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$"X. By W. W. Jermane.
Waphington, Dec. 2.No better ob
ject-lesson of the value of the reclama-
p? tion law as a promoter of substantial
|t and permanent progress and develop
y ment is required than that offered by
|p the transformation which within a year
k} has taken place in the valley of the
0. Belle Fourche river in South Dakota.
K Until a year ago last spring the wisest
inhabitant of that section would never
have presumed to predict in the small
est degree the startling changes which
have occurred since the initiation of
-the great work of reclamation by the
government. Up to that time agricul
ture had always been subordinated to
^cattle-raising. Belle Fourche was
rather proud of the fact that as yet
'the picturesque cowboy still frequented
the vast range which surrounded the
town, and that during the annual round
up there was no night in Belle Fourche.
The farmer who plowed was the ex
ception. The average farm was a
square mile fenced and a township of
government land adjacent. Fruit and
vegetables, butter and eggs, were never
raised in sufficient quantities to supply
the local demand. Belle Fourche's chief
claim to distinction was that she
shipped more range cattle every year
than any other point in the United
Passing of the Big Ranch.
The knell of the big ranch, with its
broad acres untilled, has been sounded
in the valley. A new era is dawning
VIEW SHOWING THE EXCAVATION AT THE HEAD OF
PROJECT, S. D.
an era of small farm units intensively
cultivated, of compact rural settlements
with improved schools and churches and
with the luxuries and refinements of
the town replacing the isolation of the
rural farmhouse. The farm units are
40, 80 and 160 acres, the lesser areas
being located near the towns.
Belle Fourche has doubled in popula
tion in the last two years. At no time
has there been a sufficient number of
houses to accommodate the newcomers.
An electric line is built to connect the
MAKING SOUTH ^DAKOTAM^
1 RANCHES INTO FARM!
Uncle Sam Spending $2,100,000 in the Belle
I Fourche Irrigation ProjectAn Object Les-
I son in the Value of the Reclamation Law. *$.
valley with Deadwood, opening up the
rich market of the Black Hills min
eral zone. The Chicago, Milwaukee &
St. Paul railroad is being extended from
Chamberlain westward to tap this rich
The Belle Fourche' project contem
plates the irrigation of about 85,000
acres of land lying northeast of the
Black Hills, in Butte and Meade coun
ties. South Dakota. These lands are
tributary to the Chicago & North-WestT
era and Burlington & Missouri rail-
roads. The construction of a dam on
Owl creek, just below the mouth of Dry
creek, will create an impounding reser
voir 60 feet deep, with a water surface
of nearly 9,000 acres, when full. This
dam, when completed, will be one of the
largest earth embankments in the
United States, being 100. feet high in
the highest place, nearly one mile long,
with a top width of 20 feet, and will
be paved with stone riprap. The reser
voir will be filled by means' of a -canal
taken from Belle Fourche river and
heading below the town of Belle
Fourche. The lands to be irrigated lie
on both sides of the river, and extend
east to Willow creek.
The acreage irrigable on the north
side is approximately 63,000, of which
40,000 is public land and 23,000 in pri
vate ownership that on the south side
is about 20,000 acres, of which all ex
cept 1,000 acres is private land.
The length of the main supply canal
will be 6.4o miles. It will have a bot
tom width of 40 feet and a capacity of
TELEPHOTO VIEW TAKEN FROM GRAVEL PIT. SHOWING THE EADWORKS AT THE
INLET CANAL, BELLE FOURCHE PROJECT, S. D.
1,635 section feet. A lateral from this
canal will reclaim about 4,000 acres r.f
land along thg river above the reser
voir. From the reservoir two distribut
ing canals, each about 40 miles long,
vail be constructed. The larger canal
will run in a northerly and easterly di
rection, irrigating about 60,000 acres of
land on the north side of the river be
tween the reservoir and Willor creek
divide. A canal which will leave the
reservoir on the west side of Owl creok
will irrigate some 4,000 acres on lower
THE INLET CANAL, BELLE FOURCHE
Owl creek, emptying the stored water
into the river below the point where
another diversion is made to irrigate
some 16,000 acres of first-class land on
the south side of the river in the vicin
ity of Vale and Empire. By making
a second diversion here the return
water from the lands irrigated above
may be used.
The soil is free from alkali and little
drainage will be necessary. The crops
that can best be raised are small grains,
such as oats, wheat, rye and barley, and
fruits, such as apples, pears, plums,
cherries and small fruits. Sugar beets
would no doubt prove a profitable crop
if a factory for making sugar were
located in the neighborhood. Potatoes
can be raised on the south side, where
the soil contains more sand. The main
crop, however, will be hay, both native
and alfalfa, for which there is great
demand as winter feed for cattle and
sheep that have the large range to feed
on during the summer months. Alfalfa
produces with water, three crops, and
will average, it is said, at least five
tons an acre, worth from $4 to $5 a
ton in the stack. The demand for farm
and garden products is great in this
part of the state on account of its
proximity to the mining region of the
Black Hills. The farm unit recom
mended under this project is eighty
acres, which will be reduced to forty
acres within three miles of towns or
This project has been approved by
and the secretary of the interior has
set aside $2,100,000 for its construction.
Water users will be required to pay
$32 an acre, in ten annual installments,
which sum includes maintenance and
operation for ten years. The Belle
Fourche Valley Water Users' associa
tion was formed June 1, 1904, and its
articles of incorporation accepted by
the secretary of the interior.
The pope's gloves are of the very
finest wool, embroidered in pearls.
HREE hundred miles east of the
Pacific ocean lies Nevada, a long
despised state.. Three states and
three territories are -larger in size but
every state and every territory in* the
union contains more people. The census
of 1870, six years after her admission
as a state, gave Nevada a population of
42,491 the last census gave her almost
the same number while the largest
number she ever had was 62.266, which
was the enumeration of 1880. That is,
Nevada never claimed a larger popula
tion until within the last two years.
She is growing now and the next census
will certainly contain a surprise.
TheTe have been three ,epochs in Ne
vada's history. The first was when the
Comstock mines produced more precious
metal* than any other group of mines
had produced in the world's history.
The record has not been broken to this
day. The $600,000,000 worth found at
that time financed the greatest rail
roads in* the world and put life into a
hundred industries which had broad and
lasting influence upon national affairs.
A Bad Advertisement. ^_
The second epoch was the Corbett
Fitzsimmons prize fight that took place
at Carson City March 18, 1897. Press,
pulpit and platform voiced a protest
The governor of Nevada was ealled
upon to stop the fighta thing he
scorned to do. I recall a cartoon printed
in Puck or Judge, I, forget which, about
that time. There was a map ef the
United States and Uncle Sam, standing
on it with a pair of ice tongs in his
hands, was in the act of pulling the
state of Nevada out and casting her.
together with her bunch of sports and
prize fighters adrift in the Pacific
oceato. "Good riddance!" There was
always a feeling that the state was
worthless and immoral and this car
toon caught public favor at that time.
There has always been resentment that
the state should have two United States
senators and a member of the lower
house. The population did not entitle
it to the consideration. Oklahoma has
not beett able to get into the union with
nearly ten times Nevada's population.
The 1900 "Find."
The third epoch has been reached. It
is the present gold excitement, It com
menced in 1900 when Jim Butler's mule
THE MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL. Classified Section.
MA YmEtiEEM WVADA
The "Despised State" Has Been *'Born Again"
A by Reason of Recent Discoveries of Precious
Metals--Strange Scenes in a CityJthatIs
Growing Up in the Heart of a Great Desert
By WINO B. ALUEN.
side mountain the
foot of which Jim and his wife were
camping. This rock looked just good
enough to induce Jim to cart it to Bel
mount, the nearest settlement, many
miles north. The story has b^en told,
but it must be mentioned here. The
assayerto whom-the sample was given
thought so'little oi it he threw it out
the back' door the moment the "Butlers
had gone. Months lucer the assayer
came across the piece again and tested
it. It ran $700 to the ton and there
was an immediate stampede to the place
of discovery. That place is now called
Tonopah. It is a camp of several thous
and people and mines have been de
veloped there which are paying hun
dreds of thousands of dollars in divi
Old-timers in the "state, and of these
there are some 40,000, date everything
from the Comstock days or from the
prize fight of 1897. The new arrivals,
and of these there are some 20,000,
figure history from the Butler discovery.
Butler's find did not create great ex
citement but it led to the gold dis
covery at Goldfield and Bull Frog which
have caused excitement surpassing any
thing of the ki'n'd in this country since
'49, or possibly Cripple Creek. Not
that the silver camp of Tonopah is un
important it is a wonderful camp but.
it took Tonopah three years to grow to
its present size. Goldfield and Bull
Frog sprang up in the night and were
cities of importance within a week's
It is impossible to tell the exact num
ber of people who have gone to Nevada
since the rush began'. No one estimates
the number at less than 20,000. About
10,000 of these are at Goldfield, 4,000 at
Tonopah, 3,000 at fiull Frog and the
balance have distributed themselves
among a dozen camps.
Mining in a Desert.
Nevada is a vast desert 3,155 miles
wide and 485 miles long, and the gold
excitement is in the southern part of
the state where streams of water are
unknown and even sage brush is scarce.
From the car windows in all the great
west where cars go, the whole country
seems covered with the much despised
sage brush. In the Nevada desert the
sage brush becomes a novelty and
wherever it will grow it is welcome.
Anyhow, it is the only thing, except the
Joshua, a small, stumpy tree comparable
to nothing else, which lends relief to
the wholesale desolation.
Tonopah and Goldfield are 300 miles
down this waste from the main lite of
the Southern Pacific railroad which,
crosses the state on the north.. To
travel for miles and miles down the
state on a new roadbed and see nothing
but barren mountains and interminable
sands is to realize that the trip is an
important event in one's life and! that
one is going into experiences, the very
newness of which savors of peril and
hardship. A feeling, of having to con
tend with elements in this new world
there is a subtle appeal to all that is
brave and manly in one's make-up, and
the sense of it thrills.
The trip nlso reminds one of the hard
ships nduTed by the first arrivals, who
went in by stage. The railroad fare of
10 cents a mue is nothing one can
cover ground in a day which it took the
stage a week to travel over. And it
doesn't matter to you if the road is
earning enough money on this desert to
pay for itself every' seven months.
-IA- uThe Finding of Otold..^
The "early" prospectorsthis has all
happened since 1900remained at Ton
opah for a year or so. Then they com
menced to branch out over the rest of
the southern part of the state. There
was an old spring about twenty-eight
miles southeast of Tonopah where for
years wild horses consorted. Some pros
pectors camped there in 1903 'and. it
became Goldfield. Tonopah had silver.
discovered practically at the grass roots
or what would have been grass roots
if there, had been any grass. Strike
after strike was made and the ore was
remarkably rich. There are many
stories told of the wealth obtained by
those who were first on the ground.
At Goldfield, the principal camp, 10,-
000 people are gathered* They live in
tents, dugouts, cabins and cottages.
There is one brick cottage erected by a
ambler at a cost of $8,000. It is the
residence in? the city. There are
a few other residences which eost sev
eral thousands each but for the most
part people are content to live in tents
or rude cabins. They came from all
parts of the world to seek wealth, not
Citizens Enforce Unwritten Laws.
This eity knows no law except that
of the early day mining camp. A com
mittee of five citizens enforces what
ever police regulations are necessary
under a semblance of authority obtained
from the county commissioners of Es
meralda county, a county as large as
many states. It's duty consists largely
in looking after sanitary conditions and
There are fifty-six saloons in Goldfield
and gambling is done in every one of
them, while new resorts of the kind are
being added to the list as fast as build
ings can be erected- to accommodate
them. There is no law to restrain* sa
loons and the only license is the govern
ment tax. Yet with all these places
thronged night and day with an im
mense crowd of big, strong, rough men,
there is very little lawlessness as law
lessness is known* in the older cities of
the world. There is more drunkenness,
but that is a crime regarded lightly in
a place like this. Fights "are few and
firearms are seldom carried, but a dis
turbance once started usually goes on
to a finish. A revolver once drawn must
be used with instant deadly effect or the
drawer bites the dust. Perhaps fights
are few because frontier custom has
established seven rules for the con*duct
of a respectable person attacked by a
rowdy. The first rule is to strike first
and with all your might. I have for
gotten the remaining six rules. Drunks
are not arrested or restricted unless
they become violent or offensive. It is
a common sight to see a dozen men
.lying on the sidewalks or in the gutters
sleeping off the effects of their liba
tions. No one disturbs them no one
helps them. The Salvation Army has
not penetrated to the wilds of Nevada.
To molest a woman is apparently one
of the greatest offenses against the
common law ofN the camp, and woe be
to him that attempts it! The red light
district of the city is largo and pros
But the coarser element does not pre
dominate everywhere in camp. It is
claimed that a university club of 300
members could be organized in Gold
field, and I have no doubt it is true.
They have such a clpb in Tonopah. And
there are ladies of culture and refine
ment in camp in large numbers. They
are everywhere in evidence. Many of
the two-room cabins and even some of
the tents contain pianos from which
come tho sounds of Beethoven Sonatas
and Chopin Nocturnes as often as I
Wish I Was in Dixie" or some popular
air taken there from some eastern home.
Cost of Living High,
The cost of living seems outrageously
high. Decent board cannot be had at
^ny price. Half way decent board costs
about $60 per month. It costs about $5
a day to live at the swellest desert
restaurants and $1.50 per night for a
small bedroom at a lodging tent or
more pretentious hotel. And canned
goods1 Well, that is what they live on
in the desert and the prices are doubled.
There are six cows condemned to serv
ice there. They are owned by a million
aire. An hundred thousand cans of con
densed milk from California- supply
Goldfield's needs for a few weeks. The
plains about the city are strewn with
millions of empty cans. A dugout cost
ing $100 in labor rents for $25 a month
a house of two rooms erected at a cost
of anywhere from $200 to $400 rents
for $45 a month. At first hay cost $100
per ton but the price has gradually de
creased to $60 and it costs nearly all
of that amount to keep one horse one
month. Three buckets of water cost 25
cents three very small loaves of bread
cost the same amount and granulated
sugar costs 10 cents a poun*d straight.
But who cares what it costsf No one
in Goldfield. The people all seem to
have money. They could not have gone
there without a liberal supply of it. It
costs $40 to make the trip from Cali
fornia, the nearest civilization. Those
who went and who are going from
Alaska, Canada, Maine, Florida and
South Africa paid and will pay a great
deal more. There is a sort of camp
pride in high prices, an*d if yon pay big
for what you buy you charge big for
what you sell.
Modernizing a Town.
In less than two years modern three
story business blocks have been erected,
streets graded, electric light system in
stalled, railroads built, power brought
by wire from Bishop, Cal., ninety miles,
five ore mills built, a brewery and
slaughter house in operation and tele
phone an*d telegraph connection made
with the outside world. The postoffice
starting in the lowest class, has jumped
to the presidential class in less than no
time, and does more business than many
a large eastern city office. There is- a
waterworks system but the supply, now
taken from the spring mentioned at the
opening of this, article, is inadequate,
and a plan is on foot for the piping of
water from California. AH this is a
desert300 miles from the nearest veg
Nevada, the despised, has been born
again and commands attention.
SVithitt a mile of this roruC gold was 1 gha wa a fashionable womaa, and fash*
MUCH MOBS FASHIONABLE
Why Ifie Lady Thief Selected Somnam
bulism as Her Defense.
The lawyer knitted his brows. AThi
is a serious case,'./ he said.
The woman shrugged her shouldere.
ionable women always shrug- their shoul
Pooh! It is nothing, she said. It
has been done beforemany times be-
"Ton forget," persisted the lawyer
with the frankness of his profession,
"that it is a penitentiary offense."
She laughed a musieal little laugh and
gave her shoulders an expressive shrug
which seeded to say, "You never saw
anything like these in the peniten
tiary," and their owner supplemented
this by saying, '-'Others have escaped."
"True," replied the lawyer "but
you must remember that they had a de
fense to make. They had alibis or pleas
of 'not guilty,' or other things with
which to go to trial, while you admit
that you stole the goods."
"Such a disagreeable word!" she
commented. Why not say took them'
instead! But never mind I have my
The lawyer looked surprised but grati
fied. "It is wsll," he said. "What
"Why, really," she replied, "I'm not
just sure as to that. That's the point
upon which I want you to advise me. I
thought of pleading 'unconscious assim
ilation at first as being something very
new and fetching, but I understand it
won't fit a case of this sort."
The lawyer didn't see how it possibly
"Then," sho said with decision, "it
is a mere matter of deciding between
kleptomania and somnambulishm but I
confess it is a little difficult to choose.
Now, if I only knew-
"Yesf" "If I only knew which was the most
fashionable I'd be ready for trial,
wouldn't I f" Then after a thoughtful
pause, she added, Kleptomania is get
ting to be disgustingly common, don't
you thinkf Perhaps we'd better try
Kansas City Drovers' Telegram.
"What does politics mean, pal"
"Polly, my son,"" said the father
who wasn't on the reform ticket, "is
a Latin word meaning many, and there
are polly, or many, kinds of ticks. For
"Oh, now I know," broke in Willie.
"There are bed ticks and cattle ticks
and watch ticksthat makes polities,
for it's many kinds."
"Yes, son, but you left out one kind
of ticks that is always found in poli-
A LITERARY VOTE.
"I don't think the editor read I
"Neither do I I
cornea out as usual."
line of my
notice that his magazine
tpXevrvf per week.
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