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LUCIAN SWIFT, J. & McLAIN,
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THE JOURNAL, is published
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The Uses of a University
Members of the legislature visited and
inspected yesterday the various depart
ments of the state's greatest institution
—the university. What they saw there
must have impressed them with the belief
that the -wisest economy the state can
practice is to be liberal -with the great
institution of learning that bears its name.
There are few more potent centers of
culture and education in the United States
to-day. In point of attendance the uni
versity is third, being surpassed only by
Harvard and the University of Michigan.
In point of the excellence of instruction
it has few if any superiors, and in point
of the high moral tone and orderly con
duct of its great army of students, it
takes a higher place than any other great
institution of learning in the republic.
Education has ever been a "word to con
jure with in America. Popular govern
ments must have educated citizens.
Where each individual is a sovereign, the
state must look to the education of all its
children, so that whoever is raised to
power may be fitted for it, and may have
the loyal co-operation of his fellow citi
To-day there is scarcely a town or vil
lage in the state of any size or influence
that does not count among its best citi
zens graduates of the university, men to
■whom the state has freely given higher
The University of Minnesota is an
eminently practical and useful state insti
tution. It keeps abreast of the times. It
does not educate men into uselessness and
unrest. In its many departments it is
preparing hundreds of men and women
for the actual work of life, not to men
tion those who in the college of arts, let
ters and sciences are laying the broad
foundations of symmetrical culture. It
Aas produced scholars, but fiom it also
have com© successful engineers, electri
cians, farmers, lawyers, doctors, pharma
cists and scientists.
Every dollar the state spends on this
noble institution returns to it manifold in
the enriched end more useful lives of its
Morgan in War Paint
Senator Morgan put on his fighting
clothes and -war paint, yesterday, and gave
John Bull a tremendous horse whipping.
His ppeech was based upon his irrational
resolution abrogating the Clayton-Bulwer
treaty of 1850. Morgan knows that the
senate, has determined not to act upon
this resolution, until the course of Great
Britain, regarding the amended Hay-
Pauncestote treaty has been reported to our
government. The senator from Alabama,
however, undertook to declare bloody war
against Great Britain if she dared to en
force the terms of the treaty of 1850. He
declared that millions of Americans would
spring to arms If there is any intention of
Britain to "pick a quarrel with us about
it." In a towering rage he swore that,
"if it is the purpose of Great Britain still
to look for delay, she win not get It."
The speech resembled closely some of
those extravagant and grotesque flights of
oratory 5n which American congressmen
indulged something more than a half cen
tury ago over the Oregon boundary ques
tion, when an outsider might have imag
ined that a declaration of war to the
kntfe's hilt would be made within an hour
against Great Britain.
WTiy all this fume and fury on the part
of the senator from Alabama? He ignores
the fact that the British sovereign's death
aome weeks ago necessarily and obviously
delayed the consideration of the amended
treaty by the British cabinet until re
cently. He ignores the fact that the Hay-
Pauncefote treaty was voided on Monday
by the limitations and that new negotia
tions will have to be undertaken, unless
it is the pleasure of our government to
await the views of the British cabinet on
the treaty. The treaty contains a distinct
declaration that the Clayton-Bulwer treaty
is superseded except as to' the general
principle of neutralization established in
the eight articles of that treaty. There
is every reason to believe that Great Brit
ain will not have the slightest objection
to the abrogation of the treaty of 1850,
provided the principle of neutrality is
maintained as to any canal constructed by
the United States, as provided in the Hay-
Pauneefote treaty In one section but con
tradicted in another.
If we ore to have a canal, we should go
about it without abusing and threatening
other maritime nations, who naturally de
sire to use the facilities furnished. We
oan have an American canal without deny
ing other nations the use of it. But, mean
time, let us regard our international ob
ligations and get rid of the Clayton-Bul
wer treaty in the honorable way, remem
bering that it takes both parties to annul
this treaty; one cannot lawfully do it. That
treaty of 1850 has been recognized by every
on© of our secretaries of state from Daniel
Webster to John Hay. end we have held
Great Britain rigidly to its terms. We
have recognized it as a compact as well as
Great Britain and would stultify ourselves
as a nation by repudiating it now.
Cloture in the Senate
The effort of Senator Platt of Connec
ticut to change the rules of the senate
so that debate may be closed is greatly
to be commended. The senate has suf
fered from the process of talking against
time and other methods of obstructing
public business in an extraordinary man
ner. The majority has no defense against
a filibustering minority. If a senator
choosea to stave off a vote he can read
an alleged speech for a week. "The
courtesy of the senate" is a term which
really means license to filibusters.
There are senators who contend that
the application of a rule of cloture Is an
attempt to suppress free speech and gag
the members. But obstructive garrulity,
designed to obstruct proceedings, cannot
lawfully claim the privileges or dignities
of free speech, and every deliberative
body has the right, through its majority,
to make regulations for the transaction
of public business, such as a practical
rule for closing a debate and bringing a
question to a vote. In the house Speaker
Reed succeeded in establishing his com
mon-sense rule as to a quorum, and a
fractious minority, present but not vot
ing, are counted in and measures are
passed by a majority at. the quorum thus
obtained. In 1787 the federalist majority
of the Pennsylvania assembly, not a
quorum, wanted to pass a bill for holding
a convention for considering the new con
stitution. The minority absented them
selves, but they were seized and carried
into the legislature and held in their
s.eats while the bill was passed by a ma
jority of the forcibly obtained quorum.
Here is a precedent for the heroic treat
ment of obstructionists.
In the British parliament, where for
merly a small knot of malcontents could
stop all proceedings, there has, this week,
been an exhibition of the effectiveness
of the present rules against obstruction.
Oloture was moved to stop debate on an
appropriation bill and division was or
dered. The Irish party refused to go out
to the division lobby and were forcibly
ejected. The rule of the house of com
mons for closing debate originated with
Mr. Gladstone, who, when Parnell led
the Irish nationalists, was determined to
prevent the usurpation of control of the
house by individual members and the in
solent dictation of Parnell. Mr. Glad
stone certainly did enough for the welfare
of Ireland to relieve himself of the
charge of prejudice. He saw that the
public interests of the United Kingdom
demanded that there should be means of
stopping the reiterated and' dilatory dis
cussion of some subject. Public inter
ests have to be protected from the liberty
of endless speech intended to delay.
There is no infraction of the liberty of
individuals, for the claimed liberty of the
filibustering g-roup means the slavery of
the majority. Unbounded license be
comes unbounded tyranny of a minority.
The talker against time becomes a public
nuisance. It is true that cloture may be
abused by a majority. But in the his
tory of deliberative bodies, where the
rule obtains, the instances of abuse of
the rule are insignificant beside the evils
of the unrestrained license of speech on
the part of a group of filibustering mem
The Latest Annihilator
Those who helieve that war is go-
Ing to be annihilated by its own in
herent dreadfulness —that, event lally,
the means of destruction will be so great
that total extinction will follow a flght
—will be interested in the newest device,
the marine torch, an American inven
tion, just now attracting attention in
By means of this torch, the much
vaunted torpedo destroyers lose their
efficiency, all night attacks on har
bors or river mouths are prevented, or,
at least, all covert attacks in the dark
ness, while in the open sea a ship fitted
out with these torches may completely
destroy another ship, standing within
the illumination, while the destroying
ship is in thick darkness.
The torch is a curious affair. It is
not extinguished by falling into the wa
ter, but is, on the contrary, set on fire
by the water. It may be dipped below,
the surface any number of times, but,
on coming to the top, it instantly ignites
again and goes on blazing. Yet the
torch device is very simple—merely a
tube or cylinder of metal, from three to
eight inches in diameter, holding a wire
basket filled with calcium carbide,
which, as is well known, when touched
with water, forms the brilliant acety
The cylinder has a number of burners
which are automatically lighted by an
other chemical, the main feature of im
portance being that the basket of wire
allows the water to enter and form the
gas. The flame will last for from two
to twelve hours, according to the size
of the charge, and cannot be extinguished
by either wind or spray.
In case a ship captain knows that an
other and hostile ship is in his vicinity,
even if some miles distant, he fires a
few torches from his ship. They fall
in the water about the doomed ship,
lighting it up with deadly brilliancy,
whereupon the captain gives his orders,
his own craft completely hid from view
from the other by reason of the dense
darkness surrounding him, and in short
order the hostile ship is riddled.
If American inventors keep on, the
time will come when war will be only
another name for annihilation, and per
haps when that time comes the people
will take a hand in the matter and re
lieve the rulers and the diplomats who
now and then play at war from any fur
ther indulgence in the pastime. The
people are the ones that get killed.
There is a permanent board of officers
in Washington, sitting periodically, whose
business it is to consider all the plans
submitted for making war more horribly
destructive. During last year some of
THE MINIsTEAPOLIS JOURNAL.
the most diabolically fiendish plans ever
presented were considered, the inventors
apparently being inclined as never be
fore to make killing by wholesale theprime
business ©f battle. Some of the inventions
are impossible affairs, but all were con
sidered in order that the boanl may find
out some way of doing unto others as
others would do unto us—and doing it
Perhaps, when this board bits upon a
plan which will kill a whole army be
tween heart beats, war as a steady busi
ness >vill lose certain elemenis of inter
est. And, possibly, when that time
cones, it might bt advisable to put the
chaps that are spoiling for a fight in a
ring by themselves, with rather thin
gloves. Even arbitration may not be
necessary if those who would force the
people to tight were required to settle
the difficulty between themselves.
Triilintr There are legislative tricks
rltllns that the woman suffragists iv
With the Kansas are now learning about.
Ladies and the knowled 8e makes them
sad. Hundreds of ladies sat
in the gallery of the Kansas senate the other
evening and watched the lawmakers pass
a complete woman suffrage bill, as they had
privately agreed to do. The bill giving the
ladies the presidential and all other ballots
went through the honorable senate like a
small boy through a quarter section of mince
pie. It was a two-thirds majority, and as
the senate adjourned, the ladies crowded
around and smiled on the solons with those
smiles that break a legislator right down.
But the story of the perfidy of the Kan
sas senate must be told. The next morning,
when the women were away, thinking them
selves perfectly safe, the senators reconsid
ered the vote and killed the bill deader than
a banana tree in Manitoba. The majority
against the bill was two-thirds.
Now, what do you think of that? At this
distance it looks mean.
Several violets appeared on the lawns in
Kenwood this morning, but they were
knocked down with an ax without much dif
Spring oats have been seeded in -southern
Kansas, and they didn't have to put each
oat In with a pile driver, as they do In Ne
The official spring is almost here. It will
be but a few weeks now before the kid dents
the surface of Lake Calhoun with his person.
The rough house In the English parliament
was a sad but glorius day for Ireland.
Mr. Morgan Is said to have made $7,000,000
out of the steel deal. No wonder he can
afford to own $2,500 worth of dog meat inside
of one dog's hide.
Which would you rather be, J. Pierpont
Morgan or the president of the United States?
Five dollars reward for correct answers, •with
So great is the anxiety of the -\ew York
Sun to be contrary, that it is defending Ad
In the Saturday Evening Post the million
aires have been giving a symposium telling
•why they stay in harness. Not one of them
acknowledges that it Is for the money, no,
The coal bin is beginning to get a trifle bald.
At the Metropolitan to-night will be seen
the first presentation in this city of "The
Rounders." It is an adaptation from a
French farce made by Harry B. Smith, with
original lyrics and a musical setting by Lud
wig Englander. Thomas Q. Seabrooke, who
■will be pleasantly remembered by reason of
his various successes here in the past, is at
the head of the organization. He is a come
dian who. is original, unique and humorous
in whatever he does.
"Arizona" will be the next week's attrac
tion at the Metropolitan, opening Sunday
night. This is the play which went to Chi
cago for four weeks and stayed fourteen, be
sides scaring one of the greatest dramatic
successes in New York in a generation. In
going to the alkali plains of Arizona for his
theme, Mr. Thomas found something new
for the stage. He' has, through the use of
diversified characters and the help of good
scenic artists, given this play as distinct a
local color as was observed and admired in
As Strauss tickled the ears of Vienna with
his valses in the old days, and as Offenbach
set the volatile Parisians mad with the witch
ery of his whirlwind-dance motives, so has
Souea won the hearts of the world with his
marches. During the recent foreign tour of
Sousa's band the American musician's posi
tive genius as a march writer, the striking
originality of his melodic themes, and the
skill and power of his orchestrations were
freely acknowledged by all the European
critics. That tour was a succession of splen
did triumphs for Sousa and the pre-eminence
of his band in the field of military music met
universal ackuowledgement. The great band
is now embarked on a long tour of this coun
try, being booked to give concerts in no less
than 140 cities in fourteen weeks. Sousa
brings his forces here for two grand concerts
on Saturday at the Lyceum, with Blanche
Duffleld, soprano, and Bertha Bucklin, yio
liniste, as soloists.
Bartley Campbell's great melodrama, "Sibe
ria," has been meeting with splendid success
at the Bijou this week. "Siberia"' tells a
most entertaining story of Russian life and
despotism and its scenes range from the gay
ety of the governor general's palace to the
prison mines of Siberia. A vein of bright
comedy runs throughout the action of the
play and relieves the more intense scenes.
The Bijou's offering the coming week will
he Charles E. Blaney's and Charles A. Tay
lor's Chinese-American play, "King of the
Opium Ring." The play is a sensational mel
odrama. Nothing is wanting in the way of
incident or situation to rouse the audience.
Several bright specialties are interspersed,
and the play, Hi 3 promised, will be presented
by a capable company and with a scenic In
vestiture of unusual magnitude and elaborate
DOES FARMING PAY?
Professor Bailey of Cornell University con
tributes an interesting paper to The World's
Work for March on "Can I Make a Farm
Pay?" The professor thinks it is possible,
for many do it. He would not advise every
body to try it, however, for the man who
leaves city for farm life must recognize the
value of individual effort and "self-depend
ence and must really love the country anJ
everything in it. He must have some evi
dence that he is fitted for the life. Every
stroke of work done adds to the farmer"?
capital stock, while he earns a living for
himself and family at the same time. A man
•who would be a farmer, the professor thinks,
should have good executive ability and be
contented with moderate financial returns.
He knows hundreds of well-to-do farmers!
free of debt, possessing comfortable homes
and the legitimate comforts of life. They
are intelligent men and know what is going
on in the world. They read and think their
own thoughts. The average earnings of
American farms, good and bad, reach about
$1,000 a year. The chances are against a man
who has always lived in a city and who
goes Into farming, because he is not prac
tical enough. If a man makes up his mind
to farm, he should save enough money to
pay half down or more on the farm, and have
at least $500 left for contingent and running
expenses. Fancy farming should be avoided.
First attention should be given to the condi
tion of the soil and the welfare of the crops
and stock. The farmer should raise what
will pay him, and if he is intelligent, observ
ing and Inquisitive, he will find out what
will pay htm and where he can sell it at the
best price. If a man means to farm for a
living he should work. The opportunities
are many and ripe for the intelligent worker.
The experience of a New York city Journalist
is given as an encouragement. He never had
any previous experience in farming; but,
after five years of fruit culture and dairying,
he made a net profit of 5% per cent on his
investment last year, and expects to make
15 per cent tnis year. New York: Double
day, Page & Co., 34 Union Square east.
New York Daily Letter.
BURBAU OF 1 THE JOURNAL,
No. II Park Row.
A. T. Stewart Munition Goinu.
March 7.-Visitors to New York will ttud a
well known land* murk gone. If they come to
New York three weeks hence. The historic
A. T. Stewart mansion, tnucta has stood at
Thirty-fourth street and Fifth avenue for
more tunn a quarter of a century, is marked
for the junk pile. Less than a mouth will
suffice to clear the corner of its H. 000.000
heap of Carrara marble, and thus clear away
one of the most valuable building sites in
lower Fifth avenue. The work of destruction
began last week. Many people called last
week with the intention of purchasing one
or more of the fciOu fireplaces or mahogany
doors which are to be found in every room.
Few outsiders were admitted, however, for
the contractors are averse to having the
house overrun with sightseers. Many people
are speculating on the price paid for the
mausioa as junk, ltd marble alone is worth
a great deal and the speculator who took a
chance on disposing of the budding muet
have put up a fancy figure for the privilege.
From top to bottom the house is trimmed
and floored with the finest Italian marble,
with an expensive iron roof—the only one
of this kind in New York. It will take a
number or days to remove this roof alone.
Then the wreckers will devote their efforts
to the dust-rovered and deserted art gallery.
In the latter are many pictures painted on
the walls, which the contractors hope to re
move safely and sell for a substantial sum.
In fact, they believe the mansion will prove
a gold mine, 30 far as an investment goes.
Something in a Saint-.
One would naturally think that naming n
big trust is the easiest part of the formative
process, but it isn't always. When a big
deal like the steel combination is pending
speculators frequently get a line on the pro
posed name, then hurry into New Jersey and
incorporate a company of^ that name with a
nominal capital. When the trust goes to file
its papers it finds another company of its
name already on the records, and must either
buy the name or change its own, the latter
course frequently being the more expensive.
The schemers often incorporate three or four
companies under names that the forthcoming
irust is very apt to select. If they happen
to strike it they usually sell out for a few
thousand. It was said that the steel trust
would be named the United States Steel com
pany, and promptly a company of that name
was incorporated at Trenton. The same was
done with the name, Universal Steel com
pany, and it is understood that Mr. Morgan
really had selected these names, but was
smart enough to keep a line on Trenton and
abandoned the names when the speculators
turned up with their little designs. Thus it
often happens that the organizers of a trust
take great pains to conceal the name which
they have chosen to call their company.
A Strange Guegt.
The British steamship Gleaartiiey, just In,
brought from China a very strange passenger,
a large gray bird which looks like a heron.
It proved a very troublesome creature on
shipboard. While the Glenartuey was in the
Indian, ocean last October on its voyage, the
bird dropped wearily aboard and perched
on the derrick boom. The nearest land was
300 miles away, and the bird was so tired
it could not possibly have flown much fur
ther. Although of a fierce temper, as marks
received by many of the crew attest, the bird
was permitted to remain on board ship be-
The Saving of Peter
BY EUGENIE UHLRICH.
Copyright 1901 by Eugenic Uhlrich.
Mrs. Minna Schmitt stood at the kitchen
door of Merrlam's big house and looked at
the changing west. Every moment the light
was growing fainter and duller, and still
Peter Burns did not come In to the supper
that had beeu waiting for him over two
hours. This was strange of Peter, and it
would have been not only strange, but sus
picious of anybody else after having been
" 'lectioneering" all afternoon with the old
judge, Mrs. Merrlam's husband.
Mrs. Schmitt did uot like the judge. The
worst men in her eyes are those who always
seem so nice and pleasant to everybody and
between times get drunk and abuse their
wives. If Bueh men were only mean all the
time, people would not blame their wives
for everything that goes wrong, as the vil
lage did Mrs. Merriam when she had the old
judge bound over to keep the peace. Since
that time the judge had been obliged to live
at the village hotel, and Mrs. Merriam was
left in the big house. Now, when the judge
wanted to see Mrs. Merriam, he drove up to
the gate and whistled for her. Then Mrs.
Merriam put on her best dress and went
driving with him, for the judge was realiy
very pleasant when he was In a "good tem
per," as Mrs. Merriam herself would have
put it. Every evening she made Peter drive
down to the hotel to see that the judge got
to bed without his boots. The judge paid
those of his bills that he could out of his
practice, and Mrs. Merriam paid her own
out of the place and the "summer guests."
Sometimes she paid an odd one of the judge's.
Minna, could not see but what it was much
better so, though whenever she went to the
village she had to hear something about
women who wear the "pants" and like re
marks, which passed for wit thereabouts.
But Minna, who had had a sharp, and, happi
ly, short, married experience of her own,
loftily ignored these supposed jokes, for her
German tongue was too slow to risk answer.
The delectable Peter himself, who made pos
sible the harmony of the present conditions,
was Irish. He drove the judge home one
day when the judge's driving was a bit un
certain, even for a horse that could find the
way home alone. Peter put up the horse
and looked after things that evening, and he
had been doing so ever since. Xow he was
the one person who was able to travel cheer
fully the sometimes slippery path between
the inn and the house at all times.
And still he did not come in. Minna be
thought herself that she ought to go over to
the stables. To-morrow would be Sun-day,
and Peter often needed a stitch put in some
where. It was not in Minna's quick fingers
to see liny one untidy on Sunday if she
could help it. So she went over to the sta
bles—not that she was curious, os even worse
—worried. Things did look queer. The road
wagon was standing in the driveway, the
cushion left shiftlessly on the seat, and Pe
ter's best coat lying across it. After a mo
ment Minna's sharp ear heard deep breath
ing, and there, on a bench, inside the door,
lay Peter, fast asleep. Now, Minna could
not believe that any man would go fast
asleep without his supper unless x there was
something wrong. But she was used to do
ing things, not standing and looking at them.
She took the cushion off the seat, and along
with the coat, carried it into the carriage
shed. Something hard in one of Peter's
pookets struck her hand, and she knew it at
once for a bottle. It was almost empty and
the contents were not to be mistaken. Then
she tried the other pocket. Behold, another
"That camel of a judge," she muttered.
"He has five stomachs and he does not rest
until everybody is like him." The zeal to
save woke in her, and she did not ask her
self whether she had that fine zeal for every
wavering soul, or only for Peter's. She took
the bottles and hurried to the kitchen with
Mrs. Merriam met her at the kitchen door.
"Whera is Peter?" she asked. Minna
marched past her ard tragically held up the
two bottles in front of her.
"Minna," gasped that lady, "what—what
have you been doing?"
"I?" screamed Mii.na "Peter, you mean."
"Peter! Oh. Peter, Peter, you, too, Peter!"
wailed Mrs. Merriam, as she sank down in a
chair. "But wait: this is the first time and
there is still hope for him. I have it—" And
she hurried to her medicine shelf and came
back with a bottle with some brown stuff In
it. "This will make him wish he'd never
touched any election whisky in his life. Run
and slip them back, Minna."
Minna obeyed, and then milked the com
plaining cows, grown restless waiting for
Peter. And when everything was well done
she went up to her room and cried a bit.
In the morning she was up earlier than
usual. There seemed no use in waiting for
Peter to drive her to early mass this morn
ing. She trudged along the damp road from
which the late August sun had not yet drawn
the dew. And her feet somehow felt very
"It is* a damp morning," she said, looking
against the shining mist. Here and there a
dead leaf fluttered in front of her. The
sun was soft and warm, and the green of
the trees, deep and dark In the glistening
moisture, and yet it all kept her thinking
cause of sailors' superstition. It Is regarded
as en evil onion to drive off a feathered
visitor and the sailors on the Glenartnt y now
point to the fact that good luck followed
the ship from the time the bird came aboard
until landed in port. Although not classified
satisfactorily the bird is believed to b? of
the heron family and will be presented to
either the Central Purk or Bronx Zoo. This
creature is silver gray In color and weighs
about thirty-five- pounds. Three toes arc on
each claw, the feet being webbed. The head
Is crested and the bill long and sharp. No
I#BB than three of the sailors on board had
parts of their heads ripped open by the bird's
bill while en route.
The <.a in )>)<■■ .-. Moving.
Within the lust few days there has been
a general shifting about of the gambling
houses in town. Nearly all of the places are
out of business at the present time, and the
ones atlll running are being operated behind
barred doors because of the latest develop
ments in the crusade. Many of the houses,
learning that the citizens' committee has evi
dence against them, have moved all the
gambling paraphernalia elsewhere, and have
given their clubrooms a homelike, sociable
appearance. In the raiding done so far,
paraphernalia to the value of about $20,00"
has been captured. This is not profitable
business from the gambler's point of view,
and in most cases he has caused the removal
of his effects to safer places.
The Dope Doctor.
A new industry has come into existence In
the Tenderloin, that section of New York
which breeds and fosters so many peculiai
callings and conditions. The latest occupa
tion to be found is that of morphine peddler.
This business is the exclusive property of one
man who prospers among the "dope" fiends.
"Dope" shops are as well known as any
other class of dives, and like the other classes
have their regular followings. Now one of
the "dope" victims haa turned the necessities
and appetites of his miserable fellows into a
means of livelihood. He is a "dope of dopes"
who could not work if he would and perhaps
would not if he could. He is not old, but the
mortgages on time which he has given to
spend his life under the seductive beckoning
of his only charmer are recorded on his face.
Late in the afternoon and night after night
he meanders in the district haunted by the
men and women who are morphine's vic
tims. He carries in his pocket a rusty syr
inge and a supply of "dope"; and he goes
among the nervous wrecks and sells them
what they crave at a dime a jab. He knows
where to find them, and they have come to
know where and when to look for him. They
call him the "dope" doctor. Both men and
women are his patrons, and they appear to
have welcomed his advent. And the Tender
loin adds to the number of its products the
successful practitioner in contraband.
Getting the Millionaires.
David H. Moffat of Colorado is the latest
of wesetru multimillionaires to signify an
intention of moving to New York for perma
nent residence. Mr. Moffat is the richest
man in the centennial state. He is a banker,
miner and railroad man and is rated at $25,
--000.(100. He had his financial origin in the
Leadville excitement twenty-three years ago
and has steadily grown in wealth, power and
influence from that era down to date. Of
late y;jars he has been.much in the east and
has become greatly attached to New York.
Within the last year ten or a dozen Colorado
rich men have either settled here or arranged
to do so. _n. N. A.
that winter was near, and that she herself
was ?,'). As she passed a little house on
the road where old Anse, the choreman, lived
with about a dozen grandchildren, she heard
a child's fretful cry. "Must be it's sick.
I'll have to ask Anse."
When Minna came out of the cburch she
had a start that must surely have given her
a nervous shock had she been of less hardy
fiber, for there was Peter waiting as usual.
"An' why didn't you wait for me, Mrs
Schmitt?" he asked.
"It was a good morning to walk," said
Minna, most quietly.
He helped her into the cart, and then
he said slowly, after they were started: "It
was a very hot day yesterday," and he
switched the lines to chase the flies off the
backs of the horses. * * * "A very ho;
But Minna -was silent. After a little Peter
went on: "We weni over a turrible lot of
country yesterday, the Judge and I. I'm
thankful we had a right good supper over at
Harneek'a, so beiu tired an' re.stin' me a
minute, I fell asleep. It's too bad you milked
the cows and did that work."
"Oh, that didn't make much difference,"
said Minna. But there seemed to be some
thing that did, so after a bit Peter went on
"The judge is a turrible man to drink and
treat all 'roun' when Le goes 'lectioneering.
He gimme a couple o' bottles to treat the
boys for him, but I met old Anse In the road
this mornin' an' he told me one of the chil
dren was sick an' he didn't feel very well
himself, ar.' so I gave him the rest."
Peter had the flattering sense that he was
clearing himself without admitting the sus
picion, which is really a very delicate thing
to do. So he was the more surprised to see
Minna jump around In her seat and fairly
screamed at him:
"You did what?"
"Gave it to old Anse for the child."
"Oh," she moaned, "for the sick child. It'll
"But It's bad; I know it's bad. Hurry up
and te-ll Anse Its bad." Peter only stared
at her, and almost held the horses at a
standstill. "Hurry up," she said, and rattled
the whip in its socket. At this ominous and
unaccustomed sound the horses plunged for
ward so suddenly that Peter had to pull
them to their haunches to keep them out
of the ditch.
"I'll not drive a step I'll tell ye," he said,
"until I know what for," for Peter could not
stand bothering the horses when he was
driving. Then Minna began to cry, and
Peter as well 'as the horses was bothered.
"But, Mrs. Schmitt," he said, "sure an*
you're always such a sensible woman—"
"What's the use to be a sensible woman
when a man's so foolish. It's all your fault."
And Minna cried more.
••Well, then if it Is, I'll be driving on,"
said Peter. "An' you'll be telling me how it
is that it's my fault." Then he lifted the
reins, but he did not start the horses. Minna
looked over the field, while the tears rolled
down her cheeks. Then she stole a glance at
Peter's face, calm and masculinely unrelent
ing. There came a trot coming up the road
behind them, and she and Peter standing
still like that! So she began hurriedly:
"I was afraid you'd get like the judge, too,
bo we thought If you got good and sick you'd
never do it again, and we put some ipecac in
it, a whole ounce—"
"In what?" asked the hyper-innocent Peter.
"In the battles of whisky," gulped Minna.
Peter whistled, and the horses flew. '• Ipe
cac's bitter, isn't it?" But Minna did not
notice. She was crying so hard. "Guess I
better tell Anse that It's cheap Mectioneering
whisky, and the missus will send him some
thin" better." Minna 3milfd so gratefully
that Peter fell to wondering what he could,
do next to please her. When he came out
of Anse's he was chuckling. "The baby's
all right. But Anse is havin' a time!" Where
upon Minna giggled hysterically.
To make sure, Minna her3elf took the
basket and the port wine which Mrs. Mer
riam sent. When sljc came back she walked
rather slowly up the driveway, trying to de
cide whether she should stop and tell Peter.
When she same to the stable door Peter was
pitching straw for bedding. He did not seem
to be getting much On his fork, and presently
he looked up as if seeing her there were the
most unexpected happening. He pulled his
hat down and came toward her. Leaning
against the door post he regarded the prongs
of his pitcbfolk intently. About that time
Minna found her basket handle very inter
esting, and she began to rub her forefinger
thoughtfully up and down its strands.
"The baby's all right, Peter," she said
after awhile. Peter looked at her medita
tively, as if somehow she were saying some
"Mrs. Sehmitt," he said then, "I've been
thinkin' about how worried you got about
them bottles. It's kind o' nice to think peo
ple care enough to worry about you. Now,
I've been thinkin' there might be nicer things
to take than ipecac, and sometimes its the
nice things that are the best for a man. don't
you think so?"
Peter stopped and dug his pitchfork into
the ground. Minna's literal German mind
had become unwary.
"What would you take, then, Peter?"
'•Well, now, Minna, if 'twere left to me I'd
In apit of Mr*. Merrlam, who pointed out
precedent and evidence to prove that Minna
had strangely inverted her opinions, Minna
agreed with Peter—juat to save him, to be
THURSDAY EVENING, MAECH 7, 1901.
MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL'S CURRENT TOPICS SERIES
(Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawson.)
PAPERS BY EXPERTS AND SPECIALISTS OF NATIONAL REPUTATION.
THE ART OF
LIVING A HUNDRED YEARS.
lII—SLEEP AND SLEEPLESSNESS
■ - ■ . ,■ ■ ■ -- -
(By Dr. Charles L. Dana, of New York.)
It would be impressive if I could begin by
saying that insomnia, like insanity and nerv
ous prostration, in on the Increase. It it
my impression that such is the case, but how
difficult to prove it! Insomnia Is a minor
symptom, not an infectious disease, and,
therefore, does not get into the health re
ports But it is on* symptom of insanity,
which disease seems to be slightly increas
ing, and also of nervous prostration, about
which nothing was heard forty years ago. It
is caused by overwork—and Americans over
work. It is caused by excessive smoking,
and we use more tobacco every year per
capita. It is caused by those changes in
the arteries which come on In advanced life,
ai?d, the life of the modern man being longer,
we have more hard arteries than we used to
have. It is a symptom of the nervous con
stitution, and the nervous constitution —to
say nothing of nervousness about the con
stitution—is greatly in evidence nowaday?.
It is a malady of the town rather than of
the country, and our population is becoming
an urban one. Seventy years ago there were
none of the so-called sleep-producing drugs
which are now retailed across every drug
gist's counter. In the old days the only things
which could be used to produce sleep were
opium, which is dangerous and uncomforta
ble; henbane and hemp, which are uncertain,
and the ill-smelling nervines, which are of
little real use. The production and sale of
hypnotics ia now on an enormous sr-ale.
Every few months some new compound drug
is being evolved from the laboratory and
exploited in the medical journals. This could
hardly be the case unless there were a great
number of persons who want«d something tc
make them sleep. So that ir seems a reason
able conclusion that people do not sleep now
quite as well as their grandfathers used to
do. I am not, however, a pessimist in regard
to the future on this point. Being an intel
ligent people, we will in time disc-over that
insomnia is a bad thing to have, and that
the struggle for subsistence and success can
not be carried on if a person does not sleep;
and, consequently, measures will be taken
to adjust ourseives to the situation, so that
this unpleasant condition will be gradually
diminished—in other words, while we may
have more insomnia for the next half cen
tury, eventually we will probably learn how
to live so that there will be less of it.
Mental Activity and InMomnla.
Besides, the coming man, apart from any
question of sleep disorder, will probably ob
tain less sleep. The more highly organized
and specialized structures have to keep awako
more in order to maintain the delicacy of
the equilibrium. At the present time the
feats of normal continuous mental activity
have been done by men of the higher type.
Napoleon had not slept far three days when
he reached Paris after Waterloo. He could,
it is said, go without sleep almost indefinite
ly. And one reads of many similar feats of
persistent vigilance among men of great and
active talent. Insomnia and a tendency to
short hours of sleep are more common ainons
braia workers, especially among the intel
lectual and ariistic type as distinguished
from those of t lministrative and executive
powers. As the organism becomes more set
tled in its habits, more automatic and ma
chine-like in its work, it gets more rest.
But the world is not getting into this state
among the progressive races. Indeed, races
that do not suffer from insomnia are either
at a standstill or are dying out.
'All the organs of the body do their work
more or less rhythmically and sleep Is the
resting phase of the brain's rhythm. It tak^s
up one-third of each twenty-four hours.
Some organs, like the heart, rest half the
time, the lungs a little more than half, the
healthy stomach has about the same amount
of leisure. The brain may thus be consid
ered, as compared with other organs, to be
But sleep is not alone a period of rest for
the brain; all the organs of the body sharp
it in a measure. The heart beats more slow
ly and quietly; the breathing is also slower,
the temperature of the body is leas, and the
chemical changes of nutrition slacken.
How Sleep Clear* tUe Brain.
Sleep not only supplies rest; it is the time
when the circulatory organs, the veins, ar
teries and lymphatics, put in a special kind
of work and in a way scour and clean up,
carrying off the waste products accumulated
during the day's activity. For during the
day the brain cells are continually under
going chemical changes. The results of these
changes accumulate. They are called
"fatigue-products" and their presence in the
brain causes a feeling of weariness and
drowsiness. During sleep these cell changes
are slower, the blood vessels carry off the
fatigue-products, so that the brain awakens
with decks cleared for action again.
During sleep there is less blood in the
brain. The amount is always less than dur
ing the waking life, but it varies a good
deal. A slight noise, a strong odor, a pinch
of the skin—all send a little more blood to
the brain, though the sleeper may not be
awakened by it. This sensitiveness of the
circulation is necessary. It is a sort of pro
tection to the sleeper from passing into actual
lethargy. Just as the sleeping person awakes
the brain becomes for a moment particularly
poor iv blood, and hence the moment of
waking, especially if accompanied by a sud
den movement, makes one confused, dizzy or
faint. I have known persons who were
startled from rJeep and who jumped to their
feet to fall in a faint.
Sound Sleep and Early Rising".
Sleep grows deeper for about an hour
from the time of its beginning, then remains
about the same for two or three hours, then
gradually grows lighter. Sleep is always
deeper when the bleeper is in the dark and
to a less extent when there are no irritating
sounds or odors. Sleep in the daytime, as
tested by physiological experiment, is about
one-third lighter than sl<*ep at night. The
fact that sleep is better in the dark is a
basis of what truth there is in the common
belief that sleep is better before midnight
than after. Those who get more sleep be
fore the morning light and noises begin to
enter their rooms get better sleep. Under
proper precautions, however, good sleep can
be had in the daytime, and I do not find that
journalists, for example, who have to take
their sleep in the morning, suffer particularly
from insomnia. The early-to-bed and early
to-rise habit has a physiological basis, but it
may be overdone, and it is not especially
adapted Co urban habits of work. The farmer
who rises at 4 o'clock in the morning can
go and milk his cows and attend to the a.led
duties, but In cities the period from 4 to 7
o'clock is a rather cold and profitless one.
not compensated for by the rising of the
sun, the singing of the birds or other like
"gawds." as Charles Lamb calls them. The
more serious side, is that as the early riser
passes middle life he finds that the tendency
to wake early is accentuated, so that he be
gins to suffer from morning insomnia. I
have not said enough, I hope, to extenuate
indolence or to discourage the rural disciples
of an ancient creed.
Amount of Sleep Required.
Sleep is most essential in the two extremes
of life. The new-born Infant sleeps most
of the time—or ought to. Up to 10 the chilli
should sleep about twelve hours; from 10 to
20 he requires nine or ten hours: the mature
man should get along with eight hours, and
in old age six or seven hours is enough at
night, though a nap during the day is help
ful. Women, it is agreed, needs an hour
more sleep than men, but on the other hand
she seems to bear the loss of sleep better
These rules are subject to a good many
variations. I have known a man of fine and
active intellect who all his mature life slept
only four hours In each twenty-four. On the
other hand, some, more often women, inherit
a tremendous capacity for aleef They can
sleep twelve hours every night «nd take
a long nap in the daytime if they get a
A person can go without sleep just about
bo long as he can go without food, that is,
twenty to forty days. But people cannot or
dinarily go without sleep for more than
three days without serious symptoms. Those
who think they do not sleep at all are mis
Persons of nervous temperament do not
sleep quite so much as those of the opposite
type. This is true, though not Utiiformaly
to* of Bjsrroua children. It must mean that
this class of persons does not need quite so
much sleep. The reparation powers »r«
greater; the tissues build up sooner; th*
circulation i 3 more active. They work more
quickly and rest more quickly. Nevertheless,
this class needs the sleep it gets even more
than others, and it Is especially important
that it gets into regular habits of taking
sleep. If such people lose sleep they eventu
ally break down and easily get to suffering
from sleeplessness. This isa warning which"
parents of nervous children should take.
People sleep more and more profoundly in
cold and temperate climates and at lower
altitudes. The inhabitants of high, dry re
gions, like the Colorado plateau, or simply
very dry, windy regions, like those of Minne
sota and the northwest, suffer from insomnia.
Going to Sleep and Avoiding Dreanin
The theory of the cure for slet .lessness is
based on these facts: The great nervous cen
ters of the brain are being constantly bat
tered by stimuli from the various sense or
gans, the viscera and the internal stimuli of
stored-up thought and feeling. These nerve
eentera^rest in sleep by securing aa far aa
possible a respite from these irritattoDs. Shut
out from the spinal cord, for example, im
pulses to make its centers act and it sleeps.
This is at once accomplished by lying flat on
the back and keeping quiet. Shut out from
the conscious mind the stimuli, from the
eyes, the ears, the iio.se, and as far ac possi
ble from the ekln and viscera, and there
comes a tendency to bleep. The experiment
was once tried on a young man who had lost
all his senses but hearing. By stopping his
ears with wax he would at once fall to sleep.
Now we can exclude ail these irritations fair
ly well, and ordinarily it is done when one
goes to bed. Unfortunately we cannot control
the internal stimuli of thought and feeling
and not always those of extrinsic origin. So
worry or the desire to solve problems in af
fairs or disorders of the body keeps the sleep
less man tossing on his bed. But to exclude
the sensory stimuli from the brain aa far a*
possible is the object which is aimed at.
We owe it to a dream that Galen became a
physician; that Aesculapius prescribed date*
for consumption, and that more important
events of history took. p!aee. There are to
day persons who believe in the significance
of dreams and others who get perhaps aes
thetic feelings out of them. But 1 consider
that dreams on the whole are unhealthful and
that perfect sleep is dreamless. Dreaming is
no doubt more 'ommon now and less affects
the imagination than k used to do The cur
of Aesculapius for sixty years was based'on"
the productions of dreams, which his follow
ers to-day seek to abolish altogether. Dream
ing is usually a matter of indigestion pain
or worry, and it occurs in the lighter phases
of sleep, that is to say, at its beginning or
" ; ' How to Get 'Sound Sleep.
Sleep is not affected by the magnetic cur
rents of the earth, and one sleeps equally
well with his head to the north pole or south
pole, and with the.bed on glass castors or
on copper conducting rods, with the feet free
or connected by a wire to pail of ice water.
prletarT'cure^ 6 eXP'°Uer3 of a certaiu
Persons sleep best in the positions most
eomlortable to them- Most persons sleep on
ut ££' ? °ftMier thC righC side, but peo
eft side and those with irritable hearts on
the rht side , SoiDe physlc , a advis a e rt t s ho o^
lni° rt Vl °°r b!°°d t0 slee P with a PH
w ">* those of plethoric habit to sle*p *it a
the head well raised. The popular itfTa that
sleeping on the back causes bad dreams has
some foundation in fact. Young ch^re*
tnorTtvhhe" cn°Ch- a leara* «-man au
with their arms bent and held to the" s id e 3
so that the hands are near the chin some
SS n i n,,S* position •—•«duri °s st
How Insomnia Is Produced
Insomnia is often brought on hv ,h
.meditation, in the evening," and it make- a
good prescription for sleep. Ami el's Journal
Emerson, -Sartor Resam.s." St CI '
Martu. the Epicurean and the lyrics"of £
Bible are good to prepare for sleep. And if
any one were to repeat Sir Thomas Browne
a few times he would not only want to sleep
but have to do so. But to read Aatkony
Hope or, -The Three Guardsmen" or the
popular novels of adventure of the day or
polemics or deep philosophy leads to in
somnia and very unpleasant and dysonelric
nights. There are less serious works that
may be used, such as the old and quieter type
of novel or the three-volume history or
books of . leisurely travel. I have a list of
sleep-producing works which is too long to
insert here; besides, ; ea,-h must find his
Working at night is bad for those who
nave a tendency to insomnia. Happily this
practice is largely counteracted by the nor
altogether altruistic attitude of the wife
who claims nowadays as a right a certain
portion of her husband's time and society
I presume that tobacco and coffee are" the
only substances in ordinary use which tend
to cause insomnia. A man finds out for him
self very soon whether he is being harmed
by these things. Alcohol, except in excess
is not a cause; indeed, the hearty feeders and
moderate drinkers generally sleep well the
hearty feeding being the main factor. A lit
tle food at night often promotes Bleep
especially in the aged.
Be Happy and Avoid Worry.
It is easy to advise against worry, but I
know of no means of utilizing the advice.
StHI, worry causes sleeplessness more than
any other single thing and to be happy is a
very sure cure for bad nights. 1 must leave
it to the economists, the clergy and the
cultivators of life's practical phllisopiiies to
deal with these sufferers.
Sleeplessness alarms many people, I find,
because they think it is a symptou of Im
pending brain trouble or indicates the out
set of insanity. This is a foolish notion,
which often does much harm. Insomnia is no
more a sympton or forewarning of insanity
than Is headache or dyspepsia. It is, to be
sure, sometimes a serious symptom in in
sanity, but one sees a hundred sleepless peo
ple who are not and never become insane to
one who does. And this latter person has
signs that mark his troubles much more
significantly than does insomnia.
There are no good drugs for insomnia and
the world would be be-tter if we had none of
our many modern hypnotics. The best cure
after direct causes are removed is long ex
posure to the fresh and blowing air in the
right kind of climate—that is, in one not
above 1,500 feet or very dry. Exercise to the
point of much fatigue does not help sleep,
especially in those who are not very strong.
JThe seashore or a sea voyage is not by any
means a specific, as it is often asserted to
As the coming man is likely to get less
sleep but to need it more, H behooves my
readers to be careful Oet into good sleeping
'habits and if they are disturbed use no drug*
to correct the disturbance.
L^^a^L/ Z e
New Opening- fur Narkham.
It's getting about time for Poet Laureate
Markham to throw a poem on "Th« Woman
with the Hatchet."
Know When They Are Well Off.
aln . 1800 the : farmers received . $185,000,000
more for their products than In 1899. It will
be some' time before the farmers of America
will vote for any ! more T changes. ;