Newspaper Page Text
Wf,t ; v-3-tj-j-v"
jnw wi.iy.wwxi'w" " i'''ij))ili)!pi ,'
EVENING LEDGER -PHILADELPHIA, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1915.
JA.lyXZ3QfflKBaBiagTB?!SBST 7z ittiMfllmjf jM
... t IV
y ) r"77 j - d. SF? m
-1 S I W A n V
KBrni'B-Celebratlon of tho 12th anni
versary of this popular vaudcvlllo house,
with Jesse I. Lasky's tabloid muslcnl
comedy. "J'he Society Buds," with spe
cial numbers by Irving' Berlin, heading
1tfHIC "The Story of the Rosary," war
melodrama In famous Drury Lano style.
ADEL-'PHT-."A Pair of Sixes," farce by
Edward Peple. Two business partners
shoot a cold hand, the winner to retain
the business, the loser to become his
ft!?1' body servant for a year. Maude Eburno
Inlmltabjy funny as a slavey.
BROAD "The Bong of Songs," new play
by Edward Shtldon. Variations on
Sudertnann's novel, with scenes In this
FORttEST "Sari," charming operetta
with Mtzxl Hajoa and Ireno Powlowskn
A sood plot, better music, an excellent
company and Mlul Hajos, Just 1i
I'BStxS W oai comedy, with book by II. B. and 1:
B. Smith and music by Victor Herbert
Enthralllnirly cnsnglnpr music by Vlctoi
Herbert. Hazel Dawn a subjugatlngb
MTTLE THEATRE Excollent revival of
Bhoridan's "The Rivals."
"WAL-NUT "Within tho Law." Cathcrlm
Tower convincingly portrays Mar..
Turner, who Is unjustly sentenced U
prison, but finally triumphs.
FOR MUSICAL SATIRE
Trend of the Drama Popu
larity of Women Play
League for Working Peo
"Tour American novelists," declared
Anthony Hopo Hawkins as he eat at
lunch In London Bomewlmt over a. year
ago, "have the greatest material the
World has ever offered for great novels.
Take your capitalists romantic titan
figures of men; your financial wars
more thrilling than the wars of tho
Crusaders and the knights of Arthur;
your politicians and political campaigns.
Tremendous material for books, and
for dramatlo satire and musical comedy
While tho dramatic and romantic ele
ments of our national life have to a de
greo been made tho bonis of novels and
plays, singularly the many subjects that
offer themselves for satire and fertile
subjects they are have boon neglected In
' When Gilbert and Sullivan Immortal
partnership of composer and librettist
were in the heyday of their popularity,
statesmen, politicians, crooked financiers,
"bunk" popular heroes and purplo
HlUed poets afforded rich material for
their delightful farces. The Inef
ficiency of the English navy, the fool
ishness of society women who fawned
upon the Bunthorne type of poseur and
Intellectual dilettante, the shortcomings
of members of Parliament, the popularity
of egregious melodrama, the Inefficiency
of British Juries were gloriously and
effectively exposed In musically scored
With Wnr variegated life social, po
litical, commerclal-wlth themes for
tremendous drama, we have material no
less adapted for satire than England at
the time of "The Mikado," "Pinafore."
"lolanthe" and "Patience." Speaking
with Viator Herbert tho other evening,
the question was asked as to whether
these subjects should not or -Wculd not
be used In musical comedy.
Ten, perhaps It will be done," said
Herbert. "That Is, if some one can write
tho books. However, a musical comedy
could not be written simply about a rail
road or a crooked manipulation of stocks.
The first element for musical comedy Is
romance. If some one could take sub
jects of modem life In politics, society,
business adapted to humorous satire and
surround them with love Interest, strik
ing s,nd successful musical comedies could
be written. As for Gilbert and Bul
Ilvftji. their work was pretty Irregular.
ard, whit I liked 'The Mikado I thought
I,lnafor was pretty poor.
Xhere is. Indeed, a new field hero for
sraslca? comedy In this country. Per
hapsXlt will develop. The subjects are
Jndginr br the failures last rear of
plays dealing baldly with social problems,
th American publlo has effectually set
the seal of disapproval upon "riskiness"
In the drama. For a season or two.
dramatists having "gone beyond the line."
U looked as though, there would be no
Itsalt to the boldness of subjects chosen
r the lndelloaoy of dlsousstons on the
stage. The much-exploited white slave
came into being from the Imagination
of popular novelists and appeared be
lore the ' footlights. She won gallery
encores. Conversations such as usually
take place in the privacy of physicians
offices ran through the sots. Eheu, It
was an era of great moral uplift I There
war those, however, who considered It an
era of Insincere and venal literary and
dramatlo liberty. For a. while It paid.
Theo. somehow, tb publlo ceased read
ing msga tinea making a specialty of
aufgestiv stories, white slave novels
died stillborn and the settings of soclal-
rflbi uplift dramas speedily went to the ware-
Ir. - 'Apropros of some of the unfavorable
i","", eriUelsma of the rranmess in treating
esnaia fnemea ln ioo pons w ouuga,
wklau opened at the Broad, Charleal
yrohtnan has sent a letter to us, In which
;i"I- was convinced wax me coianus
THE GREAT SOURCE OF
By SlUs B. Neff, Ph. D.
jtotaesr. Nevjath, a .10 P. K.. at
Xttnr Roots- TN(t Colin. 1TOO Chtiton.
Utiptt 8jhI tat CowpUouatanr TWta,
y0 ojf World1 Ore
V A I'
. . - . ?"
Tk Spoilers" $'
Kmm aad Jtttty WUMeM
U 3 Wlc Brcs..
- wm w. 3m
of Its theme necessitated nn equal bold
ness of treatment, nnd. though the ex
cesses displayed In our supper scene
may go beyond anything yet attempted
In the plays which I have produced, I
wish to say that Mr. Sheldon's manuscript
was submitted to Herman Sudermnnn
himself and came back with a tribute
Of his entire approval. Need 1 say mors?
Times are changing. Audacity Is the
keynote of modern artwork, and If In
'The Song of Songs' there are scenes
which may alarm a timid soul, I can '
only allege that my play Is a sincere I
attempt to reproduce In the author's
vivid colors a novel which has won tho
enthusiastic applause'of the world."
Mr. Frohmnn Is one of the greatest and
Annie Saker and Alfred Paumier,
"The Story of the Rosary" Lyric.
best producers. His statement Is sincere.
Nevertheless, while all subjects of human
life can bo treated, provided that treat
ment la spiritually honest and artistic,
there Is unquestionably a squcamlshness
on the part of the American people really,
an Inviolable cleanness which recoils from
the presentation on the stago of certain
phases of life In a blunt, bald manner.
The editor of a popular magazine onco
denned the difference between Ibsen and
Brleux. "They both 1il with tho samo
subjects," said ho, "but Risen Is a drama
tist with good taste and manners a gen
tleman. Brleux Is a, dramatist without
The woman dramatist, with the era of
suffrage, Is coming into her own. 'Within
the last decade women have Increasingly
Invaded a field that, from the time of
Sophocles to Shakespeare, and long after,
was monopolized by men. The dramatic
successes achieved by women have been
chiefly In comedy. But It feminine deli
cacy of wit, grace of lines and a sympa
thetically, tenderly humorous treatment of
human nature wore needed. It Is certainly
In this phase of the drama. With the
success of "Daddy-Long Legs," Jean
Webstar has Just mads her dobut as a
dramatist. The book of New York's most
bounding hit, "Chln-Chln," was written
MATINEE TODAY TONIGHT
'TUT ef lntn sral. Mln Tovrrforcful."
"Itauhe the height of dramatlo achievement.
Mtia Toner, aa Mary Turner, proved hereelt the
poaaaaaor or raxft aramauo sum ana iKauiaaiuier
womanly charm." iMoorq,
"Not durlnr this leuon at tola VieHflfiila. SstPSSiV Mk,
tbea.tr haa tnara baen a better y VS$3H?K. sSSSSI. tSiffS S
talancad, mar capabla oora- 'SEiSiBL. slSk S'P '
pany." Ere. Telegraph. sUtWit-. JSIHKL TsUlk r
"Thrlllaanfl laugha. nil ulr 'fSOilltPTF(l Bewyn
neplate with tanaa altua- ygA BbSIHm' INIik . doetion a vlvldi
tloni." Bulletin. .JJb. SSWEa. TBtBaBn. drama. Catherine
V 11 sZafnmJx. SJSt 'MIS' Towar a flnlihad ao-
A $2 Production WgLMg&L gk tr"" dr.
at Pouular v BisTik PC " Rt,ri'e M1"
THIRD REGIMENT ARMORY
BROAD AND WHARTON STS.
8ESB10M8 BVEKT ARERNOON
AMD TUBSDAT, FRIDAT AND
MUSIC AT ALL SESSIONS
11 :tt TO 11 :30
Ed Stanley and Maude Muller
"THE FASHION SHOP"
FRANK BUSH-J OTHERS
Aa4 Bbstt. Intertetlog Pboto-Pisrs
FDRRRST hi W"i Wk. Bvg., a as
rUWUiai Mails T0!y at J: 18
ErVXBtY MUSICAL CADI
NUMHR A JUT A ,
PejwUr pit W4. UaU. But Sals ll.W
AOAWSiCX 8U el Baps, lilt Cfceetna
Maude Odell and Will West,
"The Debutante" Garrick.
by Anne Caldwell In collaboration with
R. H. Burnslde. Rachel Crothers has
hardly had a season pass without a suc
cess, and Margaret Muyo, author of that
delight, "Baby Mine." Is the author of
ono of the half dozen most popular attrac
tions of the yoar In "Twin Beds." Other
women from whom big hits may be ex
pected nny time are Eleanor Dates, Eliza
beth Jordan and Gladys Unger. It may
bo noted, too, that the most successful
play brokors In New York are women,
namely, Miss Elizabeth Marbury, Miss
Alice Kauser and Mrs. De Mile.
A unique and worthy movement has
been Inaugurated In the Wage Earners'
Theatre League, which Is In charge of
Mr. J. Samuels, whose headquarters are
In the Keith Theatre Building. The pur
pose of the league Is to co-operate with
theatre managers and secure tickets In
considerable numbers at out rates. Mnry
Garden, who has a hobby of buying
tickets for her own operas and giving
them away to hotel employes, washer
women, waiters and servants, once said
to me that the underpaid working peo
ple needed amusement more than any
one else. This Is true. Miss Garden told
of giving tickets to "Thais" to the
woman who does her "wash" in Paris.
Next day,, thanking Miss Garden, the
laundress said she had taken her hus
band who, after the performance, said it
was "like waking up from being In
Julius Hopp some years ago started a
similar movement In New York, and en
abled working people with low salaries
to get tloketa to plays and musical af
fairs at a considerable reduction. It is
to be hoped Mr. Hopp's success may be
repeated here. The annual dues to the
looal league are 15 cents. W. Dayton
Wegefarth, of the Walnut Street The
atre, has already offered his co-operation,
and of the concerts at the Academy of
Muslo arrangements have been made for
cut-price seats for tho Symphony Society
of New York, which Walter Damrosch
OTH AND WAUTOT
Special Orchntr&l Muslo.
EVENINOH. ZSc TO S1.0O.
MATH.. TUES., TMUnftDAY,
BAT. n AND BOB.
Hold a Benefit
PII1ST PHILADELPHIA APPEARANCE
The Magda Dahl Opera Co.
In Bits from Popular Optra
With Company of 18 ArtliU
Richards & Kyle
in avavTin songs and DANcea
Irving & McCormick
In "AIJ, ABOARD"
The Tirney Four
TmtruBmtsittty and VooUtg.
The Velde Trio
Tng ACT THAT'S PIFPgRgNT
THRBH SHOWS DAILT 3:18 T
Mat. All BU 10c. Erf. 10, SO. 80a.
MAN FROM MEXICO"
STU AND ASCK STB.
lite AXD Ma
Irene Fenwick and Cyril Keightley,
"The Song of Songs" Broad.
Anniversary at Keith's
The 12th annlvorsary of the opening
of 33. P. Keith's Theatre will be cele
brated next week. The chief attrac
tion will bo Jesse L, Losky's new
tabloid musical comedy, "The Society
Buds," with Gladys Clark and Henry
Bergman. The book and muslo are by
tho authors of "The Trained Nurses,"
"The Red Hoads" and other Lasky suo
oesses, with special 'musical numbers by
Irvln Berlin, author of "Alexander's Itag
tlmo Band" and other popular hits. The
rest of the bill will Include Allan Dlne
hart. In a now one-act sketch, "The Mean
est Man In tho World"; Billy Gould and
Belle Ashlyn, who chat, sing and dance;
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Vllde, shadowgraph
Ists, who not only produce on a sheet ani
mated pictures, but show In silhouette
various celebrities; Ollndell Kingston and
George Ebner, In "A Vaudeville Flirta
tion"; Fred Sosman, a comedian and
vocalist; the Maxlne Brothers, capable
acrobats, gymnasts and balancers; Van
Iloven, known as "The Dippy Mad Ma
gician," and the Magleys, specialty
Next week will terminate the pre
liminary season at the American Thea
tre and bring to a close the limited en
gagement of Emily Bmlley as leading
woman of the producing stock company.
On November It the regular winter sea
son will begin, under the direction of
William W. Miller & Co., with a stock
company made up of old favorites and
several new players. Next week "The
Toko" will be presented.
Afternoons, 1 to 5 10c & 15c.
The Gigantic Trinmph
yfiPftT XW A I a pi W
vlfwSi I HI ' '111 itin I
With WILUAM FARNUM, KATHLYN WILLIAMS and Great Cast
Accompanied by Wurlitzer Organ and Brand New Comedy Pictures Every Day
IVM. V. JIH.LEU i Maatica bUnfonl
llsasser I Htaio Director
Ezctllent loaacetueiiU Iavetlsst
PnfPiaa Krenlns. loo, too, SOo
WBBK COMUKNCINQ HON DAT
A Powerful Problem Play Mametlcally
Mirroring the Moat Mjaterlom Realm
of Woman' Soul
IsAusur of U tlacuUr Winter Sewon
yonaiUd oc th FolUa tt aoolatr.
Hale Hamilton and Ralph Herz,
"A Pair of Sixes" Adclphi.
Foreign Teachers of
Voice Mostly Fakes
"If a young man or woman desiring a
musical career asked my advice, I should
say don't go abroad to study singing. Stay
In this country. The teachers here are
better, more honest, and will do more for
one. Thousands of young Americans have
had their voices utterly ruined abroad. If
thoy had studied with some of the many
superior Instructors In this country or In
Canada they would be successful singers
Miss Irene Pawlowska, the Jullska of
Henry W. Savage's company In the
operetta "Sari," now at the Forrest Thea
tre, returned last fall from three years'
study abroad with emphatic opinions cm
"I'm tremendously glad to put myself
on record before young peoplo planning
a course of voice study, and I'll be happy
If I can dissuade at least some of them
from becoming victims of the horde of
charlatans In Parts, Berlin and Home, who
prey and wax fat upon the misguided and
deluded folks who go to them aa pupils.
"Generally foreign teachers know ab
solutely nothing about placing the voice
or developing its tono or quality. They
can coach you in songs, yes. Their value
stops right there. Indeed, beyond that
they are positively harmful.
"A certain teacher whom I have in
mind was a famous singer a few years
ago, and this country was wild about him.
Ho retired from the stage, and now Is
teaching In Paris. When he teaches he
stands at ono side of the pupil, watch In
hand, makes him run the scale three
times and sing one song. Ills only com
ment Is 'Louder, louder!' His Idea is
volume noise. Ho strains a voice. His
charge Is 120 a lesson.
"Another teacher with a. big reputation
under whom I studied told me after a
few lessons that he'd prepare me for
grand opera In three months. I knew that
was Impossible, realized at onco that he
was Insincere, and gave him up.
"Of course you know these so-called In
structors agree to get pne an engage
ment. What Bort of an engagement Is ltT
With a little out-of-the-way unheard-of
opera company, whero you receive no
salary and furnish all your own costumes.
You are required to sing any role so
prano, mezzo, contralto. At the end of
four or Ave years your voloe is ruined.
"Hundreds upon hundreds of American
girls have gone through this experience
and returned home penniless and with
voices destroyed. In New York, Phila
delphia, Chicago, Toronto, and probably
elsewhere, are teachers who are Incom
parably better than those abroad."
Home of World's
Greatest Photo Plays
Evenings, 7 to 11 10c, 15c, 25c
of Motion Photography
Story Ever Filmed
Now or Never!
Convict Ship Sails Soon
and Will Not Return
But . ahort Urn remain In which
Philadelphia!! may Tlalt tb famoua
British Prison Ship
Oldeat and Most BUtorlo Orstt Afloat
UNQUESTIONABLY TUB MOST
UNIQCE MU8KU5I IN THE
, . WOULD
Tb "SuceaaV aall from her for
Ban FrancUoo, there to be exhibited.
In oonneatlon with tb Panama-Pa-olOo
Moored at the Market St. Wharf
AdmUalon, Mo Incladlnt Bcrrleea of
Quldo auid Lecturer.
Open Daily, f A.M. to ! 0 P.M
Csa B VUlUd By Mibt A WeU As
Day. XixbUd Tbroujhout by
American Plays Best
"Desplts their prestige nnd the number
of really great playwrights, American
dramatists are generally better than the
English," declared Walter Howurd, th
English actor-author, -who will play In
"The Story of the Rosary," which will
open a two weeks' engagement at the
Liyrlo Monday. 'American dramatists
write direct, strong, uncompromising
plays. Sometimes they may bo crude;
sometimes finesse and subtlety may bo
missing, but strength, humanity and the
essential dramatic elements are there,
"Tho fault of the British playmaker
of today Is his overnlcety. Our London
dramatists write ladyllko plays. They
would call a spade not a spade, but 'a.
J rude agricultural Implement.' I do not
say that the British dramatist is effete
nnd balked by a falso modesty. He Is
actually nfrald of the essential emotions.
"In London you can not placard a
melodrama ns a melodrama to got a
proper audience. Our West End corre
sponds to your Broadway, We take suah
admitted melodramas as 'Within tho
Law,' for Instance; but the word melo
drama cannot be applied to them. Melo
drama to smart London Is an Infinitely
worse word than 'bloody' It Is vulgnrlty.
Therefore, London takes melodrama, and
adores It, under various aliases."
Mr. Howard Is an ex-soldter. He was
born at Stratford-on-Avon, In the same
Btreet as Shakespeare's home. For 12
years he was In the British army, and
while In the army wrote his first play.
"The actors of London," says Mr.
Howard, "are now doing constabulary
duty, between the hours of midnight nnd
4 a. m. They are working, and at the
came time are derotlng the only hours of
leisure they hare to tholr country's
service, watching publlo works, railways
"The Story of the Rosary" Is said to
have an unusual Interest at this time, Its
plot and characters being suggestive of
the war now raging on tho continent. It
tells of the Red Dragoons' call to tho
front, the hasty marriage of Captain
Paul Itomain and Vonotla von Sab ran,
the disappearance of Paul, a,nd his return
as his bride Is about to take the veil,
Before the outbreak of the European war
Mr. Howard And hi wimrmiiv nrndilrrt It
successfully In London, and in August
wrought It to Now York, where it was
staged as the first war play of the season.
Annie Baker and Alfred Paumier wtl!
enact the lovers' roles. Mr. Howard's
part is that of Karl Larose, friend of
the hero. One hundred people will nppear
on tho stage, among tho principals being
Chris Wnlker, as an old priest, and
George Desmond and Marjorlo Day, as a
pair of comlo youthful lovers.
the. meanest mam
BILLY GOULD 2
kTC3AC 5KV GSi?G'k
"a 'iL "Tir U o --i 7- jy
A7AXm BfcOTHRS & BOBBY
pROft ftvSBJS- aCATS AlVflfiA VfcEK M ADYAttC - KtYSToMt ISKt 2150
November lGth All-Favorites'
VISITORS TO NEW TOIUC SHOULD NOT VAIL TO VISIT
B. F. KEITH'S PALACE THEATRE "t"D
WONDBItnJL SnOWS IN THE MOST
" Minimi mnimm mi mm
-- A--- V4 Mattnea Today. 2:1S
PEOPLE I J-iS!E5?:S,!aSllllPS!JSteSSrw
"A fare tbat
ouxht to cur the
wont a a of
frouoh on dry
Broad St. and Montgomery Ave.
rRED. O.NIXON-NIROLLNOSR. Qen. Mr.
ONE BIO RIOT OF PXTN
Ja Latky Bt OoBwdy Fatur
Bruch & Bruch Warren & Francla
Lucille Tilton jHerle'a Cockatooa
BIG. FRANZ TROUPE
B COATHDT CYCL1OT6 BUPRUMB fl
al tlotlao Ltusb Ptctur-
gA 3000 SEATS &&'
UfUtl"w- Mitlntfl Today at 1(
HAZEL DAWN S H wtt
sxva-w vmi Kuslo by Vtowr HU
PspuUr PrU Wtd. Hat. Beat SauLM
tf-n -tffavi Pip3 JsJW . VSista MUX. rtafijVfi
.ieaKPik I vm
iflssTS '- ' fie&Sk inn
land." Bulletin. WmjfWi rTTifisBaV
MAT. V.. V-Sl ISOsRlUy AKS.vPSaM
TTVr.n sBIs1ssbb9s9ssHr ssH ' 9f JBHPssBBsPHa UKK8
AT ilaSBBBBBBBBBBBBBH WWtt f ' W Bj J JSHrSBsHsSH
H1HHJIIUUIH1H(IHIUM(U H(t ,.MU.i,wn,M,.t4w
..! I -
Philadelphia Girls More
Beautiful Than English'
Tho first thing I noticed about Ameri
can girls was their lovely complexions,"
said Ian Maolaren, who Is playing Cap
tain Jnok Absolute In "The Rivals," at
the Little Theatre. "Of course one sees
lots of girls with their faces powdered
till they resemble nothing so much ns
the down In a circus, but then you see
that just as much abroad as here.
Especially In Philadelphia I havo been
Btruok by that youthful loveliness born
of olear eyes nnd clean, fair skins.
"But If the Philadelphia girl Is prettlor
than her English sister, she certainty
has an English environment. 1 havo
nover soen a city In America so like the
cities of England aa Philadelphia Is. It
has the samo quiet dignity about Its
fashionable section: tho same air of
cheery bustle about Its business streets
quite different from those of New York
nnd Chicago, and In fact even its archi
tecture is English. Although I havs
traveled from const to const In this
country nnd now claim to be an American
bocause I havo bought a farm In New
Hampshire, Philadelphia Is tho first
city where I have actually felt nt holme."
Mr. Maolaren, who Is a noted Shakes
pearean player, was lending man with
Margaret Anglln last Benson, and also
plnyed In "Disraeli" and "Tho Qardon of
to Theatrical Success
"There's a wiso old saying that if you
give a dor a bad namo all tho dead sheep
In the neighborhood will be laid at his
door, and certainly 'temperament' Is that
clog In the theatrical world," declared
Whltford Kane, of tho Little Thentre
"Artistic temperament hao been mads
synonymous, not only with tornper, im
morality and shlftlessness, but it has
also become a black mark against every
player suspected of possessing It Yet,
without temperament an actor cannot
creato a role.
"Temporament is Just as necessary
a one's mike-up. Of oourss. If
yon'ro a. pretty girl, or a 'devilishly
handsome man,' nnd you play parts as
signed you because you look like that,
you can let temperament protty much
go hang; but whon you're In your early
thirties nnd you've got to look 60, or .
whon you've got to bo nn Irascible old-
man one week and n hnncdog young ono
the next, you've got to havo tempera
ment to help you change, not only your
looks, but your feelings."
Week With Irene Franklin
BEAUTIFUL HOUSE IN Tin: WORM!
,,,,, mmimmmmiiu ,.,,,,,,, iiiimmi
lieclnnlnjr Monday, Com
atock & Oeat preaent a
Thrilling Melodrama of Mod
era War and Eternal Love.
BIO, SCENES 1
Beginning Monday 4th
s:20 Week of Hearty Laughter
1TTH AND PELANCBT 8TS,
MATINEE TODAf AT 80
TOMQHT AT 8.80.
PHONE LOCUST 87TQ
Blonlns Monday Evening-. Laat 8 time.
MwiUUb1 Delightful 014 JtaglUa ComVdy
p2Liil ii? Suec ot tl Tear
Popular 1. JIaUiw ThurwU 2 Jj
tUsular MatlM. gattuday i hu
Conanr. Nov 1 "HiwpLH Wakkm.
- -r-.,uW,i,iMltmi,uM11 t '-
aa a --J -T-B""MsSsapiaBi
111 IY1 Mf 1 K li SlATlNJBai IllUAk
. .PimLRioN (
CASINO T?W8 Ks.m-. T-Ja,
a" , -i; -jaBirmiiWTiMT-iTim