fI r^^^t^^ fp?5.
means the best roads at the least ex
pense, and he is happy in the realiza
tion. Work in the woods is never
suspended for a cold or a stormy day.
When the sun shines and the air is
crisp and bracing, the lumberman
Bpeelal to The
BLUFFS, Iowa, Feb.
6.The attention of the arch
aeologists the entire coun
try is fixe Council Bluffs
and its vicinity, where a
congress of archaeologists will soon
gather to conduct a series of excava
tions in the ancient burying grounds
and Indian village sites which line the
bluffs of the Missouri for miles below
the city. Many of these scientists are
members of the Archaeological Insti
tute of America and a report of the
findings will be made to that body. It
is confidently expected that many im
portant facts, which have heretofore
been only theories concerning western
Indians, will be established by the ex
cavations in the prehistoric villages.
Professor *L. E. Rinehart, of Minne
apolis, an archaeologist connected with
the University of Minnesota, has be
come interested In the old Indian
mounds and burying places, and is at
the head of the present movement. It
is his idea to have a congress of
archaeologists from all parts of the
country in Council Bluffs as soon as
the frosts will permit of excavating.
A ^large force of laborers will be set to
excavating when the scientists arrive.
The Iowa legislature will be asked
by the Iowa State Archaeological so
ciety for an appropriation to assist In
the work. The work of this associa
tion will be separate and apart from
that of the congress, altho both bodies
will be in the field at the same time
and will probably pool issues.
Home of a Prehistoric Race.
Professor B. E3. Blackman, head of
the Nebraska State Historical society,
who has spent much time exploring
thev icinity of the old village, says: "It
Is not generally known, yet it is true,
that within a few miles of Council
Bluffs there is a site of a village once
inhabited by prehistoric people. On
the peak of the bluffs can be found
earthworks which were thrown up,
and a fort of some kind erected."
These ruins cover a territory fifteen
miles long by four miles broad along
the bluffs of the river, but do not ex
tend down into the valley at all. It is
Professor Blackman's theory that the
villages were Inhabited not, later than
Days Full of Wholesome Work Give an Appetite Hard to Appease
The Thirst That Gomes in the Spring With the Breakup and
the Return to the Haunts of MenPresent Winter Uncommon-
ly Favorable for LoggersGamp Types and Scene3.
By Thomas H. Moodie.
Correspondence of The Journal.
EMIDJI, MINN., Feb. 6.The
lumbermen of northern
Minnesota have never had
a more favorable winter for
logging operations than this
year. Two hundred logging
camps are cutting pine In
r.eftrami county alone. Besides, there
are numerous tie, cedar and wood
camps. It will be a money-making
winter for the contractor. Nearly all
the camps have landed a third of
their winter's cut, and it is. estimated
that another third is on the skids.
This is a condition Quite unusual for
the first of February.
Labor is cheap and easily obtainable
and the contractor who does not come
out of the woods on April 10 with a
neat sum to his credit, over and
above his winter's expenses, is not
worthy the name of lumberman. The
cut In this vicinity will be but a little
over half what it was last winter, as
contractors have been compelled to
turn their attention to the reservation
pine and let the free pine belts of this
vicinity wait until they may be more
The Camp and the JJogger.
A northern Minnesota lumber
"camp of the present day is a place
well worth a visit. This will make
it easier to comprehend how one of
the richest pine belts in the world is, overtakes him. everything Is comfort
fast disappearing. A lumber camp
has a character not without pictur
esque features, but withal it is a very
busy place, conducted under a per
fect system that turns to the best ad
vantage both brain and brawn.
Every minute of the winter day is
improved by the lumberman. Forty
below zero he optimistically char
acterizes as "logging weather." It ious employment agent ,is interviewed.
He is hailed to answer whether he is
Congress of Archaeologists, Led by Professor Rinehart of the Uni-
versity of Minnesota, Will Excavate the Ancient Burying
Grounds arid Indian Village Sites Near Council BluffsRuins
and Relics Two Centuries OldThe Famous Flint Quarries of
smiles, and when the nocth wind
drives the sleet and ice into his face
he grins and bears it But he "logs."
Areas of the monarch pine melt be
fore his energy, and each season finds
the scene of his labors removed to a
spot more distant from the centers of
settlement than the last. He "skins
off" the best timber and leaves the
jackpine and smaller hardwood
growths to be subdued by the man to
whom he refers with lofty contempt
as "the farmer." He knows the farm
er is the man who holds up his drives
In the summer to claim damages for
an inundated meadow, a thorn in his
side, who is content to toil and grub
into field and garden the acres which
he has abandoned as worthless.
Winter Home of the Jack.
The winter home of the lumberjack,
the healthy, happy, hearty, care-free,
rollicking rowdy, athlete and charac
ter is nothing if not picturesque and It
well suits the man who inhabits it
Deep in the heart of the pine belts
the group of log shacks is reared far
advance of the winter. Men pre
maturely aged by the rigors of the life
potter about during the summer, put
up the hay to feed the stock and ar
range the details for the beginning of
the winter's work, and when the first
breath of winter finds the lumberjack
working at the threshing In North Da
kota, and the longing for the woods
ably arranged for a cordial welcome
at his winter home.
His fall's wages spent In the saloon
and the resorts of cheap and gaudy
sin, he shoulders his "tussick" and
scans the signs before the Minneapolis
employment offices which tell of the
demand for his services in the land of
i and plenty. The glib and garru-
a sawyer, a swamper, a "four hoss"
teamster or a handy man. He quib
bles with the age*nt, but the latter be
guiles him with soft speech and flat
tery and on the first outgoing train he
HOME S O DEAD RACE
WILL BE EXPLORED
1700, and probably much earlier than
Within the past month Professor
Sneik of the Minnesota society, while
making excavations on the site of the
village, unearthed an antique iron I
hoe, buried fourteen feet beneath the
surface. While an oddly shaped in
strument, it was evidently intended for
Two weeks ago, N. J. Miller of
Council Bluffs, who has accompanied
several scientists over the old bury
ing ground, in felling a giant oak
which grew within the work of an
ancient fortification, found a curious
copper bullet In the very heart of the
tree. The bullet had evidently been
burled in the oak when the tree was
small, as no evidence of its passage
thru the surrounding wood could be
found. The bullet is spherical and
must have been fired into the tree long
before firearms were supposed to have
been known in the west. No modern
weapon has power to drive a projectile
of this nature far into such wood.
The Flint Quarries.
Leading from the site of the an
cient village is a well-defined route
extending twenty miles into Nebraska
to the old flint quarries near Ne
hawka. This route is marked by flint
chlppings, arrowheads and other
stone implements, and shows plainly
where the dwellers in the village se
oured the materials for their imple
ments of war.
The Nehawka flint quarries hare
long bfren of interest to scientists, and
they are gradually yielding their se
crets to the persistent efforts, of arch
aeologists, who have searched for
years among the debris for their con
Professor Blackman, archaeologist
of the Nebraska State Historical so
ciety, speaking of the Nehawka flint
quarries, says: "The vicinity is un
derlaid with a deposit of premo-car
boniferous limestone, In which is
bedded nodules of flint of fine qual
ity. These flint nodules are found
fn the third stratum of rock at a
depth of ten feet under the surface
and forty feet above the creek bed.
The aborigines quarried over about
sits radiant in mackinaw and cruiser's
boots, with a "jag" due and becom
ing the occasion, ticketed to the camp
where he is to be employed during the
That night he sleeps in the poorest
room in the hotel of the lumbering
town and pays double price for it.
Next morning he walks over the
"tote road" to the camp, turns his
tickets over to the clerk and becomes
an employe. In the interval between
this and his going to work, never over
a day, he sits by the bunk stove and
swaps yarns with the camp employes.
A moral man from this time on is he.
He recites the old story of a bis faTs
wages squandered, loads his pipe and
laconically announces that he is going
to "stay in" till "she breaks up" in the
spring and that he has spent his last
cent for red liquor. Then he raises a'
horny hand to his face, draws it
thoughtfully across his mouth and ex
pectorates against the wind.
His First Day's Work.
Next morning he hears the cookee
softly arouse the teamsters at 5
o'clock. He turns in his bunk and
sleeps another half hour until the
cook's sonorous blast on the camp
horn awakens him to the fact that
this is the day he goes to work for $26
a month. He eats a hearty breakfast
of bacon, tried potatoes and cakes,
cooked in a manner that would appal
a less vigorous digestion, shoulders his
axe and trudges off to the woods. He
Then the day's work begins. The
six acres and took out vast quantities
of flint from the mines."
It is the belief of Professor Black
man that these quarries were used by
all the western tribes, as flint-strewn
routes lead off in all directions from
the ancient workings and show the
flint to have been taken in different
directions by the miners. 1
Graves to Be Searched. I
"To determine the people who In- I
habited the ancient village below I
Council Bluffs, it will be necessary to
make a large collection of the stone
Implements and weapons from the
graves," said Mr. Blackman. "It yet
remains for some one to make this
collection and to give the village a
systematic study. The town was not
in existence when the Lewis and Clark
expedition passed up the Missouri in
1804. There have been no traces of
white men's trinkets found in the
graves, and from the appearance of
pottery found I believe the date of its
desertion could not have been later
"The circular earthworks found on
the highest points around the old vil
lage are still plainly defined, altho
built, perhaps, as much as two cen
turies ago. One circle is forty feet
in diameter, four feet deep, and the
walls still stand two feet higher than
the" surrounding level. I am credibly
Informed that these circles were used
in the 'sun dance' as practiced by the
India*ns of the prairies."
Professor Blackman hopes that the
big gathering of archaeologists will
bring to light enough relics to disclose
practically the history of the old vil
lage, IRISH SEE NEW OPPORTUNITY
Chamberlain's Tariff Tactics Are Split'
ting Up English Parties.
"Bigger than king, lords and com-
mons," is the Irish estimate of Cham
berlain, in view of the ex-colonial sec
retary's action In proceeding to the
appointment of an imperial commis
sion to formulate a fiscal program for
the next conservative government.
Redmond and his colleagues are
pleased at the sensational methods of
the Birmingham statesman, who, they
say, has already take nto pieces the
unionist party and is now subjecting
it to a further smashing process.
"It ia predicted that Chamberlain's
contemptuous reference to the Dev
onshire quartet and the ex-chancellor
of the exchequer, who opposes him,
will destroy the allegiance of the free
food unionists to the Balfour regime,
since the premier is recognized as a
chamberlainite or nothing. Irish poli
ticians also witness with satisfaction
the defection of the tariff reform ele
ment from the liberals. Both of the
great English parties, they say, are
daily becoming feebler and thus open
the way for
1 furtherparty, of Iris nationalist
THE MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL.
-w_w_g..&,.!&.* Ov.. .'C 1S.
A SUNDAY AFTERNOON.
undercutter marks the trees to be
felled. The sawyers follow him and
the monarch of perhaps a century is
laid low. Then comes the swamper.
He swamps a road to the tree for the
skid team, bark marks it, removes the
protruding limbs and proceeds to the
next. The skid teamster clucks to his
patient horses. They swing mechan
ically into position. The chains are
adjusted and the log gets its first start
on a long journey towards the market.
Later it is skidded to position in the
skid pile. After that qome the loaders
and the bunk sleighs to haul it to the
Then begins the journey to the
landing. Several hundred thousand
feet tower on the huge logging sleighs
and here the "four-hoss" teamster's
skill is* shown. If he is a good team
ster, he has his horses well in hand.
They feel instinctively every touch of
the reins and "take advantage" of the
road. The teamster never swears at
his horses, but when he comes t,o a
"down hill haul," where the "road
monkey" has failed to look well after
the little matter of putting hay on the
road to prevent the sleighs from going
down with a greater impetus than is
desirable, he curses him to a faint and
fleeting whisper and "teams" his way
out of the difficulty.
At the landing, the landing-man
helps him remove the load, stamps the
logs at least six times so that when
they are in the water one of the marks
will always show, ties the reins to the
bunk stake and plods back to the skid
way. If the haul is a long one he ar-
A SIX HORSE TEAM ON WATER TANK FOR ICING ROAD.
OTHING was more popular for
Christmas than bags, and in
their beautiful fabrics, colors and
handiwork they excited the envy
of all who did not receive one.
The woman who did breathed a sigh of
content and proudly displayed her bag.
She knew she would have use for it as
the season advanced, for immediately
after holiday work was completed began
the renewed craze for cross-stitch em
broidery, because no sooner are holiday
gifts off from a woman's mind than she
begins to think of her spring wardrobe,
and especially that part which she fash
ions or plans herself.
The woman who does not use her
needle these days in adorning her ward
robe is either very busy, very idle or
very indifferent, for handwork is impera
tive in dressmaking, and there is much
of it that the needlewoman of average
skill can do as well or better than she
can get it done by any except an expert,
whose prices are prohibitive. And, for
the nonce, the modistes are willing to
make use of the skill and taste of their
customers in providing these adornments.
Much of the embroidery that is to be
used more lavishly this season than before
is both quick and easy work, which is
very encouraging to the needlewoman
whose skill is not unusual.
It is to the ornamentation of shirt
waists and of sets of collars and cuffs
that most of the amateur needlewomen
are devoting their time and taste. There
is not much difference in the kind of
work, for cross-stitch embroidery has al
most elbowed out every other kind. This
Is largely on account of its adaptability
to ornamenting bands, which are almost
universally used.' A favorite model not
only has a band of embroidery down the
front, but two shorter tabs on each side,
a shoulder seam band dropping well over
'Lg A.-.}. i~*Z~ 0. J +14.,&}^M
The Woman Who Is Not Embroidering Shirt Waist Bands or Col-
lar and Cuff Sets Is Excepti onalEasy, Effective and Time-
rives just in time to. find the "road
monkey" building a fire around which
the noontime repast is to be served.
He unhitches his team, feeds them and
repairs to the rendezvous where the
"bull cook," the errand boy, butt of
the camp and man of all work, has
just arrived with the steaming dinner.
Tin plates are passed. Hot potatoes,
juicy roasts and numerous delicacies
are served. He eats enough for three
ordinary men and complains that he is
losing his appetite.
Night and the Same Old Appetite.
Then comes the afternoon's work.
Nights begins to settle. The axeman
feels the air grow chillier. He puts
on his mackinaw jacket and his lusty
blows ring out until the last faint ray
of light passes into the night. Then
he turns into the road and walks to
Supper is served at long tables over
which lamps and lanterns flicker and
sputter. And such a supper! It
would tempt the appetite of the veri
est gourmand. Steaming potatoes
with the jackets on or off, to suit his
lordship's fancy, fried salt pork with
cream gravy, baked beans, brown
bread, white breadmounds of it dis
appearing. He eats until he is tired
and then he eats some more. The
cookee pours his third cup of coffee,
real coffee, and advises him that a
tonic and something to stimulate the
appetite is what he needs. Perhaps
he remarks that it is strange that the
men who do the least work eat the
most, or perpetrates some other equal
ly threadbare and time-honored joke,
:::::::":::Ss""""""i"ls5": _____:::ggg:::::::::_:__^!i5gi I"IIIII_-IS15 x_I--5--_-t-Si_I
^^^sin^-i-]^r,-4^^aBisi?7^ns?^r]siBi_?-iBisiB] -i-i^-,B^^s^^^^r?- BB.ri_i]_i^_i^-iB^r -r.-r5^^'r:
VJtt^l sIXElTB-DE-XIS DESIGN FOR SHIRT WAIST BANDS.
the sleeve, and bands for the cuffs, collar
and belt. Some patterns, especially geo
metric forms, are effective in a single
color or in shades of the same color, but
other patterns require several colors to
bring but their parts, as in the rose pat
The material used chiefly is twisted
wash silks, altho for coarse patterns mer
cerized cottons can be used. Where the
waist materials have even threads, coarse
enough to count readily, the work can
be done directly on the bands, but where
the stitches cannot easily be counted a
piece of canvas is put over the band and
the pattern is stitched tightly thru the
canvas and then the threads of the can
vas are drawn out.
Bands of embroidered canvas or scrim
will be set on waists of other material,
and the making of collars and cuffs of
these materials has become a rage, com
parable only to the beadwork craze, which
it follows naturally and is partly super
seding. The beadweaver can use her
bead patterns for cross-stitch, especially I
where she wants narrow borders. On
the collars and cuffs simple narrow bor
ders are the favorites, and those bands I
showing a considerable part of the back- i
ground and not too wide are the neatest
and most artistic. In color, too great a
vaiiety should be avoided two usually
will be all that can be used advantage
ously on the narrow bands.
As a variation from the bands, there
are corner designs or motifs in medallion
form arranged at intervals. The sets may
either be hemstitched or the hems can be
caught down by a single row of cross
stitches. Enclosing borders between lines
of single stitches gives a good effect, and
variety may be secured by color. Pat
I terns made up of a motif based on a
square or circle of a balanced kind can
I be used on buttons.
One or two colors may wed.
FEBRUARY -6, 1004.
NOON IN THE WOODS.
at which his nearest neighbors laugh
their loudest. At length the meal is
finished and he repairs to the bunk
It is a cosmopolitan gathering. The
swarthy Indian, often the colored
man, the Frenchman who tells of the
palmy days of the "h'Ottawa," when
"Fred Beauteau, she's the bes bully
on the reever" the Irishman, who re
veres the name of Jerry Howe of
Brainerd, and "man, but he was a
logger" the quiet Norwegian and the
Industrious Swedeall are there and
all are equal at the later supper smoke
The 'Sky Pilot's" Visit.
Sometimes the lumberjack sky pilot
is present to talk to them. He brings
with him his little portable organ,
and holds service. In spite of a show
of irreverence they all join with the
greatest tgood will in singing the gos
pel hymns which he announces. He
preaches to them a sermon full of
homely truths. The gambler and the
saloonman, he says, will respect him
more if he does not patronize him.
There is good in trying to do the
square thing, he says. Sometimes it's
hard logging, but it pays the long
run. Perhaps, then, there is an au
dible murmur of approval.
The services finished, the men
quietly repair to their bunks, and the
snores of healthy slumber that follow
often shake the bunk shanty. The
next day the jack begins the routine
again and until the warm suns of the
last days of March begin to make the
CROSS STITCH BANDS ABSORB NEEDLEWOMEN'S THOUGHT
THE COOK'S CA FOR DINNER.
3 5 *s r, 5 5
21 S55 55
roads impassable, and the teamstera
come 'in at night and tell how the
leaders "tore in the breechin" to get
a good jag out of some tight place
in the woods, he toils in the timber.
Then he begins to figure out how
much wages he has coming and quib
bles much with the camp clerk re
garding his time. At length comes
the last day in camp.
Days of Riotous Living.
He is off to the haunts of men, with
his winter's wages in his pocket. He
arrives, gets his time check cashed.
feels strangely out of place, takes a
drink, lives riotously and sings, "Come
all ye's" till trie village marshal takes
him in tow and -quarters him at the
"bat cave." Th next morning the
police judge frowns, tells him he is a
lobster, an unmitigated fool, and fines
him, suspends the sentence, and or
ders him out of town. He goes down
the street, meets the missionary who
held services in the camp, tells a hard
luck story, begs a quarter from him,
and next day starts to wander over
the northwest until the short Novem
ber days tell him that the pine har
vest is ripe again. He is a bird of
peculiar instincts he gets the worst
of it and gives it to himself, and he
takes it all uncomplainingly.
However, he is necessary. For his
virtues he should be honored for his
shortcomings he should not be too
severely condemned. He lives in a
social environment that is individual
in its type, and it is not strange that
he sometimes falls.
&Q aaoQQ llll
EOSE PATTERN FOB YOKE EFFECT AND VEST OF THEATER 'WAIST.
35 sj c^^r'ss
2 5 5 5 S S S 5 5 ES S E 5 _sl SfsE 5 5 S
DETAIL OF ROSE PATTERN FOR CUFFS.
Color scheme x, rose o, dark green light green.
THE ELEPHANTS' CEMETERY FOUND.
Major Powell-Cotton, the African
explorer, writes: "We left the Tarash
valley and struck in a northwesterly
direction to the foot of a range of
hills, along which were many brack
ish pools surrounded by vivid green
grass and with quite a number of
ducks swimming on the surface. Now,
in all my journeyings thru elephant
country, I do not- think I had ever
come across a skeleton of one of
those beasts for whose death the
guides could not account, and on no
occasion did I ever see two skeletons
together. Here I was surprised to find
the whole countryside studded with
remains. I thought at first that some
fell disease had attacked a vast herd,
but on questioning my guide he said:
'Oh, no, this is the_ place where the
elephants come to die. We often come
here to pick up the ivory.* I had
heard of places like this from the
Swahili traders. One man in particu
lar had told me that far away to the
east of Lake Rudolph he had come
upon one of these elephant cemeteries
and in a few days had collected mort
ivory than his caravan could carry
but I had always, regarded these
stories as fables till here under my
own eyes was,, the proof of theif
truth." *5 -'fV
Judge Walter W. Mount of Tipton,
Ind., has annodhced his candidacy
for congress on the republican ticket
to succeed Charles J. Landis, the in
cumbent. The two rivals have been
warm personal friends for years.
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