK X CO.
PIFTT hhds. Sugars, for sale t
marl7 HAKCOCC, CLARK A. CO.
FIFTT barrels Powdered and Crushed Ssgars, for aale
by marl7 HANCOCK. CLARK X C(K
T? IFTT barrel No. 1 Molasses, far aala by
2? raarn n.lNCOCK. CLARK k CO.
THREE HUNDRED boxes, H and U box. Star Caa
dies, fer aale by
marl7 HANCOCK, CLARK Jc CO.
ONE HUNDRED Uses and half boxes Soda Ctatkers,
for sale by HANCOCK, CLARK it CO.
T WE NTT-FIVE kegs Gulden Syrup far sale by
marl7 HANCOCK, CLARE it CO.
SK7ENTT-FIVE boxes S'arch, for sale by
marlT HANCOCK. CLARK k CO.
TWO HUWDRED AND FIFTT b51. Whisky, fo. sat
by arl7 HANCOCK. CLARK it CO.
rpEN tlerees MrcheR, Guthrie A. Co.. Hams ;
JL M tiercea Stair it Shay. Kxtra Hams, for sale by
marl7 IIANCOCK, CLARK it GO.
SMVjEY & CIiAKKE,
Gentlemcns' Boys and Childrens
Sole ItcnUicr TvunUs, Car
pet Bugs, aAic, fe.e.,
213 MAIN STREET, UMON- BLOCK,
WE are now receiving otr SPRING AND SUMMER
STOCK, which will be 'on ad cuntcte iu quality,
tvles and prhes. We hav
&J Spring and Summer Cauimere fuHs, "ifise vtr)
500 palra Fancy Caslmere PanUIoen'. -' at er p-ics ; "
SOU pitrs Black Caaiimere and Drap K T. t rUMalaont ;
300 Black Cloth Frock aud Dress Coals. "sEi-vry Hue;"
Hue Cloh Dress Coats, " road atjle ; "
Black and Fancy SUk Vests. Rutan Pjit-riM nl vet's ;
600 Fancy aud White lar.B! Vel. Haelac siyrr;
Rich White Figund Satin Vests, luw tyW ;
CO 1 White Linen Fro ks and RagB
600 Ekck Drap K Tete, Alpacca atid Caibairje Fn ck and
Spring Cassimere Raglan Over C at ;
600 lozen White and Fancy Shirts, am ni which ill be
found all tbe t jlr.
We also hive a large stock ot Medium !.
We respectf nlly solicit an examinatku vt our eto k.
The prices will be found luw.
mar!7 SPIVKT Jt fLASKK.
Shelby County Agricultural Society
A MEETING cf the Board of Minagr-r f iba Shelby
J.X. uoonty Agricultural Sxtety ws tt. 14 a' ihe sure of
w. B. Miller, in tue city of Memphis uh the lt in.t.
pursuant to app.intoient. Col John Pu-r.. Pr H'leot
in the Chair, and M D. I. Stewart. ArtingSecretarr.
un motion or tiro. L.. llulai 1 tbe fllwing was pro-
poscu and auopieu or tne ovarii 'IK llt ir r.emiums
to be orr red at the ensning Cuwit) Fair,
Best bushel Wheat l
nest Dusnei Jl'e.. .......................... .......
Best bushel Corn..............
Best bushel Oata.....
Best bushel Chinese Sugat Uuiai
Best bushel Blue Grass $2
Best ouatiel Timomy.
Best bushel Herds Grass. ...............
Best bushel Clover.... S
Best bushel MiUct 1
Best bale of Timothy $1
Best bale f Clover. 5
Best acreot Hay, mixed, largest yield.. ........ ...
Beit barrel Irish ts
Best sack of Sweet 5
Best bale $20
Second best bale... 1 10
Best sample ginned. one-baM pound '.. 5
Beat varnty adapted to wm Tune;e, twu ataiKa
with boils 6
Best bashel Turnip $'
Best bushelTomaloea........... !
Best bushel Carrots - :
Best bushel White Beans 2
Best bushel Field Peas 2
Bestbmhel Gubbcr Fas 1
Best halt dt,xsn heads of Calbage.. I
Bait sample Beets...... : 1
just asmpte urair,.,.1,, M.,M,.,... 1
B-it sample Radaiises 1
Best sample Est Plant I
Best sample Onions 1
Best sample Cauliflower .'. 1
Best half barrel Parsnips :
Beat sample Celery 1
Bealbuhet Apples $1
Bettbuaael Peaches....... 3
Beit pe. a Pears i
Best peck Grapes 3
Bait peck Scupperooug 3
lint half buihel Dried Apples 3
Best half bushel Pried Peaches 3
Best half bashel Quinces .....,'3
Best ipeclmrn of Plums 3
Best specimen cf Apricots 3
Bit specimen ol Nectarine 2
BestdUpUy of Floweri fl
Hind -ami it Boeijntt.. ................ ............. S
Btn Htrcaiiem............ 9
Bt thttt yrt Jn (ttome-nudc). $S
Bit three yd Jmi eorae,for Htruli... S
Beat pair Wool Bom X
Best pair CoUen warped BlaoktU A
But Cotton CoonterpaD 4
Beat Cotton FaUh-w ,ra Quilt... S
Bet Silk Fatctt-work QoUt &
Bt White Cotton Counterpane 5
Beat ten yard Cotton (either itrlped or plaid) for la
dies wear...................................... S
B-?st Cotton Bote.. 1
Beit 8Mrt, mad by laa 2
BoatNecro Comfort.. X
B;t apeclmeaof Soap, Starch, Lard 1
B-t Fancy Bonnat.. S
Bt Tlrsutich Garment, or Handler chiat... ......... S
Beat Knit Chair Trfrisa 2
Beat epecimen of Ornamental Wort. Shell or Leather. 0
Beat apeclmen Ornamental Ililr Work... X
Bmapecimen Embroidery, ar riece Wort for Otto
man!.. ................................. ........ a
Beat Wool Carpet. $3
BstKas Carpet S
Bit Bar. s
Beit pctmen Coins Jeana............... .......... $S
Beatapedmcn Unify ...... ................ ......... 3
Beat apeclmen Oraabsraa...... ........ .............. X
Beat apeclmen Shlrtlnr.. ....... ...... ............... 3
Beit iptdmen Xfgro Cloth for Winter Wear.. 3
Beat Coci-d Ham, with recipe far CcotiagT and Ca
rta it 33
Beat apeclmen Pickled Btef, Cooked 2
Beat ipedmtn Pannd, Sponge or Fralt Cake.......... 3
B-"3t apeclmen Loaf IJjttt BreaxJ.. ....... ............ 2
bat apeclmen Loaf Corn Bread z
Beat fire pounds Batter. ' freih," 3
Beit Are pounds Bntter, "aprlns 3
Brat Jar Picktea -
Best Jar Prrterreil Peachea... 3
Bnt ar Preiarred Frarf X
Peit Jar Preserved Qaincea
Beat specimen of Fresh Fruit, preserved In ilr-tUbt
Best jpeetmen Home-naie Cheese.. ....... ...........
Best Jar Pralt Jelly t
Best Cored Ham 5
711VIKS IMPLEX BSTS,
Mansfactsred In Shelby County.
Bestyonr Horse Wagon... .......... ............... ?KJ
Beaffwo Horse Wagon................... .......... 5
Beat Horse Cart - 3
Best Ox Cart..' 3
B-st Ox ToLe , 2
Best Two Hone P)enth
, ; 3
Best One Harse Plough....................
Best Shovel Pbmih
Best Harrow. ..................... ........
Best Cultivator .- 3
B-st Cotton Scraper 3
Best Grsln Cradle
Best Thresher ..................................
Best Straw Cutter 0
Best Wheat Fan 3
Best Corn Crusher...... .................. ..........
Best Subsoil Plough.... &
Best Plow Stock, made by a Negro 2
Best Corn Shelter.. ......... ........................ 3
Best Cotton Gin
Best Self-AetUC Plantation Gate, (model) 3
Best Mode of Conitxuetlng Water Gap, (modeL)... 3
Beat Cotton Hamper, cheapest material............. t
Articles ot Shtlby County.
Best specimen ol Caatmg...... .............. 13
Best specimen ot Axe, Ho or Mattock.. .....a. ......
Best aamploof norse Shoes.. ....... ...... ........... 1
Best Ceoktn r Stove 3
Best Stock Kettle 3
Best Family Carriage H
Best Top Buggy...... ............. ." 5
Best Bcggy without Top.... - 5
Best sett of Carriar Harn-ss... 5
Best sett ot Single Harness. ............... .......... 3
Best sett ot Wagon Harness... ............... ....... S
Bestsettof Cart Haraess.... 3
Best pair of Harness far Mules.. .............. ....... -
Best pair of Harness for Horses... ...... ............ -
Best artie'e of Plow CoHars. ........... ..............
Beit Gentleman' Sddl.
Be.t Lady's Saddle S
Beit pair o1 Gtntleman'a Boots.... ........ .......... S
Best pair of Mod Boots... .............. ............. 3
Bestpairot Negro Shoe.............. ..............
Best Fur Hat &
Best Wool Hat 3
Best Bureau 5
Best Sideboard 5
Beit Extension Table. ............. .................. &
Br Jt Sola &
Best Bedatead 3
Best sett of Split Bottom Chairs 3
Best specirr en at Cooper's Work........ 3
Best Cotton Mattress 3
Bist half dozen Brooraa, made of broom 6rn. ........ 2
BestUand Loom..... 3
Best Spinning Wheel 3
Best specimen of Stone Cutting...... ...... .......... 3
Best specimen of SUrer and Braas Plating... ....... X
Best specimen of Tinware............................ 3
Beit specimen of Brick.............................. 2
Best Coat Cvt and made by a gentleman.............. 2
Best Coat cut and made by a Iadr.. ........ ......... 3
Best Braed ot Flour................................. S
Best specimen ot Ornamental "Tinting.. ............. 3
Best specimen ot Portrait Painting................... $5
Beat specimen otAmbrotype Painting................ 3
Best rpedmen of Landscape Painting................ 3
Best apedmn of Sign Painting...................... 3
Best specimen of Crayon Drawing..... 3
Best Design ot a Country Residence, sot to cost over
Best Design of a Barn............................... 5
Best Design of a Smoke House... ........... ......... 3
Best Design of an Ice House 3
Beat Design of a Potato House
BLOOD ID HORSES.
Beit Stallion, aged $K
Second beat Stallion, aged 10
Best SUllloQ. three years old la
Second bes Stallion, three years old................ S
Beit Stallion, two years old......................... 3
Sec nd best Stallion, two yaara old. ....... .......... S
Best Stallion, one year oIJ 3
Second best Stallion, one year old................... 5
Beit SUMonColt. &
Second best Stallion Celt.. 3
Best Mare, aged IS
Second heat Mare, aged ;2. hi
Best Mare, three years Id a
Second best Mare, three yeara eld 5
BestMare. two yeara old........................... 3
Second best Mare, two years old..................... S
Best Mare, one year old............................ 5
Second bait Mare, one year old............ 3
Best Mare Colt 5
Second best Mare Colt 3
Best Stallion, aged $15
Second best S'alMon, aged 3
Best StaHion three years old....................... 3
Second best StaHion, three years old................. S
Best StaHion. aged two years....................... S
Second bst StalUon, two yeara old
Best Stallion, one year oil.. ....... ................... S
Secmd best Stallien. one yearold.. .................. 3
Best Staltlen Colt. 3
Best pair Harness Horses............................ its
Best single Harness Borus.. ................ ........ B
Bst Stallion, "aged
Best Stallion, three years old.
Best Stallion, two years old...
Best Stallion, one year old....
Best Stallion, Colt
Best Mare, "aged" ,
Best Mare, three years old...,
B-st Mare, two yeara oM.....
Best Mare, one year old......
Bet Mare Colt
Best GeMlng. "aged1
Brt Gelding, three years old.......... S
B st Jsek,"sged" ; $U
B-tJict, tvree years old ., 10
B'lt Jack, two jeaTsald.. &
BestJmnit, "aged" 5
Best Jennet, under four years...................... 3
Best Male, thre years aid and upwards.............. $5
S -rend best Mule, three yeara old and upwards...... 3
Be.t Mnl two years old..... ......... ....... ....... 4
Second best Mule, two years old...................... 3
Best Mule, one ytar old.. ................... ......... 3
Secobd best Mule, one-year old...................... i
Best Mule Colt Y... 1
E LOOPED CATTLE.
Best Bull, a;red (four years old) $15
Scoad best Bull, aged (roar years oM)... ............
Best EaU, three yeara old In
Sfcend best Bull, three years eld.. ........ ........... 5
Best Bull, two yeara oM S
S-condbest Bull, two years .old... ............ ....... 3
Best Ball, one year oW.. 3
Best Bull Calf
Best Cow. aged .' 10
Second best Cow, seed...... ........ .....A. ......... 6
JJest Cow.three yeara old... ....... .................. 5
Stcond best Cow, three years old. ................... 3
oest Cow, two years old............................. -
Second h st Cow, two yeara old.......... ............ 2
Btsl Heifer, one year old.... 3
Secen t best H-ifer, one year old.........:........... 2
Best Uelier Calf 3
B-t Ball. e:ed (four years old) it
Second best BoH, aged (four years old)............... 5
Best Bull, three yeara eld 1 5
Best Bull, two years old I .-. 3
Bat Bull, one year oM.i. ............... ............. S
Best Bull Calf 2
Best Cow, aged.................... S
Second best Cow, three years old..................... S
BntCow.two yeara old.......................'..... 5
BestUelfer, one yearold................... ....... 3
Brstneifer Calf 2
Best MUrh Cow, without regard to blood 10
Beit fatted Bullock $5
Best pair of Oxen, four years or more......... ...... $5
Bst Bear, one year old or more...................... $5
Best Boar, six months and under one year old........ 3
Best Sjw, aged
Best pair Pigs, under six months old 5
Best fatted and largeit Hog. and method. of fatten
ing, in writing, ta be Hied with the Secretary.... 1
Best Bulk-, aged, for Wool $3
Rest Ewe, aged, fer Wool. ......... ....... ........... 3
Bist Back, aged, for Mutton........................ 3
Be. t Ewe. aged, for Mutton 3
Un motion at G. M. Bartlett, Esq., it was resolved by
the Board that the County Fair for 1517. will comneno
on the FIRST TUE3DAT, tn October next, aad continue
And the meeting adjourned.
JOHN POPE, Presides t.
X D. L Stewakt. Secretary. marVT-dtwawlw
ONE THOUSAND BUSHELS best Sweet Potatoes fr
sale at tbe first Toll-Gate on Hernando Plank Road.
Price $3 per bushel. J. T, MITCZELX.
HAVING associated myself with Prof. W. L. DELA
NET in the profession of Teachlsg, X would n-tlry
my patrons that 1 will resume the duties ot my School wa
Beal street TO-MORROW, the ISth Inst.
Terms ot Tuition, ave, six and sent) doSars per
month. WM. H. BOWERS.
THE undersigned fas the pleasure again of offering to
th Ladles, at CoL G. B. LOCKE'S. !1 Main street.
a fresh selection of Collars, Sleeves, Capes. MintHls.
ells. Handkerchiefs, lc. Jutt received by the Adams.
Express Company, from New Tork. He tenders his most
assiduous attention to all wo may call an klm. and war
rants to sett them goods at lower prices than they can ba
bought elsewhere in the city.
mar It-It LOUIS SANG ER.
TUST RECEIVED 400 cases Ginger Wine, acd tarsal
J by H. H. POnSR. Main-it,
stars Third door Ngrth of worjaaa Haste,