Newspaper Page Text
WHY ENGLAND MAY
FEAR NEAR RAID OF
British General Shows That
Air Invasion of London is
Possible Sees No Good
' Means of Defense.
The peril of London from a possible
bombardment by Zoppellna la the subject
of tha leading nrtlclo that appears In
the Ju'y lssuo ot Tlie JoUrnal ot the
Ilojal United Service Institution of Great
Britain, the organization of the oiriccrs
tt the British army and navy. In the
article a genftral omccr points out tho
dangers that may hover over London
In a time of war, dancers that he frankly
admits are serious In extent and which
might be difficult to oppose In the vent
ef an airship Invasion of England.
In a wireless aiepatcn irom nernn it
rtf nwcrted that Germany was consider
ing Invadlntr England with a fleet of new
Zeppelins. iThus tho article In The Journal
tt tho Hojal United Bervlco Institution
la of timely Interest It begins with a
recital of tho havoo that might be
Wrought on navy yards, arsenals, oil
reservoirs and wireless stations by pro
jectiles dropped from Zoppollns and aero
planes, and then goes on to recite the
dangers of an air attack on the great
centres of population. On this lattor point
most of tho opaco Is devoted to London.
"Of these London la tat us," the British
general states, "tho prlmo object of con
.Mutton. Destruction and panic In the
largest provincial towns could cause trou
ble, but need not affect our national
volley. London In this respect stands
'ilone that is. It Is not only the habitat
of a large fraction ot our population,
bJt al6o th scat of Government, tho
centre of our financial and business sys
tems and the nerve centre of our military
and naval forces. A serious blow aimed
against London would be more effective
agalast the national life than In any other
capital In the world.
FACING A NEW BRA.
"We aro now beyond doubt face to
face xvlth a new era In war. If you have
granted my assumption with regard to
the range of action nnd offensive power
of aircraft of the immediate future
those assumptions would hold good for
one object as well as another. How U
London affected by them? General
Delacroix In an article In tho Dally Mall
of September 11, 1313, wroto:
" 'Even admitting that a Zeppelin
Tiere to pass over the English country
side It Is not easy to see what result
would be effected, for oven In time of
nar It would not be permissible to drop
explosives Into unfortified towns.'
"I have no wish to be an alarmist or
to make one's flesh creep, but I am not
prepared to accept this dictum even
from so eminent an authority. The Idea
of not bombarding unfortified towns had
Its origin many years ago In tlio time
ot perpetual war In Europe, and like
most ot the rather artificial conventions
of that time rested on mutual conveni
ence. An unfortified town In those days
was not of much Importance one way
or the other. It was not expected to
offer resistance. If It was spared bom
bardment the enemy In return expected
to occupy tt without any trouble and
take full advantage of Its conveniences
for billeting, supplies, etc.
"If a Geneva convention were now
sitting, and the point wero to be raised
that a capital which Is easily accessible
to the enemy may clnlm oxomptlon from
attack on tho ground that It Is unfoi ti
lled, would not the answer be 'Yes, pro
vided that it is prepared to submit and
not offer armed resistance to the enemy's
armed forces'? And whether the armed
forces take tho form of troops ready to
advance or of tho non-er In ilpntmv.rn.
alliance by attack from the air, the
principle Is the same.
Alter nil. war Is a came that Gov-
rnments play to win, and we could
hardly expect the most chivalrous enemy
to refrain from striking Hnw n ,
heart of the country merely because we
"&TC CllOaen tO MTU that Unny i,.n.A-
tected. " ""
"Can any student of international law
"II us definitely that such a thing as
an aerial attack on London Is outside
the rules 0f war, and further that there
exists an authority by which these
rules can be enforced? How, if many
.ile cltlzens a"e territorials, and some
Tr . buu"d,nB contain warlike stores?
it a night of aeroplanes passed over the
h.IVchJllropplner a doze" Incendiary
Bombs n different places, would not the
?.m moro than ,h8 flre brigade
could cope with?
COULD CAUSE HAVOC.
"If a Zeppelin dropped a ton of gun
o'ton on the Admiralty and the War
"nice, as she might do If not Interfered
rth, what would be the result In dis
organization and discouragement? What
Tould ba the effect of cutting off the
atr 81,DPly of the East End. or sink
ag the food ships In the Thames? These
onwUl'"' lncred'l8 to us who have
Mluct.r,r71 Wara on the frontiers. J am
S,n' b.uL " ll '" conceded that
Mrwlin pptlln or two i night of
rM? m0". act,on w" '0n be pos.
fcVrden h l. veri"thln8- UM ay ruer
can Say? heart ,uch actlon7 "Who
"If it .. .. ...
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toe. LPan, wuIa b8 CIlusa as to
unfn ''ffiV? . to accept
mi.v.. vL . " fc, wien it. nerhans.
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TO FRENCH AIRSHIPS
Zeppelins Not Armed for
Fear of Gas Explosions
and at Mercy of High
The story of tho ramming of a Ger
man Zeppelin airship by the famous
French aviator, Roland Garros, probably
nroso from tho Idea that a Zeppelin can
not be attacked In any other way, owing
to Its blng defended irom assault from
above, by a rapid-firing gun mounted on
tho gas bng.
In order to make sure of his aim, a
bomb thrower In an aeroplane would havo
to approach within 100 feet above the
Zeppelin, whero he would be within easy
rnnge of tho gun supposed to be mounted
on the balloon.
An a matter of fact, however, only
three or four of the vrry latest Zeppelins
aro equipped with theso gun platforms
DANZIG, THE CITY OF HOMES, THREATENED BY RUSSIANS
This city, one of the most beautiful in Germany, is now reported to be invested by a Russian army. The photo
graph shows one of the quiet streets, the Fradcngasse, with the Maria Church in the background.
the defense of objectives or small area,
such as batteries nnd stores, against
aerial attack Is easy, though It will cost
Rome money. The defense of those largo
area"?, especially the capital, cannot bo
relied on except by active offensive opera
"As regards London, some will say that
such forms of attack as I have Indicated
would bo Ineffective In any case, nnd
they would point out the bombardment
of Paris In 1870. I have always until re
cently taken that point of view. I havo
always held that bombardment, however
severe, was no justification for a fortified
place, but the evolution of mlBslles of
war have gone a long way since 1ST0, and
In the case of London hostile action
ngalnst It would not havo dliect effect
on our operations of war.
"Another school will take mo to task
for accepting such possibilities ns use of
Incendiary projectllos against an unforti
fied town. I may be riulte wrong. If I
were responsible for tho snfety of this
town I would say that the safeguard Is
one cannot too often repeat It offensive j
"When we consider tho effective pow
ers of the dirigible balloon together with
tho difficulty of warding off its attack,
wo must allow that there have been few
moro potent Instruments of destruction
known to history. On the other hand, of
all tho weapona over devised by man this
Is by far the most fragile and most vul
nerable. I believe that, whatever tho fu
ture of the dlrflslble may bo for all tho
uses of peace. In a few years no
one will think of employing it for war.
But for the moment it must be provided
IN SOUTH AMERICA
SOUGHT BY THE U.S.
Expert, Back From Tour,
Says Success of Germans
Is Due to Promotion of
Better Understanding With
ATTACK GRADE CROSSINGS
Lower Delaware Citizens Begin Agi
tation Following .Barnard Death.
DOVEIt, Del,, Sept. 15. Elimination
of grade crossings In towns In lower
Delaware Is being agitated today as the
result of tho accldont In Wyoming late
estcrday arternoon In which former
Stato Senator Itemsen O, Barnard, a
wealthy cunner, was killed when an ex
press train crashed Into an automobile
lie was driving.
Eleven persons have been killed In five
jears at the crossing wheie Senator Bar
nard met death.
Friends of Senator Barnard this morn
ing, as Coroner Willis Impaneled a jury
for the Inquest, declared they would
seek to hnvn a bill introduced Into tho
General Assembly next winter to com
pel the Delaware Railroad to eliminate
Hum ,??"' Fo,r. an- bjact the
'Thr. i Ps.wouW not b Incurred.
th. Influent f, c,our5e' tha nuestlon of
tlou ' Im , Ju London " """"da! rela
Influenc. hu 1 " countrtes. ut It that
!AWearTan ,Q P"Vent th
&nJ0n n .5 'nt wunt the size of
Mtrol coUM "" that no """n or aerial
j,.,'..' C0JI4 prevent an ,.n.v v...
Ps b ,LSl!'tt building n.lght per
wChSI1, but f the balloon's
Mr miiht LC"gQ J "Plstves the rem-
. but ft ,. lt.ck on Lndon is posal
My. Aeronfan l ,0 formidable nor so
As for tnt,l"3Ked by our own patrols.
ttttmai,;u;i,:l a"acf' I hoW think
TO COMPETE EOR ACADEMY
"s over London In the dark
, - -- -- 4ii hi uuji
cuutui. - ""eroua risk In nrraent
PMrollnr can J ? ,thlnk any "Vtem
''" achfra,ie",lre'Sr Prevent aircraft
tSntt0"' l? d0,,"J aso
aWt this dane.i . r!' Th onlr Wly to
u'own afr" f,r.,s to Provide enough of
t ?hr0UahCy ' i" ene", a'reraft
porous offensC abltt ,0 taks a
VBED ARMED AEROPLANES.
'UctDnKe"U.re8 ' actual defenS8
fj i na turn, r?.e Armed roplanes
SttJy hSiJh,0QI1 detroyers. and I
to-hunt6 ; provided in sufficient
"i'tace. nt tnelr luay out of
m up, i tumk
Examination Will Determine An
napoliB Appointments From N. J,
TRENTO.V, Sept. 15 -A competitive
examination for all youth of the State
will be held at the Batton High School,
Elizabeth, next Saturday, beginning at
9 o'clock in the morning.
The test will be for the purpose of
allowing United States Senator Marline
to make two selections for principals
ami alternates for appointments to the
Annapolis Naval Academy from New
Jersey. Senator Martina made this an
OPPOSES FREIGHT TAX
Development of permanent and exten
sive commercial relations with tho South
American countiles must have for Its
basis a closer mutual underitandlng of
Intellectual and cultural conditions, ac
cording to H. Erwln Bard, the director
of the Pan-American Division of the
American Association for International
Conciliation. Mr. Bard recently returned
on tho Calamares from an extensive visit
to the educational centres of South
America, which wns made under his
leadership by a leprescntatlve body of
"The Pan-American Division was cre
ated by the American Association for In
ternational Conciliation last January."
said Mr. Bard, "and this trip Is tho first
move toward establishing closer rela
tions with our South American neigh
bors. Wo Americans are prono to over
look tho necessity of a mutual cultural
and Intellectual understanding' between
countries which wish to dovelop oxtenslve
and permanent commercl.il relations.
"From before tho crpntlon of this na
tion as an Independent political and com
mercial agent, wo havo been In the
closest touch with the cultural and In
tellectual conditions of Europe. This ap
plies especially to our mother country
and to Germany, and It is a slgnlflciut
rnct tnat our greatest trade relations are
with those two countries Vet it never
occurs to us tnat this close Intimacy Is
the basis for our commorce.
SHOULD 6TUDT CHARACTERISTICS.
"Hence, In our attempts to dovelop our
trado -nlth South America iv have been
Indifferent to the need of leurnlng the
characteristics peculiar to South Ameri
can life and culture. Although the coun
tries there have long been on Intimate
relations with Europe, theie has bee
but small oDportunlty for cross-currents
to be established between them and us.
This Is because tha Interests of South
Ameilca lu Europe havo naturally cen
tred In tho southern, or Latin, countries,
whllo wo have developed more Intimate
connections with the English and Teu
"Tho commercial successes of Germany
4n South America havo been due to the
.fact that their merchants have recognized
principle or establishing cultural re
Wo would only go half-way. At tho
same time, I wish to emphasize tho bene
fits which many of our students could get
from a year or two of study In South
"It Is more than a question of the in
terchange of students, however. What
wo al3o need Is nn Interchange of tho
leading men. The mere fact that a man
like Colonel Roosevelt wished to visit
theso countries of South America was a
big step In tho making of bettor relations.
As far as I could learn, he also made an
excellent Impression. It Is tho same way
with tho visits which Robert Bacon and
Secretary Root havo paid to South
America in the past few years. I heard
icferenccs to these trips constantly.
"Between tho present war and the at
tractions of the San Francisco Exposi
tion, there will undoubtedly be a great
imiiiuer oi ooutn Americans who will
visit this country in tho next year. Ar
gentina is spending a great deal of
inuncy aim care on Her representation at
ban Francisco. She Is also contemplating
the creation of several national com
missions, which will come to the United
States to study various fields of activity.
This coming December Chill will send a
commission to study our trade schools,
and Tancredo Pinochet Le-Brun, director
vi inu .Miuonai xiacie Scliool of Santiago,
and one of tho blggeBt educators In Chill,
.L. nt the hoad ot tho commission,
i ?. , South Americans are thus ready to
(lo their share In tho establishment of
muio uuiinuio relations with us. It is
our duty, as well as to our InWests. to
respond. If only the firms which already
have trade connections in South America
ana those who are about to establish
them would choose as their represent
atives men of experience and culturo who
know tho language of the countries and
understand their customs, not only will
the trado of these particular firms be
?rea,tly ,e!Jentcd' but a lonP step for.
I," ' , b made. '" the realization it
the position which tho United States
?.as.in ,h8 marlets of South America.
,i,-. "m,Btt"ie mo, steps should bo
?,''e". ,, '"u!5 !: Knowledge to
--., .....'"" ol meir ne ghbors on the
south. I wish all could see the State
aII'0.01 J. Mod?rn languages in Buenos
-.,. . UCIU II1RV I.tPh halnm. In tJ.
arithmetic in French, and so on.
e technical trmo ,. i 1
;ZVtrrPrV,n,-1 t"e subject is "
a,uehVin f,ore,sn JMwnagB. As a re-
. k. j 'V ure ooa linguists with
o nm- say that
Chamber of Commeice Committee
Makes Vigorous Protest,
A lgorous proU-st against tho Impo
sition of the 3 per cent, war tat on
freight bills now being considered by
Congress has Utun mudu b the Freight
Committee of the Philadelphia Chamber
of Commerce, of which Coleman Sellers.
Jr., Is chairman A tuUgram embodying
the committee's protest bus been fecnt
to President Wilson.
A Wide range of subjects was discussed
by the committee ut Its first meeting
since tho summer rvcesa. Opposition to
Qovernment ownership of vessels was
mud.j. while the proposed assistance to
any steamship line to ply between tho
United States and South America was
The committee has demanded a per
sonal hearing before Congress to pro
test against the Clayton bill relative to
exclusive agency contract!.
latlons"t tho same llmo that they aro
developing tlm commercial side The Ger
mans who have settled down In South
America as repiest'titatUes of firms In
their fatherland, oi who have themselves
established businesses there, are all well.
educated and cultured men They hvu
taken the trouble to learn the languago
pf the country and to undemtaua its
social and cultural stundaids Otherwise
they hae not been successful and havo
been forced out One of the m.iln reasons
why the Germans have been quicker than
we to appieclate the aluo uf knowing
the coumr) Is that tho educational s)s
tcm In Gorm.un lajs to much moro em
phaels on Instruction in the modern
lorelgn languages ns part of tho neces
sary training far a business man.
WANTS STUDENTS TO COME HERB.
"Rut we cannot expect that tho Intro,
ductlon of courses lit Spanish and Portu
guese Into our commercial schools will be
a panacea Wo need tha continual Inter
change of ideas between tho biggest men
In our count! y and Ukmo In tho nations
south of us. In tha past, the general
trend has been for students to go from
tho big universities of Argentina. Chill,
nnd bo forth, to Paris, Madrid and Ber
lin for postgraduate work. Vet there aro
an appreciable number who find their
way to our colleges, and I feel sure that
Ihta number caa be greatly lncrtge4 U
out having 'devoted adS.t iol lm77o
the study of languages. Our treatment
of the modern languages I. notoriously
of nSpannishand th'8 " art,"ttrlr .tnle
BLUNDERS MADE HERB.
Of course, thta Is all going to take
time, .or our Ignorance and mlslnforma.
tion of South America are almost Incon
celvable. Take, for Instance. th m.f...
of languages. Few Americans know that
outside of Hrazll, where the official Ian
gunge Is Portuguese, the official language
of all the South American oountrles is
Spanish. Tho Spanish is as near to the
pure Castllian a our English l lito th
of England. Our conception of South
American geography Is equally tt fault
I havo seen some of the letters from our
firms to clients l Argentina! pm hl
misinformation shown as to distances
nd to the slws of the cities. I tMnH
It a wonder that the firms can carry on
any trade down Ihere. r
.'.uiuraiiy. what arouses the rwent.
ment of the South Americans more than
an thing else Is the cheerful way in which
)HpIUnlp,the.c.lt,zens of ,ho various coun.
tries under the term South Americans
anm,ra'f,m,S8 th.enl RS belng theTame'
In reality, each country Is trying to de
velop Its own national characterlstlca
more and more, without . ':".
weaken ng their International relation
For this reason, I think that the work
of the Pan-American Division In lead.
ni Xn? uTnX , btt,er understand
ing of South America cannot be over-
tn,"6'' T'l.'3 Tlp ttom wh'ch I have
just returned has been most encouraging
.i as organized to represent the Amer
lean universities, and there were such
men as Prof l.nn c i..i...n ,. r. .
cago. Prof Chester Llod Jonea, of Wis.
consln, nnd Prof F r Luqulens. of Yale
e left here on May JO. and Uslted all
the big educational Institutions of Brazil
Uruguay. Argentina, chill, and Peru.
Everywhere we were received most cor.
aially, and wera shown a keen apprecla
i"L ct .ur efrrt9 to bring Uie countries
or South America Into more Intimate re
lations with our own country. Intellectu
ally, politically and commercially."
and, furthermore, It i learned on good
authority that none of them Is mounted
with guns, for It Is now known that If
there were a leak In any of the chambers
of tha (U bag near tho middle portion
of the dirigible, the escaping hydrogon
would find Its way out near the gun
platform and would be most certain to
explode when tho gun was discharged.
It li now believed that the explosion
several months ago or the new Zeppelin
at Johnnnlsthnl, near Berlin, when tho
entire orew was killed, wna caused by
tho gun on top firing blank cartridges
as nn experiment.
It Is, therefore, comparatively a slmplo
matter, in the abnenco of a gun, for nn
aviator to approach quite close to a Zep
pelin front above, for the crow In the
cars below tho gas bag, cannot hit tho
aeroplane so lont' aa tho pilot keeps the
envelope betwren himself and tho cars
of tho Zeppelin. Tha knowledgo of thin
fact probably nccounts for the absence
of reports of German airships flying over
France, while the German balloons havo
been seen much over Belgium. Franco
has a huge corps of expert aviators and
aeroplanes of tho highest rfllclency,
while the Belgian aviation corps Is so
small that It hardly counts.
While Germany has been the esptclal
sponsor of the dirigible for military pur
poses, that country has not overlooked
thi aeroplane. While France has popu
larly been supposed to 1-ml In war aero
planes, Gcrmnny has as many as 1.100
of these machines, ntid perhaps tho larg
Those 130i) machines are all compara
tively new and with all the latest lm
piovements. With ono motor firm putting
out 140 airo engines a month for tho last
six months, one may safely put tha entire
German output At ,an month, With An
aoroplnne for each of these engines, (He
man military .rlfttlon activity bresJt all
The numbar of pilot to fly thM rns..
chines Is greater than tha aviation corps
of any other nation because ot Germany'
policy of encouraging civilian flying
schools. Under this system oh aero
plane firm of amy Importance hud cer
tain number of soldiers, mostly officers,
but soma prl rates and non-commissioned
o fuoera allotted to Its school to ba trained
by the firm's own pilots.
The training of these military flyers was
paid at a, rata that enabled tha com
panies to use tha best machines and pay
high wages to their pilots. Tha firms
could afford to provide comfortable quar
ters for their pupils and In other -ways
to do things on a seal which does not
oxlst In any other country
In order to stimulate progress In avia
tion, military aviators were encouraged
to enter tho big flying competitions, and
various Government departments gave
handsome prizes. For this reason there
ware 30 starters In the Prince Henry com
petition this year, while tha big- London-to-Manchestor
air racn In England about
the same time brought out only six:
It Is now praatlcslly certain that tha
Gorman and Austrian air scouts together
outnumber all tho French, Russian, Brit
ish, Belgian, Servian and Dutch aviatofs,
so that In tha aerial end of the war Ger
many Is far ahead of her enemies, l. .
Store Opens 8.80 A. M.
Store Closes S. SO P. M.
Grand Organ Recitals 5, 11 and S.1S
THE WANAMAKER STORE
Aonnoiuiinices for Tomorrow
The first great AMtomn sale of hosiery and underwear
many thousand pair of hose and pieces of underwear
in both Fall and medium weigtats at prices
averaging onethird less than usual.
(East Aisle and Subway Floor)
A special collection of young women's Autumn suits and
new afternoon dresses to sell at $113.75 each.
(Second Floor, Chestnut)
A showing of new imported broadcloths to be used for
coat suits. These are in 1125 different shades; a
collection not likely to be duplicated or equaled.
(First Floor, Chestnut)
Fas-sit showing off men's new itweedl halts asud! caps from Lincoln
(Main Floor, Marktt)
Last sho'ivairag off ttlfoe Callot gown copies Soi
at II and 2.30
(First Floor, Central)
ae Little Gray Salons
First showing off the new Parisienne corsets for
conform to the new ffashaon Sines.
(Third Floor, Chestnut)
Opening up off the new marabou and ostrich boas. These pretty
things include many charming novelties that
every woman wili vant to see.
(Main Floor, Central)
A little special sale off a hundred new bed quilts at
$3.75 and $9. New blankets in the same place.
(Fifth Floor, Market)
Showing of complete assortment off finest new English suitings
for gentlemen's wear, in the London Tailoring Shop.
' (Subuwv Gallery, Chestnut)
ning up of the new Autumn silks in the Lower Price Store.
A large and varied assortment, including many
silks arranged in dress lengths
at low prices.
(Subway Floor, Chestnut)