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: 42 US STORY OF EVENTS
6S 310 BEEAK WITH JAP AN
irs? ilTZRSBURG, Feb. 20. A Rus-
sat of the events Immediately
Ss" the rupture with Japan Is
y lathe Official Messenger to
Mm? lie object of rectifying ccr
f3tl' aliments from Japanese
) ij tccount it is stated that on
fu?J t' the late Japanese proposals,
"7.1 7 icth, the Government imme--wsj
receded to examine the Jap
jtatrk cscds and on January 25th M.
si! & Japanese Minister, was
lb reply to his Inquiry that
J hid Intrusted the proposals
tstliSwrial conference, the members i
iJBEl1 January 2Sth and
that his Majesty's decision would prob
ably not be given before-February 2nd.
On the last named date Emperor
Nicholas ordered the preparation of a
draft of definitive instructions to Baron
do Rosen, the Russian Minister to Ja
pan, based on the deliberations of this
On February 3rd identical telegrams
were sent to Viceroy Alexleff and Bar
on de Rosen, containing the text of the
I draft of a proposed Russo-Japahese
' agreement, with a full statement of the
reasons which prompted Russia to mod
ify the Japanese proposals, and general
Instructions to Baron do Rosen con
cerning the presentation of the reply to
the Japanese Government,
i Forty-eight hours before the receipt
of the news of the rupture Foreign Min-
J - ! r "i." 1 Jt
RUt1AH WARSHIP RBTa'ZAM from, THE ETKE?
i Fighting Machines of Czar in War Zone. I
f H t) c? O
NAME. Class. g- : 5 : Main Battery.
: 2 : v
. I p 5 '
' Cesnrevitch ' Battleship 1M1 13,110 17.CO0 19.G . 732 i 12-Inch. 12 0 Inch.
Imperador Nlcolal I. Battleship 1SSS 9,072 S.OOO H.S CO! 2 12-ln., 4 9-in.. S G-ln.
Oslabya Battloslllp 1SS3 12.C71 14.C00 IS 732 4 10-Inch. 11 C-Inch.
Percsvlet Battleship - 1S33 12,071 H.C00 IS 732 i W-lnch, 11 0-inch.
Petropolavsk Battleship , ' 1SJH 10.9W 14,213 1C.3 700 4 12-inch, 12 G-ln.
Poblcda Battleship '. 1900 12.074 14.GW IS 732 4 10-lnch. 11 C-lnch.
Poltava Battleship IS&l 10.930 11.255 1C.2 7CO A 12-lnch, 12 0-Inch.
Rctviznn Battleship 1900 12.700 16.000 IS 750 4 12-lnch, 12 C-lnch.
Savastopol - Battleship l95 10.900 13.000 17.5 700 4 12-lnch, 12 6-lnch.
Bnvun Armored Cruiser 19CK) 7.S00 17.400 22 6S0 2 S-lnch, S G-lnch.
Dlrnitrl Donskol ... Armored Cruiser 1SSS 6.SS2 7,000 16.5 510 0 C-lnch, 10 4.7-Inch. '
Gromobol Armored Cruiser , 1S29 12.33C 1I.C00 20 814 4 S-lneh, 1G C-lnch.
Hcsslay Ai-mored Cruiser 1S0G 12,130 14,600 20 725 4 S-Inch, 10 C-lnch.
Rurlk Armored Cruiser 1S94 10,9-23 13,230 IS. 7 703 4 S-lnch, 10 C-lnch.
Grozjatchy Armored Gunboat 1F90 1,492 2,(01 15 120 1 9-lnch. 1 C-lnch.
Grcmlastchy Armored Gunboat 1S92 1.500 2.5(0 15 142 1 9-Inch. 1 C-lnch.
Khrabry Armored Gunboat 1895 1.492 S.OOO 15 135 2 9.4-Inch. 7 6-Inch.
Otvazny Armored Gunboat 1S92 1.000 -2.5S9 15.6 142 1 9-Inch. 1 0-Inch.
Almanz Protected Cruiser 1902 2.2SC IT.r.OO- 19 310 G 4.7-Inch.
Aslcold Protected Cruiser 1900 G.1CO 24,l) 23. S ECO 12 0-Inch.
Aurora Protected Cruiser : 190-1 C.C30 11.610 20 422 12 C-lnch.
Bogatyr Protected Cruiser i 19C0 6,750 21.6C0 23.4 5S0 12 6-lnch.
Boyarln Protected Cruiser 1903 3,200 1S.CO0 25 334 0 4.7-Inch.
Diana Protected Cruiser 1S93 6.630 hl.610 20 422 S C-lnch.
,'ovIk Protected Cruiser 190D 3,200 1S.C00 25 310 6 4.7-Inch.
Pallada Protected Cruiser lEiO C.C30 ll.GOO 20 422 8 C-lnch.
Svlftlana Protected Cruiser ; 1H9G 3.S23 9.(00 20 300 C 0-Inch.
Vnrlas Protected Cruiser 1S9 G.C00 20.0OD 23 571 12 C-lnch. '
DIlKlt Cruiser JiA 1S7C 1.130 1.700 13 172 2 C-lnch. 4 1.7-lnch.
Krel3cr Cruiser 1S75 1.C53 1.S00 13 ISC 2 C-lnch. 4 4.1-Inch.
Rosboynlk Cruiser 1S7S 1.329 1.S00 13 172 2 C-lnch. 4 4.7-lnch.
ZabhUta Cruiser 1S73 1.234 1,20) 13.5 172 4 1.7-Inch,
Abrcclc Torpedo Gunboat 1SG6 535 4.500 21.2 110 2 4.7 'nch.
Galdomack Torpedo Gunboat i.- 1SS3 COO 3.(0) 22 S7 C 3-pounders.
Vsndnlck Torpedo Gunboat 1S93 4(r) 3,(03 22 97 0 3-pounders.
Bobr Gunboat lSt 930 1.150 12 150 1 9-Inch. 1 G-lnch.
Gllvak Gunboat 1S07 003 1.000 12 150 1 4.7-Incb. 5 12-pdra.
Korutz Gunboat 1SSG 1.213 1.500 13.5 179 2 S-lnch. 1 G-incTi.
Kubuietr Gunboat 1S3S 1.221 1.50) 13.S 161 2 S-lnch.
Mnndltir Gunboat 1SSC i.MG 1.400 14 179 2 S-lnch.
Slvootch Gunboat 1R1 950 1.125 12.5 170 1 9-lnch. 1 6-lnch.
; The Oalabya, Almaz and Aurora are still In European waters, making the voyage to Port Arthur with frequent stop-
j pages. 1
lster Lamsdorff notlflcd M. Kurlno of
the dispatch of the Russian reply.
On February 5th Viceroy Alexleff no
tified the Foreign oITlco of Baron de
Rosen's receipt of the reply.
On February 6th, at 1 p. m., M. Ku
rlno quite unexpectedly handed to
Count LamsdorfL' two notes, notifying
him of the rupture of diplomatic rela
tions and adding that he, M. Kurino,
and his staff would leave St. Peters
burg February 20th.
These notes were accompanied by a
public letter from M. Kurlno to Count
Lamsdorff, expressing the hope that
the rupture of relations would be con
fined to the shortest possible time.
On the same day Viceroy Alexleff,
Baron de Rosen and all the Russian
representatives at Peking, Toklo and
the capitals of the great powers, were
Informed by urgent telegrams of the
rupture of relations and of the issue
of an Imperial order withdrawing the
1" L-J-tfJtW BJJ - 'yiW"!'.'.i .-
. . 1
Russian legation from Toklo, arid lay
ing on Japan the responsibility for all
consequences ensuing. The communi- WM
"Although the breaking off of diplo
matlc relations by no means implied i
the opening of hostilities, the Japanese
Government as early as the night of I
February Sth, and. during February !
9th and February 10th, committed a J
whole scries of revolting attacks on
Russian warshlpn and merchantmen,
attended by violations of International B
law. The decree of the Emperor of !
Japan declaring war was not Issued !
until February llth."
RUSSIAN SCOUTS SPYING jH
OUT LAY OF THE LAND.
TOKIO. Feb. 20, Three hundred Rus- I
slan scouts reconnoitcrcd yesterday in I
"Wlju and vicinity. They crossed the jB
Yalu rivor. entered the town and then lll
scouted through tho surrounding coun-
try. They then recrossed the river and VM
rejoined their main force.
1 1 1
Mlln .......illlli.lll . i l l l I I ' 1 J 1 i t 1 1 1 1. 1 J t. X LJi-Ji- l.ll-.li.i.ltlllllilllliii. 11 lllili i ll liiiii. .iii. 'iiiillll J X lllllll llllllllllllllll-llJ ll
'HEA i3 a peninsula project-
1 !tV ks from the eQcstern coa9t oC
jf P in a southeasterly dlrcc
V 1 Its boundaries are all
e consisting of the. Ja-
caBt. tho Yellow sea on
ltS' e!."16 Krean slrtUt on th0
L I ilo rivers on the north-tho
J, nok. which empties into the
SS lhe Tumen, v.iilch emp-
ipr boundar- divides Ko
'1 t(,,:t3!a ln Asia on the north
1 rem ihe Chinese provinces of
tji Jf Shlng King on tho
IfiKa a e:cten(ls from north
I UIK !fiSrW8 t0 north lfltltude -3
BiStance of 650 mllcs- As
faKi Ur AlIantIc coast Une,
jlt from Portland, Me., to
5dBSiSnfays th0 American
nBSen5read"1 oC the Penlnaula
Idi ?hlCsl and the fu coast
m. xAi: 1700 m,Ies- it is.
' fi 8fca MhaJ? one-thlrd larger
3 England States, or
I 1 t.EIzc as -Minnesota or
4 area ,s about s.ooo
T I ani the population some
mVTl0N 0F NAMES.
J I Jitir .i?y8.lcm established by
' sXftnhVId be followed in
ri S,i0f namcs- The vow
' toZ Pnounced as in
- tttffin,an,U! as ln English.
iVS t? f lownsr exceptions:
'! jrsth ft.n.s,,sh a ln hat. "are:
t frUie Pn ?. T' cu ls a sound
i ltL p5!,8h "neutral" vow.
WfrS nlly .much shorter.
zLT W'txlstB np or short vowels.
' y. M5 a great dlfferenco in
the pronunciation of vowels with dif
ferent persons as well as one unci the
Bamo person. Thus myon often sounds
like men, kyong like ken; pyon, pen;
scung, ylng; cheup, chip; seul, sll; swa,
Ba; hyok. hoik, etc.; Jch, ph, th, chh.
are to be pronounced! separately, as
k-h, p-h, t-h, ch-h. as in the English
words ink-horn, top-heavy, pot-hunter,
watch-house, etc Just so with kk, pp,
ss; each consonant is to be pronounced
separately: nn sound n; s before 1 often
comes near sh.
Physical Features. There ls a
marked difference between the eastern
and western coasts. Tho eastern coast
is bordered by a long mountain ridge,
presenting a high and unbroken wall
with but few indentations or harbors.
The western coast, which is washed by
the Yellow sea of China, ls Bhlelded by
an archipelago of Islands, between
which are shallow and tortuous inlets,
either filled or drained by a tide that
rises from twenty-fivo to forty feet,
and which are frequently frozen over
ln winter. , ,
The more northern of the islands are
low and flat, while the southern ones
are high and precipitous. The cliffs- of
many of those southern islands are
both weird and fantastic in shape. One
of them resembles in form the towers
of "Windsor ca3tlo, another the crumb
ling ruins of a monastery.
The more prominent physical fea
ture of Korea is tho mountain range,
which constitutes the backbone of tho
peninsula and extends through its
whole length, from the Tiirncn river to
the Yellow eea, the large islands on the
southwest being but emerging frag
ments of the same range. lrom these
Korean Apennines numerous ribs or
opurs extend In every direction, Inclos
ing many pleasant valloys and river
basins in their devious windings.
COMPLETE ISOLATION OF KOREA.
Another great mountain chain runs
traversely across the peninsula along
the northern frontier, thus, by a natu-
-9--fr 1 M I I in if ry-r-r-r-m-m-r r-r r
ral wall, completing the isolation of I
Korea, The rivers of Korea, while nu
merous, are comparatively unimport
ant. Five only are navigable, viz., the
Yalu In the north, tho Ta-Tog or
Pvong-yang, the Han and Its tributary,
tho Im-jin-kang and tho Naktong.
The longest river within the penin
sula Is the Naktong. which flows youth
ward between mountain ranges and
empties into a bay opening into the
Korean strait. The largest river, and
commercially the most Important, is the
Han, which, draining nearly the whole
breadth of the peninsula, empties into
the Y'ellow sea. Besides these, eight
other broad streams, after enriching
tho valleys of western Korea, empty
Into the "same yaa.
Climate. The general climate of Ko
rea closely resembles that of the North
Atlantic coast of tho United States, tho
extvemes, however, being more marked
and intense. It is at times very hot
during the summer months, the tem
perature ranging from 9G degrees to 100
degrees in the shade. The winters are
severe, the mercury being often below
zero. The Tumen river, on tho north
ern boundary, is usually frozen five
months of the year, while in winter
deep onows cover the mountains.
From the end of January until June
it is spring. During the summer
months there are heavy rainfalls. By
the end of November wlntor beclns. In
tho summer months dense fogs prevail
and in spring and autumn there ls
Inhabitants. The Koreans undoubt
edly belong to the Mongollnn raco, oc
cupying an intermediate Gtage between
thft Mongolian Tartars and the Japa
nese. They arc plainly distinguishable
from either the Chinese or tho Japa
nese. Their language Is of the Turan
ian family, with the addition of many
Chinese and some Japanese Avords,
From thia ariso the different names
(noticeable on maps of Korea) applied
to the nme locality or physical fea
ture, one being In Japanese, another ln
Chineso and still another ln tho Ko
rean language. Tho Chinese language
is used by tho upper and lettered class
es and also by the Government ln all
RESEMBLE THE JAPANESE.
In physical appearance the Koreans
resemble the Japanese more than the
Chineso, though, on the average, taller
and stouter than either. Their dress Is
almost uniformly of white cotton cloth,
which In winter is well padded. The
outer badge of the ofllclal classes Is the
hat, which is of striking amplitude
The houses of the Koreans are usually
rude, thatched, mud wattled struc
tures. They are generally warmed by
flues running beneath the floors. The
women'3 apartments arc secluded with
As individuals they possesB many at
tractive characteristics, the upper
classes being poljtc, cultivated and
priding themselves on correct deport
ment, while the lower classes are very
social amonpr themselves, vivacious and
talkative. In their habits they are
neither Industrious nor cleanly, and,
though surrounded by abundant nat
ural resources, llvo in a depth of squal
or unknown ln civilized lands.
Political Subdivisions and Cities.
For admlnlstrativo purposes, Korea is
divided into eight provinces, viz., ITam
gyong, Kang-wan, Kyong-sang. Plng
an, Hw.ang-hal, Klong-kwl, Chung
chong and Chol-ra. Tho first three
provinces named aro situated on tho
east coast fronting tho Japan sea,
while all the others are situated on tho
western slope and border on the Yel
low sea. In the central province of
Kiong-kwl is located the Seoul or cap
ital of the kingdom. It Is situated
about twenty-six miles inland from tho
west coast, and about three mileB from
the Han river. The city is located in
a plcturcxiuc valley, botween the high
On the south is a notable height called
Nan-san, on tho summit of which are
four beacon towers, from which, by
means of burning signals, messages
i I I I I I I I 1 r T T T T IT TTTT ITTlTl
aro transmitted to other similar towers
on high mountain peaks, and thus to
the most dlstnnt provinces of the king
dom. Like all other large cities of Ko
rea, It ls walled, and the gates, eight
In number, are opened at sunrise and
closed at sunset.
POPULATION OF THE CAPITAL.
Within tho walls of tho city ls a pop
ulation of about 250,000. Tho houses aro
generally rudo mud thatched struc
tures, a part of each being used as a
shop or for business purposes. These
are so crowded together as to narrow
the thoroughfares Into mere lanes or
alleys, there being but three streets ln
the city deserving tho name,
The public buildings are few and in
significant, but as usual ln Eastern
capitals, thero are a large number of
royal palaces and temples?, which aro
surroundod by extensive, parklike
grounds, The buildings and grounds
of tho foreign legations are conspicu
ous features ln tho center of tho city.
Industries and Productions Notwith
standing Korea hn3 vast tracts of vir
gin land, with a soil of moro than or
dinary fertility, and an Invigorating
climate, It Is'a poor agricultural coun
try, though rich ln possibilities. Rice,
beans and barloy aro the principal cer
eals grown. Korean rlco Is highly es
teomed ln Japan, and when its export
ls prohibited the Japaneso are much In
censed. Glnsong ls ono of tho principal pro
ductions and is exported ln largo quan
tities to China. Korea also supplies
great quantities of beef and fish to Ja
pan. Paper 13 tho most remarkable na
KOREAN CAMPAIGN IN
CHINA- JAPAN "WAS.
In tho war between China and Japan
hostilities opened on July 25, 1S3 i, with
the slnklnpr of the Chinese transport by
the Manlwa Kan, a Japanese cruiser
r T T T T T T T T T T I T I f f T T J T I f T T T T T 1
off tho Island of Phungdo, near Chem
ulpo. That same day a force of 5000 Japa
nese troops set out from Seoul to at
tack the Chinese intrenched position at
Asan. Tho distance was sixty-seven
miles. On the COth Asan was captured,
and on August -3th the conquerors re
entered Seoul. Three days later tho
van of a column destined to drlvo the
Chinese from their stronghold at Ping
Yang, H0 mllcs distant, marched out
Korea was wholly without railways
and almost without roads. It Is broken
everywhere by mountains and Inter
sected by streams, tho passage of which
presents great obstacles to an army.
The Japanese force, some 15.000 strong,
found that its average dally rate of
progress-northward did not exceed six
This being the rate of advance, the
van had been pushed some ninoty miles
from Seoul, when It was decided that a
change of military plan must be made.
The Chinese, assembling in great force
at Ping-Yang, threatened Gensan on
the opposite coast. At Gcnyan there ls
an important Jnpanose' colony, and
from Gensan a trunk road leads south
ward to Seoul.
A force of 10,000 men was according
ly transported thither by sea, with in
structions to move westward against
Ping-Yang, synchronizing Its advance
and attack with those of the army from
The dispositions made by the Chineso
for the defense of Ping-Yang were of
a much more skillful character than
those at Asan. Every commanding sit
uation outside the walls of the town
was strongly intrenched, and batteries
were placed wherever guns could be
used with effect.
These positions were stormed, one af
ter another, by the various Japaneso
columns, and at 2 p. m. on September
15th the Chinese on every face had beern
driven with heavy lost' Into tho city,
The best stand seems to have beeu
made by, the traqfi undor Gen. Ycli, to
whom was intrusted the duty of guard-
ing the southern iron. IB
Next comes the great naval battle of IH
the Yalu river, in which Japan's fleet ll
of cruisers vanquished the ponderous
ironclads of the Celestial empire. The
whole world was forced to applaud.
Japan's northward march Into Man
churia now continued. Town after
town fell into its hands, until at last
the many successive victories were
crowned by the capture of Port Arthur.
Here, for the first time ln history, a
navy and army acted in perfect con
sort and worked together with the pre
clslon and regularity of clockwork. Ja
pan also proved the inestimable ser
vice that could be obtained from her
swift little torpedo boats. These little
vessel:.1 danced in and out, right under
the gaping mouths of the huge cannon
of the Chinese forts, and did untold
damage to the enemy. Port Arthur
fell, and the event was scarcely realized
by the world before Japan had taken
possession of the forts and docks,
drawn up some of her ships for repair,
and was apparently as much at home
In this late stronghold of China ns
though it had been her home for years. jH
The Y'ellow sea was now practically
ruled by Japan, with the exception of IH
one Important point, tho great fortified IH
naval station of Wel-Hal-Wcl.
After some daring torpedo boat work jH
tho place was invested by land and sea
and shortly surrendered.
The victorious Japanese proceeded to
invade China proper at Nlu-Chwang
and along the line to Shanhal-Kwan.
Russia Intervened, however, and,
joined by Germany and France, halted
the victorious legions of the Mikado at IH
a time when nothing stood between IH
them and Poking.
Negotiations for pence wero carried
on at Shlmonorcki, and the attack of a
Japanese fanatic on tho venerable Chi
nesc statesman, LI Hung Chang,
aroused sympathy which helped to mod- iH
ify Japan's demands. All that the Jap- ,IH
unesc received was a money indemnity, lH