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&he JOURNAL JUNIOR.
Ma.c HoLi-ris Anson - Editor
The Junior Is published by the Minneapolis Journal for ths public
school children of the northwest. In and above the fifth grade, anl is de
voted principally to their own writings. There is no expense attachel,
and all are welcomed as competitors. The editor wishes to eacoura^e cor
respondence anJ suggestions from teachari. Ail correspondence shauli
be addressed to the Kditor Journal Junior.
Books for Children
The Journal's experience is that wise
suggestion as to what children may
read with profit is appreciated. Many
parents who know how to direct the
training of their children wisely in all
other particulars, are at a loss to know
what books, among the thousands
published for children, they should
encourage their children to read. Mrs.
Cooley, superintendent of the primary
grades of the city schools, has given
The Journal two series of articles on
that subject which were much ap
preciated, and brought further inquir
ies for a year or two after they were
Beginning next Saturday, there will
appear in The Journal Junior a series
of three or more articles, dealing with
the whole range of books for children,
from the nursery to the high school.
The articles are based on information
furnished by Mrs. A. C. Ellison, chil
dren's librarian of the Public Library,
and we are very sure that parents,
for whom the articles are especially
intended, will find the suggestions and
the information about books for chil
dren, contained in these articles, from
this high authority, of great value.
The President's Schooling.
DERHAPS it sounds odd to call the president's trip to the
* Pacific coast a schooling, but it is in a way. Moreover, it
is the kind of schooling that helps both ways. The president is
bound to learn a great many things connected with his business
ot governing this great country, and the people in turn learn
something from merely seeing the man whom they have elected
to carry on their national affairs.
They say there is no royal road to learning, but gaining
knowledge as the president is on this trip aaay surely be called
a nice little side path, on which we should all be perfectly will-
Ing to wander. But even then, it is not all an easy matter for
him. Traveling at its best is hard, and the president may not
even take his own time for doing what he wants to do. He must
be ready on schedule time to step smiling to the rear platform
of his car, shake as many hands as he can, listen to the din of
welcoming shouts and noisy bands, and have a speech at his
tongue's end adapted to the occasion and the place and worthy
of the speaker. It may look nice, but it is no easy matter to be
continually on show.
Now, what are some of the things the president learns from
this trip? First of all, he sees for himself the geography of the
various sections of the country, and just as the business man at
the head of a large commercial business finds it advisable to know
the smallest detals in his business, so a president finds this les
son in geography a useful one. There is nothing like an object
lesson for fixing a fact in the memory.
Everywhere the president stop 3 he says a few words bear
tog.more or less upon public affairs. Naturally, as the ruler of
these United States, he has to have a certain well defined policy
well defined, that is, in his own mind*—though he may not al
ways take the public into his confidence. So on this trip he lets
tall here and there sentences shadowing the national policy in
certain directions. This accustoms the people to the idea and
also gives him an opportunity to "feel the public pulse," some
thing that every ruler should be able to do if he expects to keep
en the winning side.
Now, perhaps, if these sentiments of the president were read
tn cold Ink they might look differently from what they sound
when heard from the president's own lips. So, don't you see the
advantage of the people at large seeing the man himself, reading
cis face, listening to the tones of his voice and so forming opin
ions for themselves? This republic of ours goes along so much
like clockwork, that sometimes we are inclined to overlook the
tact that there is one man who is the presiding genius. Naturally
waen we see this man and feel as if at last here was something
tangible, we ever after take a stronger Interest In everything he
■a/a sod does, either as man or as president. Every speech of
Mf rouses a greater personal interest We can imagine just how
THE JOURNAL JUNIOR, MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA. SATURDAY, MAY 4, 1901.
Kobin redbreast builds his nest,
Singing a song of the joy to come.
And the oriole trims his golden vest.
Glad to be back in his last year's home.
M"~^ N THIS month, the sweetest month of all the year, the
world—our world—suddenly blossoms out with little
■* new homes, millions of them. Trees and bushes, nooks
jg> and crevices, barns and sheds, banks and fields are
*■"■»-■» minutely inspected by sharp little eyes, much lively
chatter goes on, desirable sites are taken, and the first timbers
laid of innumerable homes which shall fill our June with joy.
The birds are just arriving in numbers, all in bridal array,
with thoughts bent on home-making, and little time is lost in
selecting partners and proceeding to the great business of the sea
son. The fashion of special wedding dress, common among birds
as among us, is one of great interest. In birddom, however, it is
only the bridegroom who can afford to don fine garments for the
occasion. The nest-mother must be in inconspicuous work-a-day
costume for the safety of the family. For, alas, the one indis
pensable thing about most of these charming little homes is that
they must be hidden. Not only from the world of birds and beasts
and reptiles, the lower orders of creation, which hunt but to
eat and to live, but most pitiful of all, from the human race who
should be their protectors.
We are prone to regard the conspicuous wedding dress as the
ordinary costume of our common birds. We think of the scarlet
tanager as always clad in his gorgeous plumage, but soon after
nesting is over he doffs his fine feathers, and comes out in the
modest olive-green of his mate—his family dress. The bobolink
in his striking suit of black and white and buff, is on dress par
ade. When he starts for the south with his family on their peril
ous trip to South America, he is in traveling suit of olive-buff
streaked with black. The lemon-yellow of the gay little goldfinch
and the rich blue of the indigo bird give place in the fall to the
dull sparrow-like hues of their respective mates. Many birds, in
stead of assuming a complete bridal suit, content themselves with
adding special decorations for the festive occasion. One of this
sort is the snowy egret, whose sad fate it has been, as we know,
to be almost or quite exterminated that his wedding ornaments
might decorate our hats. The most eccentric bridal ornaments
are worn by some of our northern birds of the coast, auks, puffins
aad others. These are masks, horns and gay-colored beak cover
ings, with rosettes at the corner of the mouth. When nesting is
over all this frivolity disappears. Plumes drop off, masks change
color, the beak-covering splits and falls off, and the bird departs
with his family, a sombre-dressed personage in every-day black
and white. On the interesting, curious and grotesque manners of
these days—even so far as they have been observed—volumes
might be written.
This is the month of the greatest number of arrivals. All
the northbound sprites of gay colors and bewitching ways—whom
we call warblers, have come and most of them gone. A few
linger, not to leave us altogether desolate.
It is delightful to see these restless, flitting atoms sober down
into discreet heads of families and nest-guardians. A redstart
who appointed himself special policeman over me last summer,
when I had placed myself near his tree to watch another bird's
nest, was most charming. His preternatural gravity was so com-
he looked, what his gestures were, just how his voice sounded, and
more likely than not, the printed speech comes home to us with
greater force. Frequently such a passing glimpse of a president
will make us understand better the hard knots he has to un
ravel. Then when things are done in statecraft without our see
ing the wheels, we may be more inclined to trust to the judg
ment of the man who decided for the nation, because his face
comes up before us as we saw it once, with its message of hon
esty, ability and courage.
" The president has earned all the pleasure which he can pos
sibly receive from his trip and he is to be congratulated upon
gaining his "schooling" in a way so comparatively easy.
The small party of commissioners sent to Washington by the
Cuban convention to ask the president for better term 3 than
those permitted by the Platt amendment to their constitution
have failed to gain their ends, naturally. Probably they have
even failed to obtain any promises in this line. But they have
had an extraordinarily good time. They have discovered that
the intentions of the Americans toward the island are good, and
probably by the time the little party arrives in Havana, it will
have dropped all, or nearly all, of its unreasonable prejudice
against the United States. Object lessons like this are fre
quently the best sort of an education.
And now they say that one reason why the Nicaraguan route
should not be chosen for the isthmian canal is that in that field
of earthquakes, Nicaragua seems to be the storm center every
time the moon is fulL Also that every three years or so there
comes an extraordinary shakeup that makes things rattle. So the
claim is made that in a few years' time all of the expensive
masonry needed for the Nicaraguan route would be shakea to
pieces. It sounds very much as if the maker of this claim had
some personal interest in the Panama route.
Senator Depew says that every day the son 3 and grandsons
of millionaire fathers and grandfathers whose fortunes have been
lost, come to him for employment There are no two ways about
it. In America men must know how to wort If they have no
fortune, they have to know how to work in order to gain one,
and if they inherit one, they frequently have to work Just as hard
to keep it.
The person who haa nothing else to occupy his mind can
hardly help wondering where all the Filipino agitators hare gone
who came to the United States not so very long ago to rouse pub
lic sentiment in favor of the independence of their country. Per
haps they have concluded now to go home and be good Americans.
What kind of a tre« did 70a plant on Arbor DayT A rar*
tion was recently made that the children U to-day plant walnut
BIRDS" OF THE MONTH
By Olive Thorne Miller, Author of "Nesting Time," Etc
ical in a bird scarcely ever an instant quiet. He would stand by
the half hour on a low branch quite near me, in silence, his gaze
bent upon me till I felt reproached for causing him such anxiety
and making him keep so still. I should have taken myself away
to relieve him but for the fact I was greatly interested in a nest
on that tree, which his conduct seemed to claim as his, although
neither nest nor sitting bird were of redstart fashion.
A*lra pair usually agree in the selection of a site for the lit
tle home, but occasionally there is a difference of opinion—though
perfectly well bred, so far as I have seen—which leads to the
building of two nests, one by each of them. Some writer tell 3
of a pair of phoebes who selected opposite corners of a piazza.
Each one went to work in the spot it had chosen, bringing its owa
material and arranging it alone, while carrying on an animated
conversation with its mate. For some time the female refused
even to look at the nest her mate was building, though he often
came over and inspected hers, expressing his opinion volubly,
whether in praise or blame our dull senses could not discover.
But when both were finished, she was persuaded to inspect the
mansion provided for her, and after carefully looking it over and
trying it, she magnanimously gave up her own and accepted it.
Another case reported ended exactly the other way. The little
bride occupied her own and her mate cheerfully acquiesced in
her decision. In neither case was there a quarrel.
I once watched a similar disagreement between a pair of
robins, which was so serious that I feared it would end in divorce
or worse. Indeed, the female was so eccentric in her behavior
that I suspected her reason was unsettled by her troubles. The
trouble began by their not being allowed to nest under a piazza
roof where they had reared the first brood. They wandered dis
consolately about for several days and seemed unable to agree
upon a spot. He chose a suitable tree branch, but she would not
look at it, nor make a selection herself, while she laboriously col
lected materials and then dropped them indifferently to tha
ground. Night came on while affairs were in this state, but evi
dently the morning brought saner council, for when we got out
they had compromised and were hard at work.
When the nest is completed most birds will stay by it
through many vicissitudes. Some, however, are so sensitive that
they will desert it if it is touched, sometimes if it is only looked
at. One of these touchy individuals is the cardinal grosbeak, who
will often desert the home she ha 3 made with such trouble, even
after eggs are in, if she finds herself an object of attention, and
the yellow-breasted chat needs only to know or suspect that a
human eye has looked upon her nest and eggs to desert them for
ever. On the other hand, a vireo will come back after she has
been removed by a human hand, and a tiny chickadee will actual
ly return to her home in a hole in the face of the enemy, and sit
in the doorway and defy him. A Baltimore oriole has been known
to cling to her nest while the branch which held it was sawed
off and taken into a house. Many birds will call a host of neigh
bors to help them fight the robber who threatens their home.
When young are out of the shell there is no question of aban
donment by anybody, for any cause whatever. Then awakens tha
true parental feeling, and birds will fight, suffer torture, and even
die for their young, as has been many times proved.
Thus comes the lovely spring with a rush of blossoms and music;
Flooding the farth with flowers, and the air with melo*es vernal.
Brooklyn, N. Y.
trees as a good investment to be realized upon in the years to
come. Ohio is full of barns and fences made of this wood some
fifty or seventy-five years ago. Black walnut is a very popular
wood abroad, so popular, in fact, that English and French agenta^
have recently been through Ohio buying up old fence rails and
Gold is not the only crop which might be wrested from the bleak
acres of Alaska, according to the agricultural experts. They sax
that the farming prospects there are just as good as those of
Finland, where 34,000,000 bushels of cereals are raised annually
and 2,500,000 people live comfortably. When the gold craze dies
out in Alaska, as it will In time, Yankee grit and ingenuity will
undoubtedly put the land to work for itself.
President Hadley of Tale said recently that humanity is di
vided into two classes. One goes into the business of life for
what it can get out of it, the other for what it can put into it.
Very true, and those who put the most into life are the very
ones who get the moat out of it in return. Do not be afraid to
give freely of your best to the world. It is an Investment that
pays compound interest.
THREE CLASSES OF LAND IN CHINA.
Agricultural land in China is divided into three classes, each
class paying a different rate. First-class lands are in fertile val
leys, with a good depth of soil and a good water supply, produc
ing annually' two crops of rice or one crop of sugar cane. Sec
ond-class lands are generally situated higher up the slopes ol
hills and have not such a good water supply as the first class.
Third-class lands are those situated on still fcigber slopes and are
tar removed from a good water supply.
COPPER DEPOSITS IN ALASKA.
The rich copper deposits of Alaska are beginning to be devel
oped, the first shipment from the White Horse belt having been
recently dispatched to Tacoma. This belt, which traverses a trib
utary of the Yukon, is twenty-five miles long and four miles
wide. There is from 25 to 75 per cent of copper in the ore, and
each ton carries from $5 to $10 worth of gold.
MUSHROOM HUNTING IN JAPAN.
Mushroom 'hunting is great sport In Japan. At Nagasaki
the other day a foreigner, calling at the branch of one of th«
chief shipping companies, found the whole place deserted. It
appeared that, the day being fine,, the manager and staff had '
gone out on a mushroom hunting expedition.
AN ELEPHANT'S TEETH.
Elephants hare only eight teeth —two below and two above oa
each aide. All an elephant's baby teeth fall out when the animal
Is about fourteen years old, and a new set grows.
ANOTHER DISCOVERT. "
Astronomers discover that the illumination of : the earth is
fourteen times greater oa the moon than that oX the moon oa