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LUCIAN SWIFT, J. S. McLAIN,
Tli E JOC 11 A L ia published
every evening, except Sunday, at
47—it) Fourth Street South, Journal
Building, Miuneapolii, Minn. ;.. .
C J. Bliiaott, Manager Eastern Adver
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The Course of Business
This has been rather a dull week so far
as new developments are concerned, but
the volume of trade holds encouragingly,
bank clearings for the week showing 37
per cent Increase over last year. The steel
combination has not been perfected as yet
Bndtherearereports that all is not smooth
sailing, opposition having developed; but
whether this opposition is simply a trick
on the part of some dissatisfied stockhold
ers In properties scheduled for the con
solidation, in the hope of securing a better
bid for properties, or whether it is genu
ine competition it not yet made clear.
There has been more talk during the
week about a combination between the
Great Northern, the Northern Pacific and
the Union Pacific to control the Burling
ton. The Burlington securities have ad
vanced sharply as a result of this gossip.
Mr. Hill is now in the east, presumably on
an errand connected with this proposed
working together of interests for a com
mon cause. It is not unlikely that some
thing definite will be announced before the
month is over, but for the present the pub
lic will have to be content with gossip,
which may or may not have foundation.
Ther© is a good deal of general gossip
in circulation about rail consolidations.
The Baltimore & Ohio is affected and like
wise the Chesapeake & Ohio. There is a
feeling that the Pennsylvania is about to
extend its management over these lines.
Then there are Whispers that the Laeka
wanna has an eye on the Wabash. All of
these reports give added interest to the
market for securities and the bond trade
in all these properties has been large.
Tlie iron trade is showing some tendency
to overproduction. The domestic demand
is not up to the output and the foreign de
mand Is smaller than of late. Still the
feeling is good and prices on the whole
are steady. In the cotton lines there is
dullness and cotton has had decline. The
expectation is that the yield of cotton this
year •will be large, hence buyers are hold
ing off and the market for raw cotton is
feeling this sharply. The price of cotton
1b lower to-day than It has been for a
year with one exception, but it is 67 per
Cent higher than the low price of 1898.
The wheat market drags and the long an
ticipated advance in the price has not yet
been realized and there are a good many
doubters in the field. The receipts of
wheat in the northwest have been far in
excess of all estimates except the esti
mate made by The Journal, which is
being confirmed in full. The wheat visible
Is nearly sixty millions, and at this late
day It will take something radical to push
prices up much with that supply and new
wheat aboup to offer from the southern
hemisphere. In general business condi
tions are favorable.
The Isthmian Canal
The Journal's Washington dispatches
indicate a more hopeful outlook for the
interoceanic canal construction. The Hay-
Pauncefote treaty, which expired by lim
itation on Monday, is to be the subject of
new negotiations looking to an adjustment
of the differences embodied in the amend
ments made by the senate, and the gov
ernment will also consider proposals by
the United States of Colombia for the ac
quisition of the Panama canal. Our treaty
with New Grenada (now the United States
of Colombia) in 1846 accords us the rights
and privileges of canal construction across
the isthmus and if it should prove more
economical and practically advantageous
to buy the Panama canal so far as com
pleted by the company now engaged in the
"work, there is no good reason why the
United States should cling to the Nicara
gua route, which presents more serious
engineering difficulties than does the Pan
ama route and is by far the longest of the
various routes which have had any serious
The Walker commission, which examined
• all the available routes, has reported fa
vorably to the Nicaragua route at a cost
of $200,000,000, chiefly on the ground that
the Panama route lies much farther south
and it would take vessels a little longer
to reach Asiatic ports. But the passage
of vessels through the Nicaragua canal
would take two or three days or more by
reason of the many locks required and the
long distance from Greytown to Brito by
the San Juan river, Lake Nicaragua and
thence by fourteen more locks to the Pa
cific By the Panama route the distance is
about forty miles and the only serious en
gineering problem is found In the dispo
sition of the Chagres river, which like all
tropical rivers swells enormously in the
rainy season, rising sometimes sixty feet
in a few hours.
The Clayton-Bulwer treaty applies to the
Panama route just as it does to the Nica
ragua canal, as will be seen by reference
to the eighth article which covers any ca
nal across the isthmus which connects
North and South America. The adminis
tration properly negotiated the Hay-
Pauncefote treaty, which removed the
Clayton-Bulw<?r handicap, because it did
not wish to violate our treaty obligations
as do the chauvinists in the senate, who
seem to regard the canal as an instrument
for war instead of peace. It is to be
hoped that the senate will see fit, in the
future consideration of the subject,
whether the Panama or the Nicaragua
route is chosen, to remove the obstacles
embodied in the treaty of 1850 in the
proper and honorable way. Even Mr.
Blame, with all his chauvinism and Anglo
phobi&m, recognized the validity of the old
treaty and in his correspondence with
Lord Granville he asked for "modifica
The primary elements of international
law must be respected by every self-re
specting nation. The integrity of con
tract must be maintained. Treaties can
'be terminated in two ways, by mutual as
sent or by the sword, unless it is specified
that either party may withdraw and term
inate the contract after due notice. If
we go about ■ this canal business in a
strictly business way, the whole question
may be satisfactorily settled by the time
congress takes its Christmas holiday and
work on the canal can be commenced next
year at an early date.
The San Juan Riot
No doubt the schoolgirl incident at San
Juan is giving the anti-administration
folk a deal of pleasure. They have not
had anything to please them for a good
while except the foreign relations trouble
in Cuba, where they are apparently very
anxious to promote an uprising of the rad
ical element against law and order. The
Philippine situation yields no comfort to
these professional malcontents, for the
commission is well received wherever it
goes to take the initial steps in establish
ing civil government and the insurgent
forces have dwindled to an insignificant
and scattered force of guerillas; schools
are establishing and the business of the
archipelago is picking up strongly and the
new tariff will greatly improve the situa
But this San Juan riot comes to cheer
the antis. They shut their eyes to the
rapidly improving situation in the Phil
ippines and pause in their denunciation
of the president as about to enslave the
Cubans, and are getting ready to go into
hysterics over the reprimand of a 10-year
otd schoolgirl at San Juan by the school
superintendent, who no doubt did his duty.
The girl ran home and told her mother
that her teacher had beaten her, which was
no doubt a lie, but a lot of boys and street
loafers (the latter always swarm in San
Juan), without any knowledge of the facts,
started a riot and yelled, "Down with the
Americans," as they used to yell, "Down
with the Spaniards!" These street loafers
would yell, "Down!" about any govern
ment under which they might live, even
a full-fledged Porto Rican native admin
But the incident pleases the antis in
this country, who are delighted when they
hear of any rumored discontent with
American administration in Pofto Rico
or in the Philippines, and are ready to do
all they can to create dissatisfaction and
give our government trouble. The San
Juan schoolgirl will probably be regarded
by them as a second Joan of Arc and the
loafers of San Juan will be exalted to the
ranks of the most patriotic heroes.
It is not pleasant to think that there
are Americans who delight in all embar
rassments of their government and would
like to see its army vanquished and its
flag dishonored. It is a queer kind of
patriotism which sympathizes with the
enemies of our government and does all it
can to defeat its philanthropic and liberty-
Bpreading purposes and prophesies disaster
continually. As the president said in his
"The prophets of evil -were not
the builder* of this republic, nor in
its crises have they saved or served
A Successful Primary
The republicans of Lincoln, Neb., are
congratulating themselves on the suc
cessful result of their primary election.
The Nebraska State Journal says:
The nominees were selected by the direct
vote of the rank and file of the members of
the party, and an absolutely unassailable
ticket has been put in the field in conse
quence. In the old days when men were al
lowed to name delegations from their own
wards, with tfie understanding that they
might trade them in any way they wished,
the party was humiliated hy some of the
nominations made by aynost every conven-
The Lincoln system has shown itself to be
the cleanest and best means yet devised for
selecting the nominees of a political party. It
has revolutionized the municipal government
of this city in less thau five years. It has
driven out boesism and installed the indi
vidual citizen and taxpayer in his rightful
position as dictator of the management of
the party. The Lincoln system is now firmly
intrenched in the city, for it would be a bold
wa.rd politician to even suggest a return to
the convention plan. If the members of the
county central committee wish to assist in
the growth of the party, they may do so by.
providing for the extension of the Lincoln
system to the entire county.
This testimony goes to show again that
the general primary election ideal is all
right, and that it will work well under
The situation last fall in Minneapolis,
as repeatedly pointed out, was extraor
dinary, but there is every indication now
that, at the next primary election, when
the voters can get at the polls and ex
press their feelings, the very machinery
that brought about some unsatisfactory
results at the first trial of this plan will
be found most effective in correcting the
mistakes then made.
If thte result of the next state election
should prove particularly unsatisfactory to
the republican party it will not be neces
sary to look far for the reasons. The repub
lican state senate is still supplying am
munition to the opposition as it did two
years ago, with this difference, that the
next election must be conducted strictly
on state issues without the aid of a na
tional campaign to snatch victory from
The proper thing now is for Minneapolis
and Hennepin county to test the reappor
tionment bill in the courts. The rest of
the state seems to have concluded in this
matter, as it has in other connections, that
it makes no difference what Hennepin
THE MINNEAPOLIS JOLTKNAE.
county wants or is entitled to —it must
take whet is flung to it and be satisfied.
The reapportionment bill is not defended
by anybody as a fair measure; it cannot
be. It would only be a proper assertion
of the self-respect on the part of the re
publicans of this county to 'appeal to the
courts, where the probabilities are that
the bill passed yesterdey would be Bet
The True When Sarah Bernhardt
r . reached New Orleans she
strenuous* went out uuntlng along thl .
ness. gulf and bayous. She had
a glorious time. She de
scribes It in her own inimitable style thus:
I am no longer Bernhardt the actress, but
Beruhardt the huntress. 1 leave the smell of
gas, the musty play books, the dust and noise
of theaters, the excitement, the preoccupation
—the —how do you call —streuuousuesi —I go
out under the sky, the breeze in my face, the
spray dashing upon me, the whirr and buzz
of live creatures about me. I driuk from the
great chalice of nature's energies. It restored
me, makes me young, strong, passionate.
Twenty-four hours of this life, the life of
birds and bugs and nshes and wild things, Is
more, recuperating than twenty-four nights of
artificial rest In your beds —bah! 1 hate your
beds. 1 would like to sleep always upon the
grass, tinder the moon, with the forces of na
ture whirring about me.
Sarah Is a grandma, but she never allows
this happy fact to interfere with her youth
fulness. There is a whole lot of life and joy
In the world, and the aetressjis right in the
game. Vive la Sarah! A baf la grandmere!
J} Stir The Medical Dial, to which
ditor tho some obscure and witless joker
KJVer xne referred as the Medical Die-all,
Oy'Ster. has seen a great shadow of dis
ease impending over the land
in the simple person of the oyster. The Dial
things the oyster is too serious a matter to be
swallowed whole without further investiga
tion. The Dial says:
Something new. There is no more propri
ety in swallowing an oyster whole, minus his
shell, than there would be in eating a calf
or lamb, only denuded of their skins, if that
were possible. Let the oyster be opened and
washed clean of its inward contents of salt
mud, decaying wood and vegetable matter,
typhoid germs and other microbes that it is
trying to digest, then make your soup, fry,
escallop, or bake the dainty patty, and you
will have dishes free from dangerous poisons,
Perhaps there is something in this. Our
fathers did eat of the oyster and are dead.
We propose a legislative measure for a medi
cal board to sit on each oyster and give him
a certificate of good health. You don't know
what you are doing when you eat the uncer
tified oyster without an operation on him for
Jerome A. Hart, editor of the San Francisco
Argonaut, has been investigating the Latin
"carnivals" held so frequently in South
American cities. He claims that the spirit of
the masquerade is largely alcoholic, and says
that the jokers throw "hard plaster confetti."
resulting in murder and much police activity
of various kinds. Mr. Hart deprecates the
adoption of that kind of violence 1n North
Admiral Dewey has drawn his prize money
for the destruction of Moutejo's fleet. He
found $9,570 awaiting him at the treasury
window. This sounds easy, but when he was
steaming into Manila harbor with the chances
of torpedoes on every side, there was at least
$10,000 worth of responsibility on his shoul
ders. The admiral earned his money.
The Indiana senate has passed a bill pro
viding that no marriages shall be celebrated
in the state unless the contracting parties have
been passed by a board of physical examiners
consisting of two mothers, two physicians and
an attorney. If Love laughs at locksmiths,
he is likely to smile a trifle at two mothers,
two physicians and an attorney.
A Le Roy, Minn., saloonkeeper as a joke
invited Mrs. Nation to come up with her ax.
To his horror she replied that she thought
she would accept a little later on, and now
when anybody slams the joint door he jumps
a foot. Do not clip off pieces of dynamite with
a tack hammer.
A colored man at Athens, Ga., slept with
his mouth open and a mouse ran down his
throat. Pending the arrival of a doctor with
an emetic the colored man hollered like a
steam whistle at C p. m. Keep your mouth
shut unless you know what you are doing.
What will the kaiser catch for his "third"?
Accidents go in bunches for some people, and
the kaiser has been run into by a street car
and wounded by a chunk of iron thrown by
an epileptic. His majesty now carries his
The legislature of Hawaii started out with
a little tangle of authorities that the Great
Father at Washington will have to settle. The
president of the United States is now dictator
of the islands of the sea.
The Montana legislature electrified Paris
Gibson yesterday by electing him a United
States senator. Mr. Gibson not only offsets
Mr. Clarke in the senate, but leaves the state
a little to the good.
There was a riot in San Juan, Porto Rico,
but nobody seemed to know just why except
that the American superintendent of schools
reprimanded a-girl and nearly started a South
A Colprado man knocked out his grip with
four quarts of hot whisky in which he had
dissolved a teaspoonful of water. Why this
lavish expenditure of water?
Bathhouse John, the Chicago alderman of
the riotous vest, has written a new song
called "Perhaps." Perhaps, but we wager
If the robin "pipes his lay" up this way,
he will have to put his pipes below the frost
Miss Maud Gonne has her hatchet out and
does not object to a little bloodshed in Ire
The. latest French duel resulted in a suspi
cion of death. One of the parties lied.
The Delaware legislature plugged the meter
of J. Edward Addicks.
Delaware again blew out the gas on Mr.
COST OF WARS
In a paper on "The Cost of War" in the
Review of the Republic, T. E. Willson shows
that the war debts of Europe created since
1800, with interest charges added, exceed $70,
--000,000,000. The military and naval establish
ments on a peace footing for 1900 exceeded
11,200,000,000. France's national debt is now
16,400,000,000, with an interest charge of near
ly $260,000,000. It was created chiefly through
the wars of Napoleon 111. and the colonizing
wars of the present French republic. Mexico
and the Spanish-American republics have
spent during the century $3,000,000,000 fight
ing for independence and in civil wars after
they became independent. Mr. Wilison fig
ures that the United Slates, during the last
century, has spent $18,772,000,000 for war, in
cluding cash expenditures of $17,772,000,000
in the civil war and pensions. In the civil
■war the census reveals a property loss of
$30,000,000,000. Spain has lost all her former
wealth by continuous wars. The cost of
maintaining troops in the field is only part of
the cost of war. The loss of war material,
destruction of private and public property,
loss of business, etc., have to be considered.
The cost of the major European wars of. the
last century is put at $11,220,000,000. This in
cludes the Xapoelonic wars, 1793 to 1815,
which cost $6,250,000,000.
Not a Wild Gueit.
Springfield State Register.
It is understood that the Joint committee on
district apportionment, which turned out the
new congressional map of Illinois, had the
aid of a lady who is an expert in the produc
tion of crazy auiits.
Thankful for What We've Mimed.
Perhaps the strongest indorsement which
can be bestowed upon congress is that it
made an extra session unnecessary.
Where Angela Fear to Tread.
Mrs. Nation now wants to run a newspa
per. This may be accepted as proof that her
indifference to trouble is absolutely genuine.
New York Daily Letter.
BUREAU OP THE JOURNAL,
No. 21 Park Row,
A 25-Story Building.
March 9.—A twenty-flve-story skyscraper
will soon mark the center of the city. Ar
rangements have been made for such a struc
ture at the Twenty-third street "flatiron,"
which will tost, for land and building, about
$4,000,000. A syndicate composed of Phila
delphia, Boston, Chicago and New York cap
italists is responsible for this big real estate
deal. The location Is one of the finest In
New York, forming an equilateral triangle
with Fifth avenue and Broadway as the two
sides, Twenty-second street the base and
Twenty-third street at the apex. The syndi
cate interested in this big office building proj
ect has paid $3,<HM),000 for the land, this being
at about $200 a square foot. Such a price for
land beats all records for real estate sales
north of the financial district. Prior to this
time the triangle has been owned by different
interests and estates, but real estate men re
gard the accumulation of the previous hold
ings into one plot as having already estab
lished the value of the land at fully $250 a
square foot. On this estimate the broker in
charge of the deal has already made $">oo,
--000 for his client. Architects from several
sections of the country are here In consulta
tion over plans for the proposed building.
Already applications have been made to the
syndicate by prospective tenants of the build-
Ing ior offi.-?s and store space amounting to
over $150,000 a year in rentals. Because of the
advantages of location the new building will
enjoy It is almost certain that every bit of
space in It will be rented long before it is
complete for occupancy.
The Oriental (lnb.
Even the orientals in this city have the
dinner organization habit. The most progres
sive and intelligent Chines* here long ago
founded the Oriental Club for the social and
Intellectual advancement of the members. The
club has just held its annual banquet and it
was a highly interesting affair in many ways.
The food was partaken of at the restaurant of
Mon Lee Won, 24 Pell street, with about
one hundred members present. The little
hall was beautifully decorated with rare
Chinese lilies, and with the Chinese national
flag and oth->r oriental emblems. The menu,
which consisted of twelve Chinese courses,
was written in Chinese, and was as mystify
ing to the .American guests as the dishes
themselves. There were present Chow Tsz-
Chi, the Chinese consul, a man of impressive
appearance and high culture; Lock Wing, the
vice consul, v.-ho is a Yale graduate and an
eloquent speaker and linguist, and Wu Cho
Pel, the secretary of the consulate. There
were, besides, the big Chinese merchants of
the quarter. All spoke English fluently.
Ben HiiHsan Thrown Down.
A sleight of hand artist has just discovered
it to be an exceedingly unwise proceeding
to undertake indiscriminately to extract
money from the pockets or belongings of ma
terialists. It so happened that one of these
operators about New York bar rooms, a man
known as Ben Hassan Ramidio, is shy a
little matter of five dollars because of bis too
great dexterity. The magician is known as'
"The Wonderful Turk," and operates along
Third avenu 1, earning nickels, dimes and oc
casional quarters from the men to whom he
furnishes amusement. A few nights ago
Ramidio was in the saloon at Thirty-fourth
street and Third avenue, and started in with
bis tricks. Alongside the bar was a gruff
Irishman possessed of a great deal of humor
and no change. Ramidio wished to take a
?5 bill from the Irishman's pocket, or from
the bundle o:' clothes which the latter car
ried under hio arm. Incredulous, the Irish
man said he could go ahead and if he found
five dollars there he would do more than any
one el3e could. After a couple of passes
the trickster succeeded in drawing five dol
lars from the bundle. Then the Irishman
claimed the mcney and started to prove pos
session by pointing to the spot from which
the money had been removed. While the
c'iscussion was on the Irishman grabbed the
bill and started for the Thirty-fourth street
ferry to Long Island City. The ferry house
was near and the Irishman got on board the
boat just as the gates closed, playfully wav
ing the bill at the frantic Turk on the dock.
Ben Hassan Ramidio is considering whether
it be more advisable to go out of business
or go about with a bodyguard.
Although jockles have joined the. general
exodus to England a number of American
iockles have signed to ride here this season,
and at fancy prices, to say nothing of The
"extras" al #ay 6 secured. William C. Whit
ney has engaged T. Burns at a salary of $12,
--000 for the season; August Belmont has
signed Owen Mounce at $7,000; T. Henry is
under contract to James R. Knene for S3O.-
C 00: T. Bullrnan to Senator P. H. McCarren
for $10,000; W. O'Connor to A. Featherstone
for $8,000; George Odom to Clarence Mackey
for $12,000, and J. Cochran to J. J. McCafferty
for $10,000, with many others for only slightly
Tips That Are Worth Fortune*.
A new style of tips for hotel and restaurant
waiters has been devised. The late Collis
P. Huntington and the pfesent Charles M.
Schwab are held responsible for it. If re
ports are true the system has proved a most
acceptable one to Adam Brunner, now and
for several years head waiter of the Holland
House. Brunner is reported to have made
£160,000 within the last few months on stock
market tips fi rnlshed him by Mr. Huntington
and later by Mr. Schwab. Neither of those
two gentlemen at the time they handed out
their information to the head waiter believed
he was an operator on an extensive scale.
They simply thought he was a man who
would take a flyer occasionally In the mar
ket, relying possibly on their judgment for
ten or twenty-share lots. It is said that Mr.
Schwab first gained knowledge of the ex
tensive operations of Brunner by finding that
the head trotter whom he saw on his frequent
trips to New York city was dealing in thou
sand share .'ots of American Bridge stock.
The shock of finding this out was a great or>e
to the prospective president of the billion
dollar, steel trust. Mr. Schwab is reported to
have said that Brunner got in the American
Bridge company on the ground floor, anf
much lower than several capitalists did.
Brunner stlH retains his position at the Hol
land House, apparently not In the least in
flated by hl3 good fortune.
—N. N. A.
MAKING SACRED FIRE
Professor TUelbach, in the March Open
Court, tells some interesting things about the
sacred domestic hearth fire among the Slavic
races of the Balkan peninsula. The fire on
the hearth Is never allowed to go out, as it
is regarded as the eternal sacred fire of the
peasant's home. If it goes out, the peasant
regards calamity as imminent. The sacred
fire is obtained by rubbing two pieces of wood
together until they ignite; by rotating a cyl
indrical piece of wood whose ends are in
serted in holes made in the upper extremities
of two slabs of wood driven In the ground,
and by other forme of friction. In the event
of an epidemic, there are professional makers
of sacred fire, who, with many odd ceremo
nies and after ordering all fires extinguished
in the peasant's homes, supply them with
glowing coals to rekindle the hearth fires.
This is supposed to remove all forms of mis
fortune from a village. The fire must never
be started by blowing with the mouth, and
a bride, upon entering her new home, has to
be led three times round the hearth by the
groomsman, stir the fire with a poker and
say: "As many as the spark 3 that fly, so
many may the cattle be and so many the
male offspring that shall bless our new
home!" Chicago: The Open Court Publishing
The I'hnhluk of Little Willie.
A Baltimorean who has been collecting
queer epitaphs from the old graveyards of the
state recently made some unique additions
from a cemetery on the banks of the Little
Choptank in Dorchester. The cemetery is
connected with a church known as the Old
Trinity, and both the church and many of
the graves are well over 100 years old. .One
of the epitaphs taken from an ancient tdmb
"Little Willie was a darlln*;
Little thought we he would pass
Through the holy gates of heaven
When he ate that apple sass."
] The Mam' Club.
Sioux Falls Argus Leader.
That editor at Waterloo, lowa, who got up
the Pat \ Crowe , interview has \ been t jumped
several numbers over the head of the Bone
steel, S. D., correspondent, and now presi
dentF for life ,of' the New York Liars' Club.
But there :is still chance • for the Bonesteel
artist. ■ as '■ the .number of presidents Is * not
limited . .'- "! '•' '", -" •'" ' ' •■••-
The Release of No. 201
BY DAVID H. TALMADOE.
Copyright, 1901, by D. H. lalmadgc.
The accommodation train—No 201 of the
schedule—on the branch road was stuck in
the anow, and there seemed to be no relief
for It. No provision had been made for
such a contingency, because the branch,
sheltered by trees and bluffs, had been con
sidered proof against such misfortune. The
engineer, who had been on the run for twenty
years, was too astonished for words when
the small locomotive failed to cut the drift
into which it had plunged so confidently,
and he sat on his seat staling dumbly at the
conductor, who t,wore shockingly and gesti
culated with his arras.
In the coach were two passengers, both
young men. One was the type of commercial
salesman sent out by small jobbing houses,
well dressed, self-assertive, crudely philo
sophic; the other, by appearance, plainly a
farmer. He wore a baggy, shiny black suit,
and his white collar was attached to a ging
ham shirt by a white bone button, sewed with
black thread. His appearance was enhanced
by .a carefully trimmed shock of hair and
The commercial salesman had arisen when
the train stepped and had walked to the door
"I guess," he remarked, after a minute,
"that we're stalled "
He whistled a popular melody as he walked
down the aisle, and noted wi*h some amuse
ment that the other man was clutching the
back of a seat, his eyes filled with con
'■Provoking, isn't it?" the drummer said,
as he lighted a cigar and drew a paper-cov
ered book from his grip.
"Y-yes—by—cat:" the other stammered.
"Say, do you mean that we're stuck?"
'"That's It exactly. Here's the conductor
The conductor slammed the dcor viciously
and shook tbe snow from his cap.
"We're up against it, gentlemen," he an
nounced in disgust. "The confounded tea
kettle is dying with a jick pig out there
in a drift no bigger'n a washtub. We're two
miles from Dilkport, and the snow's so thick
you can't see your hand before your face.
Lucky we've been to supper."
"Then we won't get out to-n!ght?" asked
the farmer anxiously, looking at his watch.
"That's the size of it. As we're up here
on this peavine the section men won't learn
what's the matter with us till to-morrow.
\Ve've got plenty of coal. It might be
"Yes." said the farmer, "I s'pose it might;
but I don't see how it could be much worse
He picked up an overshoe.
"You see," he explained, fastening the
buckle, "I've got a particular engagement to
night up at Dilkport, and if the train ain't
going I've got to Iroof it."
He put on the other shoe, and rose, reach-'
ing for the wolfskin coat which dangled from
one end of the parcel holder. The conductor
and the salesman contemplated him in aston
"But, man, you can't do it possibly," said
the conductor. "You'll fall through a bridge
or something, and then you'll freeze to
"1 reckon 'tis a bit risky," admitted the
farmer; "but 1 ain't at all sure it wouldn't
be riskier not to. You see, my wife's at
Dilkport, and she's sick. She may be dying.
I've got to go to her."
An expression of sympathy came upon the
conductor's face, and that of the salesman
took on a sudden gravity.
"There are certain circumstances," the
farmer continued, in explanation, "which
make it more important that 1 should see her
than you might naturally think from the
plain fact of her being sick. I haven't treated
her just right, to tell the truth. I've been
stupid and unreasonable. We were married
only a year ago. i won her away from three
or four other fellows. Any one of them
would have made her a better husband than
me. Funny how such things go, ain't it?"
"It's a blooming nueer old world," said the
conductor, nodding his head sagely.
"And the queerest things in it are girls,"
added the salesman in the tone of an au
"We were married at Dilkport, where she
was raised, and we went to my farm to live.
We were happy as could be for maybe six
months, and then 1 noticed that something
was wrong with her. A sort of a cloud come
over her. It was nothing but homesick
ness, I s'pose, but I couldn't see it any other
way than that she was sorry she'd married
me. And one day I happened to find a sheet
of paper—a part of a letter she'd been writ
ing—that had dropped from her portfolio, and
I read it. There weren't many words on the
sheet. The first one was 'disappointed,' end
ing a sentence she'd begun on the sheet that
went before. And then it said: 'It is not
as I had pictured it. I wish to go home—"
And right there it ended. I said nothing to
her. O didn't think it was necessary to have
a scene, as they call it. But I was hurt—
hurt clean to the core, and in trying to cover
up my feelings I s'pose I was unkind—maybe
cruel. After two or three days of brooding I
got into a regular bad state. I told her she'd
better go home to her folks; that I'd de
cided we weren't made for each other. When
she tried to put her arms about my neck I
wouldn't let her. When she asked for my
reasons I told her she knew well enough, and
turned my back. I was a damned, unnatural,
"Correct," said the conductor, frankly.
"Well, she went. For four months IVe
been baching it on the farm, growing crab
bider every day. And this morning I hap
pened to meet a young chap in the store at
Pepperdook that knows my wife's folks. He
lives at Dilkport when he isn't traveling
around the country selling things.
■" 'I s'pose you've heard from your wife
this morning?' he asked me. 'No,' said I,
with a snap, 'I hain't.' 'Well, I've just come
from home,' said he, "and there was a report
on the street when I left that she was liable
Ito die. The kid's all right, though.'
" 'Hush. said 1. startled to death, 'the
kid!' 'Yes,' said he, looking at me in a sort
of a peculiar way; 'didn't you know there
was a kid born yestrday?' 'Why, yes, of
course," 1 said, shamed into the lie. I was
that dazed 1 didn't know my name for a
" 'Your wife's a fine woman,' the young
rhap went on, me listening like one in a
dream. '1 sent her a patent dish-washer
about six months ago on trial. It didn't suit
her, but she didn't <3o as most women would
have done; she wrote me a real nice letter,
telling me that it had disappointed her; that
it wasn't what she'd pictured it. She said
she wished to go home to Dilkport for a
visit in a short time, and that when she come
she'd bring it up with her, saving me the
express charges. I tell you, a fellow In this
agency 1 business learns to appreciate little
things like that.'
"And then, In a flash, I saw it all. The
letter I'd seen was the one she was writing
about that dish-washer. I bolted home with
out getting the things I'd come to town after.
I hustled around and spruced up a little and
eot somebody to care for the stock, and—
and I'm going to get to Dilkport to-night in
spite of blazes, that's all there is to It."
He left the coach, followed by the con
ductor and the salesman, who felt impelled
by sympathy to see him off on his perilous
trip. They climbed over the freight cars
through the blinding storm towards the loco
"Look out for the next car/ called the
conductor; "It's loaded with oil barrels. Bet
ter let me go ahead with the lantern."
The farmer stopped. "All right," he said.
"Is there any oil In the barrels?"
"They are full of it. Why?"
"I was just thinking that once I bought a
barrel of oil, and on the way home the sled
tipped over in a drift and the bung come
out of the barrel and the oil run on to the
snow. It was a pitch dark night, and I didn't
have a lantern. I was in bad shape. But
I gathered together a pile of straw that had
been in the sled box and lit it with a match,
and the first thing I knew that oil-soaked
drift was melting."
"By the holy green light!" exclaimed the
ronductor, as the other's Idea became clear
to him; "do you suppose we could do it?"
"I'd be willing to stand the expense of three
barrels of oil towards trying It."
The conductor jumped into the cab and laid
the plan before the engineer, who had stub
bornly refused to leave the engine until com
pelled by the cold.
■'It might work," said the engineer after a
few minutes' deliberation. " 'Taint like as if
we were buried. We're just tangled up a lit
tle, that's all. Jim"—addressing the fireman
with sudden energy—"coal up! Make her
The conductor called the two brakemen and
ihe express messenger, and with the assist
ance of the two passengers three barrels of
kerosene were rolled from the car and car
ried to the l'rcmt end of the train. The heads
SATURDAY EVENING, MARCH 9, 1901.
MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL'S CURRENT TOPICS SERIES
(Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawson.)
PAPERS BY EXPERTS AND SPECIALISTS OF NATIONAL REPUTATION.
WHAT THE GOVERNMENT
DOES FOR THE PEOPLE
IV.—TAKING THE CENSUS
(By Dr. Frederick H. Wines, Assistant Direc
tor of the Census.)
The foundation of census-taking is geo
graphical. It consists of the division of the
territory to be canvassed into districts of
proper size, having regard both to area and
to population. The number of enumeration
districts iv the present census was about
53,000, and the population enumerated was
7e,304,799, so that the average number in
each district was approximately l,f>oo, al
though there were great differences in de
tail, according to the varying density of
sparseness of population. In general the
boundaries of the districts correspond to
those of politteal divisions, beginning with
the states and descending to those of town
ships or of voting precincts, according to
locality. The determination of these boun
daries in advance necessitates a vast amount
of examination of maps and of statutes, to
gether with much official correspondence, and
is a troublesome undertaking/ A description
of the district was pasted in each portfolio
for the enumerator's information; also, wher
ever practicable, a map showing at least its
outline. This detail was new and service
able. The only innovation of importance in
this branch of the work was the requirement
that the enumerator in a city should return
the population of each block separately.
A more striking novelty was the use of
"street books," in which not only the popu
lation, but the dwellings and other buildings,
or even the vacant lots, were entered In de
tail. This system served as a valuable check
upoi> frauds in the enumeration, besides in
suring a thorough canvass or the district arvl
furnishing a record which enabled a vigilant
supervisor to keep track of "call-backs,"
where houses had to be revisited on account
of the absence of families on the occasion of
the first visit.
In addition to the street books, in certain
largo cities lists of the houses and of the
vacant lots, by street numbers, in each enu
meration district, were prepared in advance
for the enumerators' use by the aid of the
fire underwriters' maps. These were in the
nature of a notification of the character and
amount of work to be done by each of them,
and enabled the supervisor to satisfy himself
that no occupied dwelling had been over
looked In the house-to-house visitation.
ChooNing a Date for the Enumer
There is no satisfactory date in the entire
year at which to take the census. If the date
is too early, the northernmost portions of the
country are inaccessible on account of the
continuance of the winter season. At a some
what later date the farmers in rural districts
are busily engaged in the preparation of the
ground and planting. By June 1 many resi
dents of cities have left their homes for the
summer and are temporarily absent. There
are objections to a date In the autumn also
which need not here be mentioned.
The fact that there are so many absentees
in cities at the time of enumeration is the
occasion of much dissatisfaction and com
plaint. There is probably not a growing town
in the United States of any size which does
not cherish illusions with reference to its
population. In many of them the exagger
ated Ideas entertained as to the actual num
ber of inhabitants are based upon the more
or less fictitious estimates given out by the
publishers of directories, who multiply the
number of names contained In each of them
by some assumed number. This number is in
variably too large. But in the twelfth cen
sus, taken last year, an attempt was made to
include absentees in the enumeration as- far
as possible. Elaborate arrangements were
devised with this end in view, including in
certain cities postal cards left at each house,
in advance of the summer exodus, inquiring
whether the family there residing anticipated
leaving the city and, if so, what would be
their probable address on June 1. Much cor
respondence was had with absentees whose
addresses could be procured from any source,
and they were afforded the opportunity to fill
and return by mail a special blank giving
replies to the questions upon the population
schedule. Large additions to the population
were thus secured, and the result must have
been a certain amount of duplication of
names, which was not a serious error in view
of the unavoidable omissions on the other
hand. A perfectly accurate enumeration Is
of course impossible.
By the combination of the methods and
devices here described a more perfect and
accurate enumeration of the population was
secured than in any previous census. The
amount of criticism in the press has been
surprisingly small, and but few attempts have
been made to secure a recount of any city.
Statistics Prom Farms and Factories
The agricultural and industrial census pre
sent difficulties peculiar to each, quite dif
ferent from those encountered in the listing
of inhabitants. The number of farms to be
enumerated approximated 6,000,000, and of
manufacturing establishments it was very
nearly 650,000. Each of these was reported
on a special schedule. Few farmers keep
books or accounts. This is true of many
small mechanics. The larger firms and cor
porations are often most reluctant to dis
close their business, even to the government.
Much tact and patience and some slight show
of authority are necessary in order to secure
the desired information, and part of that
secured is only an estimate after all. The
manufacturing statistics were chiefly col
letted by special agents, the schedules hav
ing been withdrawn in all manufacturing cen
ters from the enumerators. The number of
special agents was more than 2,500, and the
cost of field work in this division of the
census exceeded 1460,000. The number of
agents and cost of service in the agricul
tural division was far less because the farm
statistics were gathered by the enumerators.
Getting- Plgnren on the Death Rate.
The government attempts to secure a state
ment of the number of deaths which occurred
during the year prior to the census. Could it
do so this would furnish one of the elements
needed in order to formulate the law of the
growth of population. It grows by births
and by immigration, but diminishes through
the operation of emigration and death. The
aggregate change noted from one decade to
another is due to the differences in the rates
at which these two groups of antagonistic
influences operate. The minor changes noted
are due, on the other hand, to removals from
place to place within the territory of the
Experience has shown that no accurate re
turn of deaths can be secured through the
enumerators. In the present cenusus addi
tional information has been obtained from the
records in the offices of the state and city
boards of health, so that a more probable es
timate of the death rate in particular locali
ties in the country at large can be deduced
from such figures as are available. The re
turns of the population in cities by blocks
will no doubt be of much benefit by enabling
city health oflicers to locate with greater ac
curacy than ever before the precise plague
spots which need watching and juriflcation.
Preparing for the Inhalation*.
Let us now suppose that all the census data
have been collected, and that the material to
be worked up into statistical tables is in the
vaults and on the shelves of the office at
Washington. What happens next?
The first effect of the completion of the
of the barrels were broken in and the oil
was scattered upon the snow by pailful and
shovelful. Then when no more regained the
conductor lighted a great handful of greasy
waste and threw it upon the drift. It sput
tered a moment—flickered—all but went out
The farmer rolled one of the empty oil
soaked barrels within reach of the burning
"It's no g—"
There was a blinding glare, followed by a
sizzling, hissing roar. The drift melted as If
by magic. The flames licked the drivewheels
of the locomotive, and reached almost to to*
"Coal her Coal her!" shouted the engiaeer
to the fireman,
The conductor jumped up and down ex
citedly, waving his lantern.
"AU-1-1 aboar-r-rd!" he yelled.
Half an hour later the train pulled into
The conductor received a. note the next day.
It read: "Everything's all right. She's beea
field work is the sudden and enormous growth
of the office force. What a task this involve*
in the way of quick organization and painful
training of raw recruits can scarcely be
imagined. There are no camps of instruc
tion for this army like those established at
Chickamauga and elsewhere in the early days
of the Spanish war. *
The force, including both officers and em
ployes, grew from 20 in March, 1899, to 238 in
December of that year, and to 701 In April,
1900. In June, two months later, it was 2,251;
in July 3,248, and it reached its maximum in
October, when it was 3,476. Since then it has
somewhat declined on account of the dis
charges of the clerks temporarily employed
in card punching. It still numbers, however,
between 2,500 and 8,000. The total cost of the
clerical service to date has been in round
But what of the count to be made by these
clerks in a limited time, since the act orders
the publication of the final volumes by July 1,
First, as to the population. The population
schedules are arranged in alphabetical order
by states, and in numerical order by super
visors' and enumerators' districts and placed
in an immense fireproof vault built for their
especial accommodation. Before they can be
used they require more or less editing to sup
ply palpable omissions, correct obvious errors,
and to see that the population of incorporated
towns and villages is clearly differentiated
from that of purely rural districts.
Then begins the labor of transcribing all
this information upon punched cards. There
is a card for every man, woman and child
enumerated, and these cards if placed in a
pile one on top of another would reach to a
distance of ten miles above the earth. The.
answers to the Inquiries contained in the pop
ulation schedule are indicated by the respec
tive positions of the holes punched. One
thousand clerks were employed in this par
ticular work, and were able after acquiring
facility to punch 1,600,000 cards, more or Ice.-.,
in a day. The punching was completed in,
practically four months. Each card is so
marked as to admit of identification and com
parison with the original schedule from which
the recorded fa«ts were taken.
(omitiiiK by Electricity.
The counting of the entries of each de
scription is dene by a most ingenious elec
trical machine invented by Hermann Holl
erith, himself an employe of the census office
in 188 U. The essential parts of this machine
are: (1) a pinbox. with fine needle points set
on delicate spiral springs in such manner
that all or any number of them can be shoved
back into the box when brought down, by
the aid of a hand lever, upon the upper sur
face of a card; (2) as many sets of dials and
automatic counters as are required for a sin
gle run of the cards: (3) the necessary relays
and electrical connections. Each card Is suc
cessively placed in position beneath the pin
box, the lever is pulled by the operator,
the box Is brought down and wherever
there is no hole the needle is shoved back
and there is no count; but wherever a needle
is directly over a hole in the card and
passes through it an electrical contact ensues
and the current, passing over the proper wire
or wires, is conducted to the proper counter
or counters and the pointers affected make a
sudden jump on the face of their respective
dials. The advantages of this method are
that it Is rapid; it is automatic and Involves
no waste of brain energy on the part of the
operator; it is certain: it allows of counting
several sets of replies to questions at one
time, and, above all, it admits of counting
these replies not singly, but in combination.
Thus, for example, instead of counting sepa
rately the number of males, that of whites
and that of persons over voting age, -we are
enabled to count at one operation the num
ber of males who are also white and also
of voting age. Without this machine the
tabulation of complex results would be too
difficult and too expensive to be made at all.
The scope of the scientific work of the cen
sus is thus immeasurably enlarged.
Detecting Errors by Machinery.
The machine count is divided into what are
known as "rune," of which five or six ar«
required in order to complete it. At each
run a different group of tacts is counted. The
first of these is known as the "verification
run." Its primary aim is to discover errors
in the punching, of which nine-tenths can
be detected by the machine, which ceases to
operate whenever a card is placed under the
pinbox that is inconsistent with itself or con
tains any one of certain inherent inconsisten
cies ■which the machine is wired to throw out.
The rejected cards are compared with the
original schedules, and new ones made to
take their place. At this preliminary run a
count is made of the native and foreign pop
ulation, the negroes and whites, and the
males and females. The dates for the published
census bulletins showing the population of
the several states and territories by minor
civil divisions were thus obtained. Each
"run" consumes nearly or quite three months.
The number of machines in operation is 150,
for the use of which a heavy royalty is paid;
but the saving in the cost of clerical labor is
great, as well as in time, and a higher de
gree of accuracy in the result is insured.
The Hollerith machines are used in the di
vision of agriculture also, but there they are
of a different type. The record made on the
punched cards, of which there are two sorts
—farm and crop cards —is one almost exclu
sively of figures, so that a different punching
device is required, and the machine for
counting out the result is an electric adding
machine of marvelous capacity, both in re
spect of the volume of work accomplished
and the rate of speed at which it eats up the
As soon as the count for any subdivision of
territory is completed the result is copied
from the dials upon "result slips," which are
handed to the clerks engaged in tabulation,
by whom the copy for the printer Is pre
Triumph of the Twelfth Census.
From this brief account of the work of the
census office it will be seen that it is partly
a scientific bureau, partly a manufacturing
establishment and partly, a publishing house.
Its operations are upon a scale so vast, and
are in themselves of such interest, that a
number of representatives of foreign govern
ments have closely observed them, with a
view to the improvement of their own sta
tistical methods. The great success of the
twelfth census is another triumph of Ameri
can inventive genius and practical talent.
When the four principal reports shall have
been given to the world in.the form of final
volumes, congress has authorized the director
to take up a list of specified topics formerly
included in the census, but which can be in
vestigated without the aid of enumerators, by
correspondence and by special agents. Thes»
investigations will be published in certain
supplemental reports. Instead of dismissing
the entire force, as heretofore, the best of
them will l>e retainer!, and a nucleus of ex
perts will be on hand when the time for tak
ing the thirteenth census arrives; ?o that
more and better thought will be given in ad
vance to Ha organization, and the heads 08
subordinate branches of the work will not be.
to so large an extent, novices without ex
perience in their duties or special training
for them. This is a consummation devoutly
to be wished, and public opluiou is rapidly
crystallising in favor of a permanent census
getting better from the minute I got here. I
wanted to go down to the station to see you,
but I can't seem to tear myself aw^y from
her and the baby. Send me bill for the oiL"
To which the conductor replied: "Glad to
hear you're O. K. We all of us want to shake
hands with you. The company pays lor Lh«
,- Ink: 'Enough ;:.\Xo Dough. ; •
*'^rK! r ; Pierre (S. D.) Free Press. \ -7.
I The '.Minneapolis papers:: have commence*,;
1 their semi-occasional discussion and advocacy,';
of • a railroad from • Pierre to - the j Hills. The
barrels lof " ink they have- used [on • this sub
ject would almost ; construct the grade. :': '. ■
" '';J Metaphysics. '. ", ' ' .
"The Percolation., of '. Foreverneas"' la »the £
caption of the leading article: in the last is
sue of Printer's Ink. '■>} That disease has not
yet :percolated this far west, ; but the per- %
tinacity of the neverness is epidemic among
delinquent subscribers:'^ Vs^ i .»/* ' :.v" 7" £".
.v .- ■-■...,■■,■■... ■ . . " ■■'---.