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printing led to the discovery of America. If printing had not
been invented -when America was discovered the records might
not have been kept and people would have forgotten all about
America. The Invention of printing made it possible for the
people to become educated in religious matters as well as his
torical. —Lizzie McLaughlln,
Eighth Grade. Lii Litchfield, Minn. :
. More Easily Convinced.
• The discovery of America had a greater effect upon the people
at the time than the invention of printing, though I do not clearly
see how America could have been discovered at that early time
if Columbus had not procured a book relating to Marco Polo's
travels, which inspired him to set out on a voyage, on which he
discovered America. The discovery of America increased the
amount of geographical knowledge among the people in a way
that printing never could have done then, for it was the real
fact not the printed statement that convinced the people and
they at once began to send out explorers. The result was that
each nation strove to attain the first place and hence Increased
its commerce and made numberless other improvements. Eng
land, for instance, took her first step toward the goal she now
has reached. The effect upon the poorer classes of Europe was
very marked for as more land was discovered the foods, clothing |
and lands that before were denied them, were now available.
—Estella Swanson, .
Ninth Grade. New Ulm, Minn. -
After Many Tedious Years.
The discovery of America was the greater. Christopher Co
lumbus after studying and toiling on for so many tedious years
finally succeeded in getting means with which to start out on his
important journey. He bravely sailed from Palos, Spain,
his little fleet, August 3. 1492. and on Oct. 12 discovered the
land which is of so much importance to us. And even the people
of the earlier days listened to the thrilling stories of this event
ful voyage with interest. In a very short time the people looked
towards America as a place of liberty, peace and freedom and
also as a place where they might worship as their consciences
directed them. —Edna Slee, '
Eighth Grade. Warren, Minn.
A Chance for Liberty.
of th?fl£ ISC eiT Ot America was more important to the people
of the fifteenth century than the invention of printing. During
the fifteenth century the people were in great distress due to
heavy taxes and imprisonment for debt. When America was
discovered the people could settle in the new country and believe
in whatever religion they pleased. At that time the people of
two or three European countries were dissatisfied with their gov
ernments and- the higher and lower classes were at war with
each other. The discovery of America gave the poorer classes a
better chance for their liberty. —Prank Ruse ■}
Eighth Grade. Nampa
Dependent, but Greater.
In one sense the discovery of America was more important
than the invention of printing. But the discovery of America
depended much on the invention of printing, for if Columbus had
not had books to read he probably never would have started on
his perilous voyage across the unexplored ocean. If America had
not been-discovered the Pilgrims could not have found another
place where they could remain English and have freedom to
worship God. But if America had not been discovered when
it was, the old world in time would have become so overrun with
people that they would have had to explore the unknown coun
tries in order to live, because the land could" not produce enough
to feed them. So, in my opinion, although the discovery of
America did depend on printing, the discovery, of America was
the greater of the two. Katie Ledwich,
Seventh Grade, Central Schcol. Grafton, N. D.
Discovery Was the Impetus.
The discovery of America was more important than the inven
tion of printing. First, because not much printing was being
done in Europe and Asia until Columbus started on his voyage.
To describe his voyage Columbus wrote a little book. This made
printing a little more popular. Second, the- island which Co
lumbus discovered was described in printing for the benefit of
the people of countries in the old world. Third, great men like
Captain John Smith wrote books about the new world in order
to get more emigrants to come to America. Fourth, the kings
of England wished to make charters for their colonies. These
charters the kings wished to have printed. The great navigators
like Magellan and Sir Francis Drake had many books printed
about their voyages. Thus after the discovery of America the
art of printing rapidly increased all over the world.
Genins of Americana.
Although the art of printing was of great benefit to the human
race, the discovery of America was greater. When Columbus
with his three tiny vessels sailed from Spain he never thought
that a great continent was barring his way to India, a continent
destined to include the greatest and most powerful republic of
the world. No sooner had the news been brought to Europe than
the different countries began to send out expeditions for the
purpose of exploring the new land. This led to the settling of
the Atlantic coast by colonies composed of nearly all the different
nationalities of Europe. The conditions in Europe were very bad
and hundreds of families lived in crowded houses, enduring un
told miseries. They were also subjected to haughty tyrants,
their rulers, who thought that a man had no right to worship ac
cording to his own conscience. Therefore one reason why the
discovery of America is greater is that the people who came here
found better homes and enjoyed religious freedom. Another rea
son is that the many inventions which have been made by the
Hepatica €|%fr John Burroughs
WHEN April is in her genial mood,
And leafy smells are in the wood,
In sunny nook, by bank or brook,
Behold this lovely sisterhood.
A spirit sleeping in the mold,
And tucked about by leafage old,
Opens an eye blue as the sky,
Nor deems that she is overbold.
Before a leaf Is on the tree.
Before I see the bumblebee,
She hears a voice, "Arise, rejoice,"
And in furry vestments greeteth me.
Before the oven-bird has sung,
Or thrush or chewink found a tongue,
She ventures out and looks about.
And once again the world is young.
THE JOURNAL JUNIOR, MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA. SATURDAY. MAY 4, 1901,
Americans never would have occurred had not America been
discovered. When they have invented so many other things,
w-hy should they not have invented a printing press? In fact, the
latest and best improvement of the printing press has been made
by an American. —Jenny A. Wallin,
B Ninth Grade, 834 York Street,
Cleveland School. St. Paul, Minn.
Darkest Before Dawn.
When Laurent Janszoon Coster of Haarlem first constructed
a rude machine, not at all resembling a modern printing press,
he little knew that from his crude invention would arise the
means of educating the then uncultured people. Columbus, as
he died in poverty and misery, remained ignorant of the fact
that but a few miles farther westward from the green island 3
he had discovered lay a vast country which, two centuries later,
■was to be the first to offer refuge and liberty to the tyrannized
and oppressed people under the stern rule of domineering roy
alty. Yet what but the education of the mind would arouse in
mankind this longing for liberty and, going still farther, what
but the art of printing could satisfy their thirst for knowledge?
Just previous to the fifteenth century we find what historians call
the dark ages, a period when all literature sank into oblivion and
a time when the barbarous northerners swept down upon lower
Egypt, destroying its works of art. This was followed by a
period of enlightenment. People longed for books so as to ac
juire knowledge, but how could
any but the rich afford them
when they were so expensive?
The printing press was then in
vented and with it the art of
making paper from linen rags.
Hundreds and hundreds of books
were printed and sold cheaply,
the first of them being the Bible.
With religion came civilization.
Literature progressed more rap
idly than ever before. The
plebeians became learned and
longed for a wider field in which
to exercise their knowledge, for
royalty still held its sway with
an iron hand. Then America
was discovered. To it flocked the
more adventurous of the people
and after years of strife set up
a government of their own. And
thus, just as it has been in the
later centuries, the invention of
printing stands out foremost in
Printing was more important
than the discovery of America.
In fact, the discovery of America
depended upon printing. The little pamphlet that Marco Polo
wrote—and which afterwards was printed—about the wealth of
the east, influenced Columbus to start on an expedition. And he
did start, and found America. After printing was introduced
the education of the people began. Those who could read at that
time could get valuable information through printed papers and
books. After America was discovered descriptions of the new
world were printed, and when people had read the glowing de
scriptions the true immigration to America began.
Seventh Grade, —Rosa Dalmann,
Central School. Grafton, N. D.
. In answer to this question I believe I should take my stand on
the side of Christopher Columbus' discovery of America and most
of the poor, oppressed and even persecuted English peasants of
1492 would agree with me. I doubt not that without printing
suitable literature would be wanting to-day in a marked degree
and we girls might not, even no\f, be acquainted with those im
portant characters, namely, A, B, C, etc. The importance of the
greatest discovery known to man far surpasses the invention of
one of his helps and conveniences. Where would we "independent
Americans" now be? Would we not be hugging the shores of the
British isles for fear of the fabled sea monsters and the boiling
seas, or be spending the best years of our lives in a small, foul
scented dungeon for some trifling debt, or in some lone deserted
cave, crouching low in a dark corner for fear of being persecuted
for our religious belief? Now we enjoy freedom in everything but
crime, and while good literature and an abundance of it has had
much to do with bringing about this happy period, the discovery
of America has had a greater share. —Esther Ballard,
Seventh Grade. Warren, Minn.
The "Dropping Off" Place.
Both of these did a great deal of good to the world as a whole
but the discovery of America did more because it helped much
toward civilizing and enlightening the minds of people about
navigation on the Atlantic ocean. The people of Europe would
rot venture out very far for fear they would drop off the earth.
The discovery of America has caused an unknown world to be
come one of the leading nations of the world in almost every
thing. It increased the wealth of many nations and enlarged
their territory to a great extent. It introduced new grains and
many important materials which were very much needed. Eng
land has become very rich through the Americas.
Eighth Grade. Worthingtpn, Minn.
A NEW CABLE.
A new submarine cable is about to be lard between England
and Germany. This is the fifth cable, and a comprehensive idea
Sometimes she stands in white array,
Sometimes as pink as dawning day,
Of every shade of azure made,
And oft with breath as sweet as May.
Sometimes she bideth all alone,
And lifts her cup beside a stone,
A child at play along the way,
When all her happy mates have flown.
Again In bands she beams around,
And brightens all the littered ground,
And holds the gaze in leafless ways—
A concert sweet without a sound.
Like robin's song or bluebird's wing,
Or throats that make the marshes ring,
Her beaming face and winsome grace
Are greetings from the heart of spring.
ONLY ONE LEFT
Judge Owl—You have been found guilty and the court
sentences you to life imprisonment for eight of your nine lives.
From Judge, Copyright 1901.
What Mijsrht Have Been.
of the increase in the cable traffic between
the two countries may be gathered from
the fact that, whereas in 1896, when the
fourth cable was laid, the annual number
of cablegrams was 1,867,868 per annum, no
fewer than 2,465,613 cablegrams are now
The chief characteristic of tropical hur
ricanes is the high wind velocity. No
ptorm of temperate latitudes ever develops
such appalling fury. There are few places
In the Interior of the United States where
the wind ever blows more than forty or
fifty miles an hour; but in a West Indian
cyclone velocities of eighty, ninety and
one hundred miles are not uncommon, and
In 1897, at Cape Lookout, N. C, the
anemometer registered 138.
Rotterdam is now the most prosperous,
harbor In Holland. It has captured most of
the German trade, and does an Immense
jbusinesß with the United States.
OLD AND FAMOUS BRIDGES
Great Structures Built by the Jtncienis Mre Mara
vels to Engineers.
THE grandest bridges of the Romans were aqueducts, but afte*
centuries of unrest the noblest conceptions of architecture
were realized in the- Gothic churches. There was little demands
for roads, bridges and still less for aqueducts. Yet the monks
did not build cathedrals and monasteries only. To them we owe
the introduction of flat arches. The Romans had preferred semi
circular arches, which rarely exceeded seventy feet in the span.
The founder of the Brothers of the Bridge, St. Benezet, adopted
for his Rhone bridge of 1178, at Avignon, elliptical arches which
had their smaller radius of elevation at the crown instead of at
the haunches. The famous Ponte Vecchoi at Florence and the
original Augustus bridge at Dresden date from the twelfth cen
tury. The aqueduct of Spoleto, which looks as if many high and
narrow windows had been cut out of a massive wall, is thirteenth
century Gothic work. So is the Devil's bridge, near Matorell, in
the province of Barcelona, Spain, with its apparently reckless
pointed arch, which is crowned at its weakest part by a heavy
The builders, no doubt, understood that the load did not en
danger the structure. The springings of this arch are certainly of
bridges, however, brought another material, to the front—puddled
iron—which helped us to suspension bridges. The first specimens
—the Tees bridge at Middleton of 1741; Telford's Menai straits
bridge; further, the bridge over the Danube at Budapest, the
handsomest of its type probably, supported by two rows of chains
on each side, were link bridges. Wire cables came over from the
United States about 1815. Some of these bridges collapsed, al
,most all, c. g., the Sarine bridge at Fribourg, Switzerland, with a
span of 205 meters (870 feet) had to be re-enforced.
POLITE LITTLE SPANIARDS
Their Winning and Gracious Courtesy Is Especially
Moticeable to Foreigners.
SPANISH children, as Miss Katharine Lee Bates depicts them
in her recent book on Spain, are among the most charming in
the world. They are exquisitely polite, even from babyhood. One
day in the park at Seville Professor Bates noticed a pretty baby
of eighteen months carried in the arms of a young woman, and
stopped to admire him. The result was startling.
"Not in the least expecting this infant, whose rosy face was
bashfully snuggled into his young aunt's neck, to understand, I
said to her, 'What a fine little fellow!' Whereupon Master Roly-
Poly suddenly sat up straight on her arm, ducked his head in my
direction, and gravely enunciated, 'Es favor que usted me hace'
(It is a compliment you pay me).
"I could hardly recover from the stock in time to make tho
stereotyped rejoinder, 'No es favor, es justicia' (No compliment,
but the truth). To this Don Chubbykins sweetly returned, 'Mil
gracias' (A thousand thanks); and I closed this uncanny dialogue
with the due response, 'No las mercee' (It does not merit them)."
Not in words only were the little Spaniards of a most win
ning and gracious courtesy.
"In Mrs. Gulick's school mere midgets of six and eight, re
turning from class, will not close the doors of their rooms if you
are in sight, although perhaps seated at a reading table at the far
end of the corridor, lest they should appear inhospitable.
"On our return from Italica a thirsty child of seven, heated to
exhaustion with the sun and fun of that Andalusian picnic, re
fused to touch the aniseed water which some good Samaritan
handed up to the dusty carriage until the glass had been offered
to every one else, driver included, leaving little enough for her."
When they were coming back at midnight from the feria thi3
same nina of gentle memory, staggering and half-crying with,
sleepiness, would not precede any of her elders in entering tho
"After you," she sobbed, with hardly voice enough to add,
"and may you all rest well."
"The same to you," chorused the adults trooping by, and her
faint murmur followed: "Many thanks!" »
"Shall I give you this fan when I go away,'' Miss Bates asked
her once, "or would you rather have it now to take to the party?"
She wanted it then and there, but she answered, "I shall be
best pleased to take it when you like best to give it."
So natural is politeness to Spanish childhood, so far are the
little ones from regarding it as a thing enforced or artificial, that
it creeps with no sense of incongruity into their very prayers.
The brief bedtime petition of young Spain is quaintly like aijd
unlike the familiar "Now I lay me" of our own land:
Jesus, Joseph, Mary,
Your little servant keep
While, with your kind permission,
I lay me down to sleep.
THE FIRST STEEL PENS.
Perry made the first steel pens at Birmingham, England, in
1824, selling them at 90 cents apiece. The weekly output of that
city just now is 20,000,000, and some are sold ror 5 cents a gross.
After pens come pins, iron and steel wire, metallic strings for
pianos. One house alone makes eight tons of these a week. Fifty
thousand wedding rings are made there every year. All the
canaries in England live in cages made in Birmingham, and all
the bronze money is turned out there, the coinage amounting to
82,000 penny pieces every twenty-four hours. Twelve tons of pica
are manufactured every week.
antique origin, Roman or Car
thaginian; an Inscription of the
year 1760, when the bridge was
restored, ascribes the foundation
to Hannibal. The span of the
stone arch over the Adda, near
fTrezzo, 236 feet, built under Bar
nato Visconti of Milan in 1370 to
1377 (destroyed again in war
time in 1416), has not been sur
passed yet. But the piers were
in general made unnecessarily
heavy, and many a bridge failed
because the Roman art of laying
poncrete foundations between,
piles had not been rediscovered
from Vitruvius' forgotten archi
tecture. French engineers first
used caissons and suggested iroa
The first cast iron bridge, real
ly completed in 1779, however,
and still standing, is, according
to Engineering, the well known
Coalbrookdale bridge over the
Severn. The arch consists of five
ribs. It found many imitators;
the Pont dcs Arts at Paris, with
nine openings, and the South
wark bridge of 1814, with a cen
ter arch of 214 feet and a rise of
twenty-four feet, are fine exam
ples. Failures of some of these