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' LUCIAN SWIFT, J. & McLAIN,
' MANAGER. V ' EDITOR."
T H E JOURNAL is published
every evening;, except Sunday, at
47-40 Fourth Street South, Journal
Building, Minneapolis, Minn.
C. J. Billson, Manager Eastern Adver
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Let the Mayor "Take Care"
In the charter of the city of Minneapolis
the chapter which defines the powers and
the duties of the officers of the city begins
•with these •words:
Seotion I—The mayor shall take care that
the lawß of the state and the ordinances of
the city are duly observed and enforced with
in the city.
This is the first duty assigned to the
mayor. It is the letter A in his official
alphabet. The state of Minnesota provides
for the mayor of the city, allows the
voters of the city to select the man, and
instructs him that when so selected, hie
first duty of all is "to take care that the
laws of the state are duly enforced."
This language is not new. It Is the.
mode of expression which has been em
ployed in appointing the duties of the
chief executive, in American charters and
constitutions, for over 200 years. The
phrase was introduced into the charter of
Minneapolis, in imitation of the constitu
tion of the state, which says, in defining
the duties of the governor: "He shall
take care that the laws be faithfully exe
cuted." And this statement of our state
constitution is taken verbatim from the
constitution of the United States, where
the duties of the president are defined.
The same phrase is in common use in
other states, for the same purpose. So
this primary duty of the chief executives
of state and city in Minnesota is both,
fundamental and universal.
Now, it has come to pass that the gov
ernor of the state and the mayor of the
city have come into conflict over the ques-
tion whether the law of the state whicl
prohibits glove contests or sparring
matches shall or shall not be enforced in
Minneapolis. The mayor had announced
that he did not see anything wrong in a
certain proposed sparring match, and that
he therefore would not interfere with it.
The governor has advised the mayor that
the law must be enforced, and has de-
manded that the mayor do it. Thereupon
the mayor yields, so far as his official ac
tion is concerned, but still retains his own
.Individual opinion as to the propriety of
If this had been a mere difference in
official opinion, no more need be said
about it. But the mayor's public utter
ances in connection with his change of
official action chow that his conception of
bis official position and of the extent of
executive duty are materially wrong. He
•ays he invited Governor Van Sant "to
be present with me at the contest which
was to come off Monday night, and
pledged him that at any time he might
consider it brutal or contrary to law,
I would stop it at that moment." The
action so proposed would not be an en
forcement of the law made by the legis
lature, it would be the making of a new
He further says: "If the law is to be
construed hereafter as at present, I shall
feel called upon as the chief executive
•of this city to stop any and all sports
whereby life or limb may be in Jeopardy,
and I Bhall be the judge of that fact," and
Includes among the athletic sports which
he will prohibit, exercises which have
been had at the Young Men's Christian
Association, which "Jeopardized life and
limb," and at the university, where in
one instance "one of our young men re
ceived serious injury to his wrist." This
is not a promise to "take care" that the
laws now in existence shall be "duly ob
served"; it is a threat that the mayor
is about to make some new laws, and to
enforce their observance. Indeed, he has
already usurped the functions of the legis-,
lature, for he has made and promulgated
a new law, in his instructions of yester
day to the chief of police, wherein, after
telling him to enforce the law against
glove contests and sparring matches, he
adds "all athletic exhibitions where life
or limb is placed in jeopardy will not be
allowed to take place in the city."
Just here, the mayor should "take
care." In his zeal to enforce the law as
it stands, he has no authority to enlarge
it. The act of 1889, against boxing
matches, to which the attorney general
has called the mayor's attention, does
not classify such exhibitions, making
Jeopardy to life or limb an element in
their illegality. The legislature has not
seen any reason to stop athletic sports
on the ground of their danger in this
respect If the mayor, or others, think
there should be further legislation for
the protection of life or limb, let them
memoralize the legislature on the sub-
ject. But at present the duty of the
mayor is to enforce the law as it stands.
He has assured the governor and the
people that he will do so, and so far his
action is commendable, and should be ap-
proved. But let him "take care" that he
does not substitute, for the law of the
state, a new law of his own.
The citizens of Minneapolis do not
elect, as their mayor, a Gesler, to whose
hat they must all bow when it is elevated
on a pole. An executive officer who un
dertakes to assume legislative functions
ts likely to make trouble for himself.
Very properly Governor Van Sant refused
to join Mayor Amea in sitting in judg
ment on the proposed glove contest, after
reading into the law a proviso that it
should only be enforced when the self
constituted Judges should fear that it
was becoming dangerous to life or limb.
Very properly the governor proposed to
"take care" that the law be enforced
as it stands.
Let the mayor also "take care" in the
same manner. If he would not appear
"The $800,000,000 session of congress"
is beginning to worry the leaders. Come
to think of it, what is there to show for
The report made to Governor Nash of
Ohio by Secretary Byers of the state
board of corrections and reforms, says
that at the penitentiary moral and re
ligious instruction are included with re
pairs. Why not?
Gross Earnings Tax
Mr. Jacobson has introduced a bill in
creasing the railroad gross earnings tax
to 4 per cent. The recent decision of the
United States supreme court on the An
derson law is regarded by the attorney
general as Indicating clearly the power of
the etate to regulate the gross earnings
tax, under the provision of our state con
stitution which requires that the taxes
on all property shall be uniform. It is
well understood that the taxes on railroad
property are not in proportion to the taxes
on other property, and this increase in the
gross earnings tax is aimed to correct that
The bill is supposed to have a better
chance ia the legislature than it had two
years ago, when it passed the house but
was defeated in the senate. Because of
the decision of the supreme court, objec
tions which the senators urged at that
time seem to have been disposed of. There
seems to be no ground now upon which the
members of the senate will undertake to
oppose a measure so eminently just to the
taxpayers of the state.
The Current Topics series on this page
to-day takes up colonial governments,
beginning with a chapter on the British
system of government in India. This
series on the government of dependencies
will throw much light on the problem be
fore our government of how to govern
our new possessions.
A Case in Point
There has recently been organized in
New York a freight traffic bureau having
the backing of the mercantile Interests
and officered by men prominent in jobbing
and manufacturing circles. It has for its
avowed object the securing of equitable
rates of transportation, and the preven
tion of railroad discrimination.
This is interesting, as indicating that
New York is becoming alive to the fact
that she has been losing ground com
mercially in a relative degree for sev
eral years. Many lines of interior trade
relationship have been loosened and
others have broken. The tendency has
been for exporters in the interior to seek
for an outlet through other channels, and
while New York has maintained her place
and even shown increases by yearly com
parisons as to volume of trade, she has
shown no gain at all proportionate to the
general increase in the country's busi
ness. Her export business does not grow.
Other ports have made material gains
while New York stood still. Primary
causes for this stagnation have been the
generally congested state of traffic in and
about New York, the longer time required
to effect clearances, and the fact, or, at
least, the belief, that New York has not
as good facilities for handling large ship
ments expeditiously as other ports.
Apparently safe in her overshadowing
position, New York has felt a false sense
of security, and by her apathy has al
lowed a great deal of export business to
be diverted, much of it, especially that
originating in the northwest, finding an
outlet through Baltimore, Philadelphia and
Newport News. In the matter of wheat
exports the port statistics show that
clearances from New York for the seven
months ending In January were 10,862,162
bushels, as compared with 15,379,809 bush
els during the same period of time in the
Another comparison, and perhaps a
fairer one, is found in the figures for
January, New York clearings of wheat
running to 1,773,797 bushels, as compared
with 1,442,771 bushels a year ago. This is
favorable at first glance, but when it is
considered that our country exported dur
ing January 6,000,000 bushels more wheat
than in January, 1900, and that of this
quantity New York secured only 331,000
bushels, the comparison becomes very un
favorable. Commenting on the situation,
the New York Journal of Commerce says:
In the light of these comparisons, New
York's showing is hardly satisfactory. Tak
ing the exports of all classes of breadstuffs,
in value, the month of January can hardly
bo designated as a favorable one for this
port in that, out of a total increase of $7,000,
--000 in the value of exports, New York has
secured less than $700,000.
The effect of this, confined at first to
shipping circles, is now being felt in some
degree in business lines generally. While
other ports have had freight bureaus,
active and ever on the alert to capture
new business, New York has shown in
difference, and she now comes into line
late, hoping by this means to maintain
her prestige and hold the trade that is
fast slipping from her.
The above is interesting as to New
York, but It. becomes particularly sugges
tive when the fact is noted that Minne
apolis has 'already begun to exhibit symp
toms of the same indifference which have
been so expensive in. New York. New
York has felt secure in her position as
the metropolis of the country. Minne
apolis has felt secure in her position as
the metropolis of the northwest. But
Minneapolis is not more secure in her
position than was New York in her hold
upon commerce and trade of the country
at large. New York is now trying to re
cover lost ground. Shall we wait in Min
neapolis until it becomes necessary to
recover lost ground, or shall we provide
i now the agencies, organise the means and
THE MINNEAPOLIS JOUKNAL.
take the eteps that are necessary to
maintain the supremacy of this city as
the commercial and financial center of the
This is a proposition that would seem
to have some practical interest to every
property owner and every business man
whose Interests are identified with the
growth and prosperity and supremacy of
Minneapolis. It is one which has been
presented here, too, in different forms at
different times during the past two or
three years without awakening much in
terest among the business men. It will be
presented again in the very near future
by the Commercial Club. This splendid
and prosperous organization, composed
largely of the younger but substantial
business element of the city, will ask the
business men of Minneapolis to support
them by their personal co-operation and
financial aid in the organization within
that club of an active and efficient agency
for the promotion of the commercial, in
dustrial, financial, municipal, transporta
tion and other public interests of this
Mayor Ames' construction of the law
that it prohibits all athletic contests where
there may be danger to life and limb, is a
little discovery of his own. The law does
not make danger to life and limb the
ground upon which prize fights and spar
ring contests are prohibited.
"L. A. Hosing, editor and manager,"
will appear on the front door of the St.
Paul Globe office about March 15, if the
expected happens. Mr. Rosing has been
the editor and manager of the democratic
party of Minnesota for the past six years,
and has established a reputation as a
political manager second to none in the
state, Tarns Bixb^ and Tom Lowry in
cluded. If his ability as a politician can
be made to do duty for good newspaper
sense he has enough on hand to make
the Globe a good paper. Personally L. A.
Rosing is a gentleman and a good fellow,
but it takes a lot of virtues of that -kind
to make up for his brand of politics.
The mayor says he will be especially vigi
lant now to see that the Y. M. C. A. does
not violate the laws. Good! Let us watch
these scoundrels carefully! Our mayor is
awfully down on violators of the law.
A large number of those mighty statesmen
who clasped Dr. Ames to their breasts so
willingly at election time are now asking
for some strong man to call on them and
kick them in the right place. '
The mayor ought to pull some of these
Boys' Brigades who are carrying unconcealed
weapons against the peace and dignity of the
A New York youth with a high collar as
big as a cuff cut himself so severely on that
article in a fall that a doctor had to sew
The sen ace has passed the anticigarette
bill. Those people who have been using the
little foolkiller will have to learn to chew
If there had been twelve literary lights
on the jury we would have had twelve pro
nounced opinions and a hung jury.
Yon Waldersee is preparing for more puni
tive expeditions in China. "Lootitive" would
be a better word.
St. Louis democrats have nominated a
gold bug for mayor. Will the Commoner bolt
the "regular ticket?"
The croquet party at the home of Miss Su
san Smooth was pulled by the police yes
The mayor and Brother Fred will protect
us against the Y. M. C. A.
Minnie Tittell Borne in "Theodora."
at the Metropolitan.
The dramas of Sardou are written by a
Frenchman for the French public. They are
primarily intended to satisfy the Gallic crav
ing for sensation. All the ingenuity of the
most ingenious plotmaker France ever pro
duoed has been brought to bear on the one
problem of how best to twang on the emo
tional string. History has been ransacked
for'characters with unbridled and elemental
passions, and they have been set upon the
stage for the edification of the morbid sensa
tion-seekers of Paris. It is notable, too, that
Sardou's story is usually one of carnal love.
The form of the Sardou play is tragic, but it
usually lacks the tragic purpose which has
inspired the great tragedies of the English
drama and which "nobly agitates" the be
holder. Xot the barbaric splendor of the
spectacle, not the fearful combat of love and
hate and jealousy can atone for this basic
defect of the Sardou drama., which explains
its failure to attain any permanent place in
the regard of English-speaking peoples. A
tragedy 'without a purpose is frivolous, no
matter how ingeniously the playwright works
upon the emotions of his audiences.
"Theodora" is one of the best examples of
the Sardou drama. In construction it rivals
in workmanship anything in the French
drama. But, after all, it is simply the story
of the carnal love of a tigerish woman for a
splendid man-animal. In the end she loses
his love and her life. The story is full of
moving situations that harrow and even ap
pal, but there is not even the old Greek
idea of rel&ntless fate overhanging the twain
to make it appeal* to the nobler emotions.
Originally written for the frivolous but in
tense Sara Bernhardt, it was exploited in
America by Fanny Davenport and later by
Lillian Olcott. But it never pleased the
American audience and will not now, gor
geous spectacle though it be. Mrs. Minnie
Tittell Brune, who has elected to make her
claims to starhood through this medium,
realizes the historical Byzantine empress
rather than the twisted Sardou version of
that remarkable woman. The Theodora of
history, whatever may be the truth as to the
scandals of her early life retailed by Proeo
plus, was a ruler of marvelous administra
tive talent as well as a woman of good im
pulses. It is impossible, of course, for Mrs.
Brune to escape entirely from the conditions
imposed upon her by the dramatist, but nev
ertheless she ha 3 contrived to inspire one
with a certain sympathy for the empress as
a woman who loves as a woman should. She
subordinates the feline quality with which
Sardou lnveate Tils heroines and emphasizes
the feminine aspects of the character. Her
escapades Incognito become merely the girl
ish larks of a young and lively woman, tired
for the nonce of wearing a crown. She puts
off her majesty and enjoys herself -with her
old companions of the circus and with her
lover who does not .know her quality but
loves her -for the simple, passionate girl she
seems. Mrs. Brune thus makes the charac
ter more sympathetic, but she goes far afield
from the Sardou-BernharAt standard and
doubtless loses something In dramatic Inten
sity thereby. Her acting gives promise. She
has power, though of comparatively slight
physique. She has the temperament. But
she is not of heroic mold, and Theodora, the
supple tigress, is not well within her metier.
There are but two other roles in the play
that offer much opportunity for characteriza
tion. One la Andreas, the young revolution
ary, •whose secret amour with tie empress
forms the basis of the story. This is played
■with intelligence and strength by E. L». Sna
der, -who has the physique but not the heroic
features demanded by the role. The other is
the Emperor Justinian, a rather .over
wrought portrait of whom Is given by Hudson
Liston. The cringing cowardice of the man
Is well depicted by Mr. Liston, but his keen,
calculating intellectuality is overlooked.
As a whole, the spectacle is not yet well
correlated, and the waits made necessary by
the elaborate scenery are rather long. One
glaring solecism for which there seems no
excuse is the mob's habit of singing in
French. "A bas Theodora,'£ they sing, for
all the world like a Paris mob. While the
play was being translated into English, the
song« should have been Englished too. Of
the minor characterizations mention should
perhaps be made of the Marcellus of John
Sturgeon, which was rather stagy but still
effective, and the Belieaxius ol John W.
Thompson, which warn at least digciiled if,
nothing more. Lillian Dix as the Egyptian
introduced a peculiar Yankee dialect with
strange and barbaric effect. She should be
argued with. The staging of the play is well
taken care of, the chariot race being repro
duced with the in-geniwus though not very
Illusory mechanism originated by Neil Bur
gess. —W. B. C.
Kulifora'a UuroueuuStari at the
' j Bijou. ;■ ; • -;-:^-;--
Fulgora's European Stars,', one of the best
vaudeville attractions on the road, is the at
traction \at i the Bijou this week. While a
better arrangement of the ? program might
easily be made, it must be conceded that the
"stars" provide an excellent entertainment
and one whose • superior is not ; likely to!be
seen in Minneapolis this season.
There A are " nine "turns," and with ; one or
two exceptions they are all high class. A
feature of the : entertainment la its freedom
from the risque which la • too frequently ob
truded upon the vaudeville stage. Every act
of , Pulgora's: Stars is ■ clean, clever and en
joyable. -',' '■ --; ■ <.;,.-> ■.„;■■ - ...,■••.. >,',.,.;
The beat acts are reserved for the latter
part of the program, one of which embodies
the beautiful little classic offered by Mr. and
Mrs. Arthur Sidman in their rural New
England sketch. This is as pure and whole
some as a glass of fresh New England cider.
The Brothers Herne accomplish a wonder
ful "substitution" trick In a few seconds,
to the utter amazement of Jhe audience. This
trick consists or the brothers' changing
places after one of them has been sewed
up In a sack and then locked in a common
trunk. The trunk is also securely strapped.
In about five seconds the brothers change
places, the one on the outside taking the
place of the one on the inside, not only of
the trunk, but of the sack. And there is
no chance for mistaking one for the other, as
the brothers do not much resemble each
other. Besides, one of them wears a red coat
as a contrast to his brother's black one.
Kara's juggling feats in a restaurant are
marvelous and afford much entertainment.
He misses occasionally, but he attempts
tricks that would dismay other jugglers, and
his triumph is therefore greater. He per
forms every trick he undertakes, usually
with ease and skill, but always after a trial
The banjo playing of Messrs. Polk and Kol
lins shows the great possibilities of that
much abused instrument, described as un
musical by the musicians. Polk and Kollins
show that while there may be an overture
of the piano or viplln, there is also an over
ture of the banjo. To prove their capabil
ities they play a most difficult arrangement
of the overture to "Semiramide."
The bicycle act of Zeb and Zarrow, the
whistling specialty of Miss Edna Collins
and the "two actors" sketch of Tom Lewis
and Sam J. Ryan are very enjoyable. The
"kinodrome," showing new animated pic
tures, is a pleasing diversion as the pictures
are presented in an effective manner.
—W. A. D.
New York Daily Letter.
BUREAU OF THE JOURNAL,
No. 21 Park Row.
Underground New York.
Feb. 19.—Underground New York Is a vast
region to which little thought is given even
by our own citizens, much less by the stran
ger within our gates. The region is in a
way as vast and as interesting as under
ground Paris, if which Americans hear so
much. Without the rapid transit tunnel now
in course of construction all Manhattan is
land, could it be uncovered, would be found
intersected with tunnels and galleries and
apartments, resembling more than anything
else a great coal mine with the lid off. The
growth of the great city has been forced
downward as well as skyward by the demand
for space. The big office buildings, the won
der of the world, run from two to four sto
ries underground. The thirty-story Park
Row building, in which this office is located,
goes sixty feet underground, all of the space
being utilized by restaurants, dynamo-rooms,
heating furnaces and kindred necessities of
office building life. All over the lower part
of the city are groups of these subterranean
rooms and passages. Then there are long
passages running under the cable and trolley
car tracks, for the use of workmen in mak
ing repairs. From these, branching out
eastward and westward, run other passages
extending all over the island. All along
Broadway the buildings run underground, the
dynamo-rooms and furnaces taking up at
least one floor underground for each building
of size. Then above Fourteenth street com
mence the large hotels, which are spread out
underground as much as are the office build
ings down town.
Mines of Wealth.
Banking and trust companies, and partieu
largly safety deposit companies, have their
offices fitted up beneath the sidewalks to be
near the vaults. Clerks work there day In
and day out -without light save what filters
through heavy shaded glass and that which
is given out by incandescent lights. Every
day pedestrians on Broadway, Broad street,
Wall and Nassau streets walk over almost
countless millions of dollars' worth of bonds
and securities and coin and bullion. Lines
of underground rooms often extend east and
west for several blocks at important cross
streets. When one gets uptown in the retail
district the same underground rooms are to
be found, but are used for entirely different
purposes. Display rooms and an ice cream
parlor take up some of the underground
space of a big department store at Ninth
street. There are subterranean passages
running completely under the street to con
nect these rooms. Uptown every conceivable
kind of business is carried on underground.
An enterprising Japanese firm devotes one
of its rooms under the sidewalks to a museum
for oriental idols.
An Arctic Scene.
A stranger Ln New York within the last
few days, gazing at New York harbor, would
have imagined himself ln Arctic regions. The
bay and the rivers emptying into it have been
almost completely filled with ice, compelling
the tugs and ferries to plow their ways slow
ly through to their slips, often effecting a
landing many hours behind their time. Taken
early in the morning, the bay looked like a
frozen plain with a few tugs and boats ap
parently caught In the ice. Snowy heights of
Staten island completed the picture of polar
effect. In spite of this no one can conceive
the harbor being closed to navigation, as the
ice packs can be shoved to one side at almost
any point. Although the ferries may be late,
to the disgust of commuters, there is no hope
at any time of persons walking across the
water from Staten island or Jersey. Not
since the winter of 1780 has such a feat been
Japanese Art Work.
A valuable collection or Japanese pictures
has just been presented to the New York
public library by Charles Stewart Smith,
making a notable addition to the belongings
of that institution when it opens its doors to
the public. The pictures are Japanese en
gravings and chromo xylographs, comprising
i,7<i3 plates, all of which are contained in
thirty-five albums. By them the Japanese
art In the seventeenth, eighteenth and nine
teenth centuries is accurately represented.
Originally the collection was made by Cap
tain Brinkly, a well-known collector and au
thority on Japanese art. From him Mr.
Smith got the collection eight years ago. The
collection will now be placed in the Lenox
library until the new public library is com
pleted, when it will be moved there on the
consolidation of the Lenox-Astor-Tilden
libraries. _X. x a
I had Jane in the sleigh.
But the time was ill-fated.
She would go that day;
1 had Jane in the sleigh,
One arm driving the gray,
T'other arm vaccinated.
I had Jane in the Sleigh,
But the time was ill-fated.
He Needs Him.
St. Cloud Times.
King Edward has appointed Emperor Wil
helm a field marshal in the English army.
He should now assign him to duty in South
Where Mr*. Nation Balka.
Mrs. Nation does not want her own kind
of medicine applied in her case. Due process
of law is good enough for her.
Wu'a Tactical Error.
St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
Minister Wu Ting Fang has aiienated the
David B. Hill vote by advocating a tax on
OUT ON THE PLAIN
BY ALICE MACOOWAN.
Copyright. 1901, by A. S. Richardson,
"Arch," said Stella, laying her little hands
on his powerful shoulders, and looking at
him with her ardent, courageous eyes, "you
are all I have to love now, since—since dad
dy's gone; and if It was—if it was—lots worse
than it is I'd go anyhow—all the more,
"And you shan't be sorry, dearest," an
swered Arch. "You know yourself, it never
got such a hold on me before. I couldn't
seem"—his sun-and-wind-tanned face flush
ing a still darker red —"to get back to my
self, to sense myself. It was all around me.
Nearly all the other fellows drink, and I'd
get at it again before I was really myself."
"I know, dear. Both of my brothers, back
in old Missouri, are the same. That's what
made daddy so bitter about you and me."
"But six months up on the plains, away
from it all—and with you, Stella—it'll settle
the whisky question forever. I ain't afraid
to ask you, darling; and you know I'd rather
die than bring trouble to you. I tell you, I
know myself, and you'll see, I'll make it
"What offer is it you have? Where are
you—are we—going, and what are you going
"Holbrook's going to send a herd of six
thousand cattle on to the Staked Plain to
a range he's picked out up there. It's raw
country—lndians and buffalo barely off it—
and it's big wages to go up with the herd
and keep sign-camp—takes some sand to do
It, you know."
It was in the latter part of the seventies,
in western Texas, while the range was yet
general and unfenced. The string of sign
camps, with its riders, circling the range a
man had chosen for his cattle, was the living
fence which held the animals from straying,
or from "drifting" before storms. These
camps the cattleman placed, as nearly as the
question of water supply admitted, at equal
distances around his range, or across such
parts as had not the natural barrier of a
river or canyon. In every camp were two
men, whose duty it was to ride out daily in
opposite directions, until they met the riders
from the next adjoining camp, looking always
for straying cattle, and turning them back
into the range.
"And the upper camp," Arch continued
eagerly, "don't need but one rider, because
it's right against the Canadian river. Hol
brook will be glad to give it to me if I'll
only come. We can live there the six months
—it's big wages—and save every cent of the
money. Then, with the little bunch I've got
already running with Holbrook's cattle, we
could begin for ourselves. Stella, O, Stella!"
he broke off suddenly, "I'm the happiest man
in Texas. It's like being taken out of hell
and led plumb straight Into heaven!"
They were married the next day. Stella's
was the temperament which, when once the
heart has been given, sends talents, abilities,
the labor of the hands, all, gladly after it
in devoted service. Then came a happy, ex
citing time buying Stella's outfit, that is to
say, the things which old Hank Pearsall,
head cook of the expedition, pronounced suit
able to "a lady cowboy a-keepin' sign-camp."
Finally the great caravan started lazily
and ponderously up the trail. It was a mar
velous pastoral panorama, and Stella's quick
artist soul reveled in its quaint picturesque
ness. She perceived it all, the country, the
cattle, the means, the daily round, to be like
a survival, a bit out of the life of some old
Indian owner of herds.
There was the vast herd strung out and
moving very slowly that the cattle might
graze as they traveled, the cowboys riding
along the sides, the six great mess wagons
(hitched two -or three together, with teams
of eight and ten—and even twelve —horses)
bringing up the rear. At night the cattle
were rounded into a great mass and bedded
down, the men taking turns, by twos, riding
night herd, singing loudly to keep the ani
mals quiet. Each mess wagon had its two
men, its stock of provisions and a tent or
some materials to build a dugout camp.
Stella came to have a sisterly affection and
admiration for these big, rough fellows, in
whose company she fared slowly northward
on that strange journey. She saw them, day
by day and night after night, cheerily endur
ing hardships and facing dangers as great
as those of the campaigning soldier.- The
riding of night herd, the crossing of rivers
with treacherous current or to quell a stam
pede, the3e things were attended with no
glory. They were done with light hearts
and Jesting words, daily, and as a matter
of course. And in the evening these cham
pions came like great children to sit about
her, listening while she sang old songs to
the accompaniment of her guitar, or told sto
ries from such classics as she knew.
They had been three months in their little
adobe house on the open plain, whose ingen
uous yet inscrutable face Stella never wearied
of studying. The clean, high air had been
God's own medicine to her, and, with her
heart full of happiness, she had thrived and
blossomed, this dark beauty, in the raking
wind and burning sun which destroy blonde
delicacy. And the grim, menacing "if,"
which at first lay so close behind her joy,
grew dimmer and dimmer. Every day when
Arch came home to her, or when, as often
happened, she saddled up and rode out to
meet him, he shouted joyfully at sight of her:
"Great Scott, but you're a beauty, honey!
You're a howling beauty, no less!"
But to-day the terror was upon her. She
had waited at first eagerly, impatiently, then
anxiously, and at last in a numb certainty
of disaster. Four o'clock came, then 5, 6, 7,
and Arch had not returned.
In the coldness of despair she put her own
saddle upon Buckshot, and au old one which
Arch kept for emergencies on Crepetng Mo
ses. Leading the extra horse, she rode out
as Arch had ridden at sunrise, almost due
east, toward the adjoining camp. The great
white moon of the high plains country shone
in awful beauty over that waste of desolate
"It might be an accident," Stella whis
pered. "Something might have happened to
Arch, or to Bob." Bob was the rider from
the next camp, who met Arch. "Why am I
so sure it is the one thing? O God! let it be
anything—anything but that! Not that! Not
now, when we've lived in heaven together all
these months, and he seemed saved from it
So she rode across the blank, mysterious
night alone, straight toward the splendid
moon. She was stone cold, cramped in the
satfdle, and all her senses stunned down tq
one aching agony of dread, when, after three
hour 3of fast riding, she suddenly saw before
her, silhouetted against the sky, the figure
of a man—Bob, she divined—standing not far
from a saddled horse, and bending over an
other man, who lay, huddled and unsightly,
on the ground. And the pains of hell laid
hold upon her heart. •
The ponies' feet made almost no sound on
the springy turf, and she was close at hand
when the man turned, shoved back his big
hat and ran to her, crying:
"I knew you'd come, honey! My Lord! how
I hated to stay and give you such a scare.
But Holbrooks dead drunk and got a broken
leg, I guess, and the team must have run
clean away with the buekboard. The wolves
would have eaten him up If I'd left him to
go to you or to Bob. It's the boss himself,
Stella, and he's been mighty good to me. I
But Stella was not listening to him. Her
wide eyes, s>o pitiful with pain and fear, had
filled with merciful tears, and she only said:
"O Arch! Forgive me, forgive me. Oh, I
thank God —I'm so thankful, so happy!" and
she rested against her husband's heart.
"I knew you'd be afraid of that, honey,"
returned Arch, with quick hituition. "I knew
you'd think the buckboard comln' up
from headquarters—maybe bringln' a jug—
an' me lettin' go again. It just took the
heart out of you, didn't it? An' I couldn't
do a thing but wait here —knowin', too, how
you was suffering."
Stella sat where Arch tenderly placed her,
and watched him, clear-eyed, smiling, capa
ble, preparing Holbrook for the trip back to
camp on Creeping Mosea. When this was
done he put his arms around her, smiling
down in her face. "Say, hooey," he an
nounced quietly, "the job's done, and done to
stay. I knew It before. But I never knew it
exactly as I have these three or four hours
out here alone, working over the poor old
boss there. It's come to me, just a plain fact,
that there's no more drinking business for
me. The stuff's lost its hold on me. I don't—
nor you don't—need to be scared of it any
more. I'm going to boss the job myself, and
live my own life—gee?" And he laughed and
kissed her. She laughed back at him, In
pure joy and lightness of heart. That grim
"if" was forever silenced.
Arch's fenced ranges run into three coun
ties now, and on the headquarters ranch
there is a great home, the abode of cheer and
"Keeley cure be flowed," he cried the
other day, when we were talking of young
Roberts. "Send him to keep sign-camp out
TUESDAY EVENING, FEBKTTARY 19, 1901.
MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL'S CURRENT TOPICS SERE
(Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawson.)
PAPERS BY EXPERTS AND SPECIALISTS. SIJC COURSES OF STUDY.
(Series under direction of Professor John H.
FinJey of Princeton University.)
I.—THE BRITISH EMPIRE) IX INDIA
(By Edgcumbe Staljy, author of "The Arms
and Badges of the British Colonies.")
The British empire In India covers an area
of about 1,000,000 square miles. The remain
der of continental India—7oo,ooo square miles.
—Is under native rulers, more or less in sub
ordination to the Indian government.
The total population of all India is nearly!
300,000,000, of which enormous number about
70,000,000 belong to the native states. Upward
of eighty languages are spoken by the very
many and very various races, tribes and
castes. Somewhere about 200,000,000 are Hin
dus and 60,000.000 Mohammedans, while Chris
tians number only about 3,000,000.
The history of India before the era of Brit
ish dominion bears marks of great antiquity
and of conspicuous grandeur. The Portu-
guese, the Dutch and the French in turn tried
their hands in the conquest and government
of India and each in turn failed.
The Growth of British Authority.
The original charter of the British East
India company was granted by Queen Eliza
beth in 1616. Pitt's "India bill" of 1784 trans
ferred the direction of the company to a
board of control, whose president represented
Indian affairs in the house of commons. The
charter was renewed from time to time and
each renewal was marked by further devel
opments of territorial authority. The out
come of a succession of wars involved thn
direct annexation or the indirect subordina
tion of native states, under the form of pro
tectorates. In 1858, after the terrible mutiny,
the policy embodied in Pitt's "India bill"
was carried out to its conclusion. The board
of control was superseded by the secretary
of state and the council for India, and all
the political rights of 4^e company were
transferred to the crown. Finally, in 1877,
at Delhi —the old imperial city—the queen of
Great Britain and Ireland was proclaimed
"Empress of India"—"Kaisar-i-Hind." Thus
all India became the inalienable'heritage of
the British monarchy.
How India Is Governed.
The secretary of state for India is the rep-
reesentatlve of her majesty's government. He
has absolute control of all foreign policy af
lecting India. He also controls the expendi
ture of the Indian revenues and in all mat
ters he can impose his orders upon the In
dian government. All the higher government
appointments require his approval.
He is assisted by a council, consisting of
ten members, nine of whom must have served
in India for the ten years immediately pre
ceding their appointment. They hold office
for ten years and must not be members of
either house of the British parliament. Sub
ject to the control of the secretary of state,
the supreme executive authority in India is
"the governor general in council" —in which
name all acts of the government of India
run. He is appointed directly by the sover
eign and holds office for five years. The gov
ernor general, or "viceroy," as he is com
monly cailed, has the power of veto in all
matters, whether executive or legislative. He
unites in kis person the attributes of a con
stitutional monarch and the powers of a pri
vate minister. The governor general is as
sisted by the executive council, composed of
five members, with the addition of the eom
mander-iu-chief of the forces in India. The
governors of provinces are ex-offlcio mem
bers of the council whenever It meets within
the several administrations. All the high of
ficials must be of British nationality. This
council is really a sort of cabinet of the vice
roy. The matters pricipally dealt with are:
First, affairs connected with foreign policy;
second, direct administration; third, authori
zation of business to be transacted by the
The legislative council consists of ten to
twenty members —official and non-official.
British and natives are alike eligible. Its
functions are generally the making of laws
and regulations, the supreme direction of rev
enue and expenditures and legislation in gen
eral. Its acts are. published in the Gazette
The "central bureau," so-called, is the sec
retariat of the supreme government of India.
The seven secretaries are, respectively:
House, foreign, revenue aud agriculture,
trade and commerce, military affairs, public
works and the legislative council. From it
issue orders to regulate administration and
to it are made reports from the provinces.
Government of the Provinces.
British India is divided into thirteen prov
inces or administrations: Madras and Bom
bay, whose governors are appointed by the
secretary of state; Bengal, northwest with
Oudh; the Punjab and Burma, which have
lieutenant governors appointed by the "gov
ernor general in council"; Assam, Coorg,
Beluchistan, Berar, AJmere Merwara, the
Central province and the Andaman islands
are under chief commissioners appointed by
the "governor general in council."
Ail these functionaries have provincial
councils constituted like the supreme council.
They enjoy a considerable amount of admin
istrative and financial independence and deal
directly with all provincial and local affairs
under the sanction-of the "governor general
Certain native states are attached to each
of the provinces or administrations.
Under the direction of the provincial coun
cils local government Is In operation in near-
on the Staked Plain—along with an angel like
Stella—maybe his mother would do.
i "Qlve him six months of health up in that
ly 800 districts and municipalities. "Th»
local government of India, acts 1882-4" ex
tended the elective principle all over India.
Caste, unfortunately, prevents the educated
classes from furnishing leaders and repre
sentatives of the people. A low-caste natiTD
can, however, more easily enter upon a politi
cal career, Cor he has merely to become a
Mohammedan and then he is equal to all. Th«
local government boards have the control of
roads, water supply, drains, sanitation, mar
kets, etc. They may impose local taxes and
make by-laws. Up to a certain and specified
sum they may expend moneys upon public
works. These districts are further subdivided
into "talukas"—subdistricts, and "tahsils" —
subdivisions. Throughout the empire those
districts and municipal councils or commit
tees —whose members are elected for one year
—contain a majority of natives. In fact, all
positions except the very highest offices of
state are open to British and to native alike
and without distinction of any kind. All
deputy magistrates and assistant collector*
The unit of administration throughout Brit
ish India is the district, at the head of whi6fc
AURUNGZEB'S MOSQUE, BEXARES.
is an executive officer, who is styled collector
magistrate or deputy commissioner. Upon
the ability and energy of this official depends
Ultimately the efficiency of British rule in
Tndia. His functions are two-ftj'l<lr (1) To
collect revenue; (2) to act as judge in civil
and criminal suits, both of first instance and
of* appeal. The collector magistrate is a sort
of house secretary in miniature. His aim is
to set forth the benefits of paternal and con
ciliatory government. Under his immediate
orders are educations, dispensaries, police,
jails, sanitation, local taxation, etc. Every
phase of the complex racial and religious life
of the natives comes before him and disputes
of every kind are submitted to his decision.
He Is, in short (or long), lawyer, accountant,
surveyor, engineer, agriculturist, politic!
economist and compiler or state papers. The
work, moreover, of his subordinates, whether
British or native, depends upon the stimulus
of his personal examples.
Relations of British and Native*.
There are in India 650 native states—great
and small. They are governed by their own
princes and chiefs with the advice and help of
British residents, representing the supreme
government of India. Some of these rulers
administer the internal affairs of their re
spective states with almost complete inde
pendence. Their authority, however, is lim
ited by their individual treaties and engage
ments. The suzerain power does not allow
them to go to war with one another, nor to
form alliances with foreign powers, and It in
tervenes in cases of bad government or op-
LORD CCRZOX, VICEROY OP IXDIA.
pression, exercising a general control in th#
direction of peace and contentment. These
feudatory rulers possess revenues and armies.
The gross income of the princes of India is
£15,000,000 ($75,000,000), the sum of their trib
ute is £600,000 ($3,000,000) per annum, and
they maintain in all 80,000 native troops in.
addition to those they furnish for the impe
The relations between British and natives
are perfectly amicable, so long aa there 13
no interference with the native religious ob
servances or with the native women. All are
equal before, the law. A native can earn ex
actly the same wage as a British workman.
Under British rule life and property are altk*
safe. Taxes and dues are the same for all.
But inasmuch as Europeans have a far great
er capacity for work than the natives and ar«
able to do more work in a shorter time, a
consciousness of superiority sometimes pro
duces arrogance, which is a fruitful source of
Justice is administered by the high courts
of the various provinces, and is based upon:
(1) The enactments of the legislative coua
cils; (2) the statutes of the British parlia
ment applicable to India; (3) the Hindu and
Mohammedan laws of inheritance and dom«e
tic economy; (4) the laws of caste a.nd race.
There is an Indian penal code.
With respect to the terms "government of
India" or "Indian government" It should be
remembered that they stand for the "consti
i tution" of the imperial "government" and In
no sense mean simply the ministry or the ad
ministration for the time being.
(Note.—Next Tuesday will appear a paper
on '"Burma, a Typical Indian Province.")
clean air, an' bein' alone with the plain, th«
sun an' wind an' G*d. That'll cure him. It
I he's worth savin."