Newspaper Page Text
THE WASHINGTON HERAID.- SUNDAY. -JANUARY 14. 1912.
THE MIDDLEMAN VS.
AS DR. WILEY
"A Penny for Farmers, and Forty-two Pennies
to Others Before Wheat Reaches
Consumer," He Says.
Br JAMES B. -MOBBOJF.
Fat cattle, such u one may see eating
corn and fodder this time of the year,
are betas sold for .500 apiece. Wheat,
ccnnnon red wheat like that grown In
Minnesota or North Dakota, Is fetching
WO a bushel. Astounding figures, but Dr.
Harrey W. Wiley says they axo unques
Sly calculations Bhow," he said, "that
the man who eats a bushel of my 80
ctnt wheat" It Is his wheat because he
raised It on three large farms "In a
hotel or restaurant, baked Into pies,
cakes, rolls, and bread, pays about 0
for the same. Every penny I receive for
my wheat crop has been multiplied
forty-four times at the moment It reaches
and Is eaten by the consumers. I get
the penny, you see, while the railroads,
millers, dealers, bakers, and hotel or
restaurant owners get O cents In large
aqd small amounts.
"So when you ask me If the farmer Is
receiving his share of the consumer's
money. I answer that he Is not. I also
fatten steers. Fattened fifty of them and
old them for $62 each. Just as winter was
coming on last year My mathematics
show that the man WJJoate one of my
steers at a hotel or restaurant paid the
sum of $300 for that epicurean delight and
rare opportunity Ho had Juicy steaks
nt CM apiece; beef al a mode and ten
derloins, roasts, short rib. long rib. and
pot fillet of beef. larded or broiled, or
possibly with cherry sauce and. maybe,
stuffed with mushrooms; braised beef,
stewed beef, and beef with dropped
dumplings. IJkewlse he had hash.
Summed up, computed on the basis of his
rating the whole steer, even the tall In
arley soup, seasoned with lemon, he ex
pended In the aggregate J500.
The Mory of Fifty Steers.
All along the line there was profit, ex
cept to the man whence the steer origi
nated Th fattener or that steer, my
self lost monej My contribution to the
Treat trust, as I estimate it. was about
185 on each steer that I sent to mar
ket Six and a. fourth times fifty are
J312.50 It was not much to the trust,
but It was considerable to Wiley Wc
read, nowever. that little drops of water
and little grains of sand form the mighty
ocean and the beautiful land. That. I
might observe, is the geology of the sit
uation The arithmetic, I dare sa. Is
Illstorlcall) and commercial! . the
transaction was as follows I bought the
steers for tK each The purchase Ms
made In December, 1910 They were poor.
Imt respectable beasts During that win
ter down to April. 1911 let us say. I
fpd those steers on what is technical!
Inown as roushage. otherwise straw and
the stalks and husks of corn In the
torlne last sp-ing. you understand
torned those teers Into my blucgrass
1 asture pronouncing It pawsture). "The
land at one time let me explain, was
covered with timber When the trees
were cut down"tlj,e grass came up spon
I didn t feed the steers anything, only
a little salt now and then They ate of
the grass and waxed surprisingly sleek
tn December 1, Just past, they were
ready for market. I had labored with
1 1 em giv Ing them. I could truly sar. the
iler uplift for twelve months. Walk
ing among them my mouth watered and
I had a feeling of fullnes in my pocket
ook. Ordinarily, thoe phenomena do
not occur simultaneously In the ane In'
W Ith something akin to elation, there
fcre I got Into communication with the
several and sundr slaughterhouses
Baltimore and Washington 'Here are
the steers, gentlemen, I said. In effect.
step up and make jour bids Don't
crowd, but be orderly and genteel, and
remember the Golden Rule, even If the
matter In hand pertains to the butchering
What the Batchers Told Wiley,
Well the silence that ensued would
hate made a cemetery seem like a noisy
place There were no bids It was de-
n eaning but I made a personal call or
mo experimentally and speculatively
Concentrating their language Into brief
and candid English, this Is what the
managers of the slaughterhouses said
We hae contracts with cattle broker
Tlie supply us with a certain number of
sters each week. If they fall in their
contracts they can be compelled to pay
us damages. On our part, we bind our
selves to make no outside purchases
ou are not a cattle broker, Dr Wiley
ou are merely a farmer, an outside man
We should like to purchase your steers,
but If we did so the brokers would can
cel our contracts and cut off our regular
sources of supply Tou must sell to them,
we In turn are obliged to buy of them
and no one else.
I sniffed the air and looked on the
ground and smelled and saw the unholy
tracks of the Western meat trust. There
absolutely no doubt of It Winter
was at hand, and If I didn't get rid of
m steers I would have to buy corn or
feed them on roughage and let them grow
thin again Swallowing my wrath I be
lieve that Is the way the phrase goes I
--ought out, shamefully. I confess It, the
cnttle brokers I shall not repeat our
dialogues. It would contribute nothing to
the art of polite conversation.
The brokers bought the steers, but at
I cents a pound less than the Chicago
quotation for that day. Freightage from
Chicago to the East amounts, I believe,
to 1 cent a pound I should, therefore,
have received the Chicago price plus 1
cent Anv man Of business will sav the
same They were prime steers, but 1 1
feel that I sacrificed them on the e"
of monopoly, and that Wiley, perform
ing a public function, by doing his mod
est part In feeding the American people,
was outrageously soaked. I talk lightly
now, but the Iron went In deep. I am
glad to, give -verbal expression to my
disgust. Thousands of farmers, no
doubt, have had experiences exactly like
m own, are having them right along.
4. X.tsa of S6.45 Per Head.
But I am not through with the whole
story of those steers They illuminate, in
a nay and so far as they go, the farm
er's side of the meat question. Each lean
steer, as I have said, cost me 146, cash
on the spot. Interest on that sum for
one year amounts to J2.76. Pasturage at
5 cents a. day for 33 days amounts to
J1S.25. That is the regular charge for
pasturage, and the pay I get when mj
neighbors turn their cattle Into my fields
The three hired men on the farm are
given JOT a month, or $730 a jear in
wages. I estimate that at least one
tenth of their time was contributed to
the welfare of the steers. Labor In car
ing for the steers, then, amounted to $72.
There were fifty steers. The wage charge
per steer was, as you will see, SLM. To
tal cost to me of each steer1, $68.45. I was
paid, as I told you. $6!. Proved loss.
$6.43 on each animal Multiplied by M.
the loss on the herd Is shown to have
been 122150 And yet some of my neighbors
think they are making money fattening
cattle, whereas they are losing It. i
"iow, as we go along, let me give you 1
the figures on the 2.200 bushels of wheat
I grew last year. They likewise are Il
luminating Some of the wheat was sold
for $4 cents, some for 94 cents, and some
remains In my barns. I estimate the
average price as being SO cents. The aver
age yield was eighteen busneis to we
aero. Ninety times eighteen Are $15.50.
The cost of growing an acre of wheat
was as follows: Interest on the land at C
per cent, $3. taxes, 30 cents; upkeep of
fences, barns, and other buildings, $1;
seed, and I bought- the best, $1.60, fer
tilizer, $3.50; plowing and preparing the
land, $2, planting, 0 cents; harvesting,
JL60, thrashing and hauling, $1. taking
wheat to market, 3 cents a bushel, or 54
cents. Adding the Items. Four Is a four,
five. ten. fifteen, twenty, twenty-five and
three are twenty-elghtr put down tne
eight and two to carry, and that Is
three, four, six, nine, ten, eleven, and
fourteen makes the cost per acre ex
actly $1164. Subtract that from $R,
and a producer's profit of $1.36 remains.
That very wheat, I said brings $40 a
bushel when sold as bread and so on in
hotels and restaurants. It Is dear to
me. If to no one else, that the farmer Is
not getting his share of the money of the
"Ota, Slyt" Said the Good Doctor.
I had written about Dr. Wiley before
as a chemist and also as a college pro
fessor, who rode a bicycle and played
baseball and was accused to the trustees
of being irreligious In that he did not al
ways attend morning prayers, and of be
ing ftiolous and undignified In that he
wore a cap and kulckerbockers while
astride his "cartwheel," as It was offi
cially described On telling him I had
come to chronicle his own experiences as
an agriculturist, he looked at me oblique
ly out of his slightly slanting eyes and
merely said "Oh. my'" putting a shade
of emphasis on the last word. "Yes,
continued, "A sort of a developmental
narrative, starting with the farm ion
which you lived as a boy and "
Plenty of people. Dr. Wiley Inter
rupted, "think I should hae remained
"And," I went on, "touching only the
'That's the old Indiana homestead, all
right. It was nothing tut high spots."
Until by a. prooess of Industry, fru
gality, and perseverance." I proceeded.
"jou were evolved Into a v ealthy land
The adjective as jou use It Is an In
suit to a respe-'able word and a veiled
assault upon myself I am a landowner
that wantonly I confess but I am not
rich Were I wealthy I should buy mort
gages, not land Mortgages pay $ per
cent. I am getting Z per cent less from
my three farms"
"Yes. one of ZV ncres in Mar land,
almost In sight of Washington, and two
aggregating 1.100 acres In Virginia, sixty
miles distant, as the crow files"
"Why do you buy land Are you a r raid
of savins banks
"Because I am a farmer and have been
one all my life No, I am not a can
didate for office, though I was born In a
log cabin and have other qualifications,
I am bold enough to think, becoming to
the personality and the biography of the
President of the United States The first
money I ever earned, I want you to
know, was wrenched from the land I
wrenched awa for fourteen hours and
was paid IS cents In cash. Then I ran a
mile and a half to show the money to
my mother That was also my first ex
perience' as a teacher
"'a Celebrated Cora Planter.
I could lay on a field In straight rowi
with no other marker than the swinging
rump of the horse I drove, sighting
along his backbone and between bis ears
whenever I was In doubt as to direction.
Marking the field one way. I d mark It
the other Then with a bag of seed
across my shoulder., walking sw If tly and
steadll. with an eye and hand as cer
tain as a squirrel hunter's. I'd crop
three kernels of com. no more or Jess,
precisely at the spot where the lines
crossed Coming up In due season, the
green rows of corn were as straight as
a surveyor could have made them with
a tape and transit. Such being my tal
ent. I was solicited by a rich neighbor
to Instruct his sons In the art. Thus
was earned, as I said, m first Z cents
I worked oa my father's land until I
was twenty-one ears old and my own
boss. I go Into details to prove that I
have always been an agriculturist. Dur
ing the next nine years I worked for
myself, spending all that I earned for an
education. At thirty years of age I owed
a debt of JoO. Paying the debt. I be
gan Immediately to ave money with
which to purchase a farm. 1 was then
teaching chemlstr) at Butler University
The first land I bought was In Benton
County, near the eastern edge of Illinois
It was sold many years later at a. hand
some profit. Farmers said that Wheat
would not grow In that latitude. While
the prophets laughed at me among them
WHERE THE DEMOCRATIC
WSjWMwSllmgmf frteator, , ,gf'?KSJSsjgj f Bctti
s5- ' . , t t ,s"'- ,'sa ""$rV' "-.f T" i " ?P',Ssl)H
fisft -CiXX X V-tr-. . 'ipst
!? fejj yF,vfyf j? n?3w J-?SSy " 2 NamMr
Wj;iJ2sl3MTsSrL. &AJiZi& .fPPSSi?
DEFENDS THE FARMER.
. -;- -
DR. H. W.
selves. I produced a good crop, and wheat
has been raised In Benton County ever
"After moving to Washington I bought
a farm In Prince George County, Md.,
In order that I might have a home
In the country during hot weather The
plan, however, was never carried out. I
sold the land eventually at a profit of
700 per cent. My next purchase was also
in Maryland, at the rim. I might say,
of the District of Columbia 340 acres
adjoining the farm of Willis L. Moore,
Chief of the United States Weather Bu
reau. Moore had never lived In the
country and couldn't have told an apple
from a potato, but he got books and
bulletins and talked with experts In the
Agricultural Department, and Is now one
of the best aimers In the United states
Me sold $6,000 worth of peaches last year
from a twenty-acre orchard.
"Nott He la a A Irclnla Planter.
' My Maryland farm Is cultivated by a
tenant He pays the rest In cash and
has agreed to establish a dairy of thirty
cows. The manure will go back on the
land, the rent amounts to 4H per cent
on the Investment, and the farm Is rapid
ly Increasing in salablllty and value. In
deed, all of my land purchases have been
profitable or prospectively profitable, and,
aside from my education, I have never
put money Into anything else
I became a Virginia 'planter through!
a visit to rnenns wno nave n -country
home In the Blue Ridge Mountains. Af
ter buying fltt acres of forest and
racks, simply for a cool and breezy re
treat during Jul, August, and Septem
ber, I thought I should like to have a
farm In the valley below I could sit on
my porch, ou understand, or walk In
the orchard I Intended to plant, and,
looking down, could see my crops grow
The farm I bought contained 60S acres, a
third of It being In blue grass pasture.
It cost me S35.7u.
'The librarian In the Bureau of Chem
istry Is a Virginia clrL I, being a Yan
kee, had profaned hr State, but, while
I was about It. wh didn't I buy a cer
tain other farm whlcn she courteously
described and located As it toucned my
land on the south. I took her advice,
getting 500 acres for $13,750, 200 acres be
ing In primeval forest and denso with
trees as large around as an oil barrel
I run the first farm myself, the other
one Is leased to a tenant and returns
me a dividend of about 4 per cent Af
ter completing my experiments with
wheat and corn I expect to double the
average locallt crops, wheat yielding
now eighteen bushels to the acre all
through the valley and corn thlrt-five
bushels. I have testing fields tor gram
and also for alfalfa,
"Meanwhile, since my father's death
I have owned the Wiley homestead back
In grand old Indiana, situated four miles
from the banks of the Ohio River My
father willed it to mo on his deathbed
for sentimental reasons. But my sister
was to live on It as long as she desired.
At my death, according to the private
rsquest cf my father, the farm will de
scend to the eldest male In the Wiley
line, and he happens to be my brother's.
son The land was onginauy ta&en up
hv mv grandfather, the Wile a having
been farmers for a good many genera-1
Some of them, however, worked lncl-
in Baltimore, which wiH seat nearly
dentally at other things. My father, for
example, was also a Campbelllte preacner
knowing how to read the Scriptures In
Greek a school-teacher, a musician, and I
a plasterer, which trade he followed only
In winter Ills mortar never fell on
walls Or ceilings, being an honest mix
ture containing the right proportions of
lime and cow's hair Plenty of it u
sticking yet In the bouses of Southern
Indiana. Although he preached every
bunday at the village church or else
where, he never accepted pay for such
I began to learn agriculture of him
when I was eight years old, and managed
the farm at the age of eleven while
both of my parents were 111 with typhoid
fever Those were melanchol) da) a In
some respects. Irvery family ivas pros
trated part of the year with ague I'd
MAY BECOME SENATOR.
MHS. SAltlH P. DRCKKIt.
lira. Ifectrr. Hie tint Udr ot Cotorxlo " ttbo If
mentioned u a indtaUtj for the Lnited SUIe
Senate bu brr own ideas u Uf tha duties of tbe
htjh oOce -I brime Mid Mim, Defter. "Utt tn
rvimtn imit mn wrmld vote for a vmun Sena
tor and aim manj women, hat more would Tots
against u. because at Mr. Oilman aaja, tier ha to
ro.000 erasdmothen. behind them." Mring her fee-
oA reanon a to whr It would be tufAnlt to elect
weman Senator lln. Decker said "A waman has
not the rortnne to bor her wir Into the Senate ac-
,, ta4tJ 'Mn. DeHer added that the treat prob-
onnuox to the method or wruen men neeome esa-
i srotnao Senator would bo
iAJ TsaF V"" V -"f" -Bftaasssssssse.i '
NATIONAL CONVENTION WILL BE HELD.
-j - ' 'frt&?ifZiZtiS .m.-iAtii r'yffi
35TS-Jl V 17 Wv-'
20,000 persons, and where the candidate for President will be nominated next June.
nave a chill about 10 o'clocllc on alfer
nate mornings. After almost shaking the
bed down, .I'd get a burning fever. By
e qcioca, in tee afternoon, nononi,
would "bo at work: again, I -took vfsra"
ham's puis, made in the neighborhood.
by the handful., but ny spleen grew
Urger and harder, and my father aban
doned'all hope of seeing me grow up.
ButJI- am still here," and Dr. Wiley
thrust out his chest ana straightened up
bis back until he looked as big as a
The old farm hadn't ,a level spot on
it," he continued. "Originally, of course,
it was nothing but a forest. I remember
that mountaineers would come Into the
country from the South with wagon-loads
of children and empty pocketbooks. A
settled farmer, would say to one of them;
mere is a twenty-acre neia. uiear it
of trees and you may live on It for five
years and keep all the eropa. Til supply
you with food the first season.' Host
of the forest land in Southern Indiana
was cleared under similar contracts.
Great oaks and chestnuts, were chopped
down and burned up
Had to 'Move Billy Jonea that."
- "We had an 'old, Billy Wood's field
and an 'old Billy Jones' field on our-
place. They are ,so known even yet.
Wood' and Jones crossed, the Ohio River
and entered Into a bargain with my
father. THty. built cabins of logs and
made chimneys of clay and sticks, and
solid chlmneyathey were. The floors
were of natural earth, pounded hard un
til almost llket cement. Billy Wood re
mained five years, did welt, and then
moved farther West. We stood at the
gate and -bid him good-by as he drove
past the house In a canvass covered wag
on. Billy Jones was a different kind of
man. however. He stayed five years, ac
cording to agreement, and then refused
to pay rent or go elsewhere. At the end
of ten years, my father had to dispossess
him by process of law. v
"Both cabins were destroyed. I would
give $1,000 apiece for them If they could
be put back on the farm Just as they
were whea I was a bo But families
would mote Into them during the night,
having found them empty, and we would
have a lot of trouble In getting such
squatters out. Under the law a. man In
Indiana cannot burn down his ow n house.
So my father and I tore the roofs off the
cabins. The cabins being no longer hab
itable Jn the meaning of the statute, we
set them on fire, and thus escaped the
"The log house In which I was born
has long been used as a shed. We built
a new home, and my sister has put In a
furnace, hot and cold water, and a tele
phone. I often wish that my parents
could see the old place, now that It Is
fixed up. Maybe they can Any way, I
(CoOTrlxt. WIS, by Junes B. Mono )
VOTE BUYEBS MAY ESCAPE.
Technicality May Defeat Prosecu
tion In I.ee Coantr, A.
From the aahfilla Teo&esapran.
In Lee County, Va, where more
than a thousand persons have been
shown to have sold their votes. It is
now feared that both tho vote buyers
and the vote sellers will escape
through a legal technicality.
Under promise of Immunity the vote
buyers went before the grand Jury and
Indicted a large numbers of vote sel
lers they had paid to vote a certain
way. This arrangement was made
with the criminal Judge of that county.
but it now seems that the buyers of
votes cannot testify without inerlm
Inatlng themselves beyond the power
of the court to grant Immunity
promised, and as there Is but one wit
ness against each vote seller, the
prosecution will fall.
The bribery statute of Virginia
makes the buyer and the seller equally
guilty, subject to fine and disfranchise
ment for life, but In this case those
buyers who were witnesses before the
grand Jury cannot now be Indicted. It
seems now. therefore, that nothing will
come of the wholesale election frauds
In Lee County except the disgrace In
cident to exposure, which will rest on
a large number of hitherto respectable
N'o practice Is more degrading or
more disgraceful tha. that of a man
selling his vote, and whenever a voter
is caught doing this he should be dis
franchised for lite. In order that he
may carry the brand of Infamy as a
warning to other people
It Is to be hoped that the State of
Virginia will so amend Its laws bear
ing on election frauds as to make It
easy to convict those who may engage
In the nefarious practice. The vote
buyer Is the one who should be looked
after and so restrained and terrorized
by the stringency of the law and the
severlt of the penalty that he will
not dare to become the base dispenser
of election boodle If there were no
election buyers there would be no vote
sellers If there were no corrupt men
to buy their way Into office there
,A would be no vote buying.
Let the rascal who corrupts the poor
devil with the ballot be made to feel
the lash of the law
Somethlnjr Comlnc to Her.
From tha Detroit Free rrrw.
A Detroit bab), named Buctier. Is to
be bred to use Ksperanto only around
the family gas stove. She It's a girl
will be taught no English whatever by
her parents. But wait until the neigh
bors' children begin to teach her the
wonderful and fearful language of the
i -e- I-v
'vTtfm5yiiiJi.-",s3i:L ; -?-
5. ri-r?T '-'J Y f '--- a .. .J. .. t ffr
t. . T-J-?.' T-' v . Wn'iTe-JS "3 '
k r .
- ' - i "
NEW SEA WATER CURE ;
A MEDICAL SENSATION!
Acc'pbplishes Wonders When Popred Into Humaai
Velns by the Hypodermic
Atlantic Ctiy. N. J . Jan. 13.
The notion of going down into the
depths.of the,sea for a cure for human
ailments seems remarkable enough. Yet
this is exactly what la now being done,
with highly successful results. '
It , in fact, sea water Itself that is
the curative agent. But, in order that It
may be perfectly pure-U e, free from
germ contamination of, any klnd-lt must
be obtained many miles .from land, and
at a considerable depth below the sur-
trnum et 1ha nrmnn
This la-no mer medical fad. On the
contrary, the remarkable cures already
accomplished by the treatment in Ques
tion are 'matters of definite record: and
at the present time It Is being taken up
and utilized y some ox vne iwrcuw
physicians both In this country and in
Europe especially fdr Infants, which,
when afflicted with Intestinal complaints,
are- brought back. In a literal sense from
the very Jawa of death.
So Important Is the new., treatment
deemed that several "sea water dispen
saries" have been established within the
last few months la Paris, (or the babies
of the very poor. Children usually are
not brought to these dispensaries by their
parents until they are almost at the last
gasp, yet all -but. two or three out of
every 100 are saved.
The discovery is being taken up very
earnestly on this side o the ocean, and.
for the purpose here discussed, the
Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvan
ia (an institution of highest professional
rank) Is now getting weekly supplies of
sea-water from forty miles off the New
Jersey coast, midway between the Dela
ware caps and Sandy Hook, it is
found that the saline flu.d Is purest when
obtained where the ocean bed Is sandy,
and at a depth of thrlty to forty feet
below the surface. To accomplish this.
of course, special appliances have to be
The sea water Is given to the patient
usually by hypodermic Injection, an
ounce or more being Introduced Into a
vein, and Is thus taken up by the blood
In Its general circulation. When thus
administered, It has a powerful action
as a cure for certain skin troubles, espe
cially eczema. It Is particularly useful In
the treatment of nervous complaints of
long standing In cases of nervous pros
tration. -Incipient or In an advanced
stage. It has proved surprisingly effica
cious, and victims of overwork and de
pression are greatly benefited by 'It.
Its rapid action, however, is seen to
best advantage in new-born infants suf
fering from stomach and intestinal de
rangements. Even In the most desperate
cases rapid recoveries are often witnessed
such recoveries sometimes amounting
to almost literal resurrection In 80 per
cent of these cases, where babies are
wasted to the last extreme, having vomit
ed everything for weeks, they will, after
the first Injection, take and digest a meal
suitable In quantity for a normal child
of the same age. After a few days they
Many diseases, although they differ In
name and form of manifestation, arise
from a common origin that Is to say,
from a body-poisoning Sea-water (ac
cording to the new theory) neutralizes the
poison and drives It out, thus rendering
the use of drugs (themselves poisons
only less harmful) unnecessar.
The health-giving waters of N'auhelm.
'W lesbaden, and other famous resorts de
rive their minerals from bvds of salts
cf oceanic origin. Furthermore, it has
long been known that sea-water baths
are stimulating and healthful (especially
beneficial to debllltaed infants), and now
adays physicians often order their pa
tients to drink moderate quantities of
seawater. which acts as a tonic and
laxative. Taken In the morning before
breakfast. It washes away the mucus
that has accumulated In the stomach
overnight, thus tedding to benefit diges
Effects of Injeetlon
Until recentl), however. nobody
thought of trying the more direct and
Immediate application of seawater by
subcutaneous Injection. From the first ex
periments it proved to be a powerful
tonic and blood purifier, restoring sleep,
appetite, and digestion The patient does
not have to wait for good effects, which
The French medical expert on this par
ticular subject Is Dr Robert-Simon, who
Is In charge of the "sea-water dispen
saries," already mentioned, at Paris. He
pais that the seawater must be col
lected not less than twenty miles from
shore, at a depth of at least thirty-five
feet, and at a distance from any port or
current flowing from a port. It Is taken
In sterilized bottles, which are opened
only for the few moments necesary to
The sea water Is not used pure, but
two parts of It are mixed with five parts
of fresh water, the latter being a germ
free spring water containing a minimum
of mineral. This is filtered through
Pasteur porcelain filter No heat Is used.
The solution loses much of Its activity
with time, and hence It Is important to
use sea water that has not been collected
more than three weeks. It Is by no
means easy to obtain the stuff absolutely
free from sediment, and for this reason
some American physicians are Importing
sea water In bottles from Liverpool.
'X&i , ." v
5. F . "
r j ' "
where there Is a concern that has a se
cret process for obtaining It In a pur
state. The objection to sediment is thatt
it Is foreign matter at best, and may
possibly contain germs.
' TTia Intentions sra vfven referaMv In
the lower part of the back (the buttocks),!
or elsee Just below the angle of the'
shoulder blade. Aa a preliminary, the
skin Is cleaned with alcohol, and tha'
needle Is driven Its whole length per-
pendicularly to ttfe skin surfaca, A hypo
dermic needle Is extremely fine and sharp,
and so little pain Is caused that a child!
will hardly notice It If supplied with a
bit of candy to distract attention. For,
an Infant the ordinary dose is one-third
of an ounce to a full ounce: for elder
children, half an ounce to two ounscs.
The treatment Is given ordinarily three
times a week, but both doses and treat-
ment must necessarily vary with tbV
character and circumstances of the easa.1
Composition of Fluid.
Sea water la a much more comptew
mixture than Is generally Imagined.,
Roughly speaking, it consists of H I-
per cent of fresh water and Z 1-2 PW
cent of mineral salts. Three-fourths of
these salts are chloride of sodium (com-l
mon table salt), and the next largest
constituent Is chloride of magnes!urn
After these come sulphate of magnesium,
sulphate of calcium, sulphate of potash,
bromide, of magnesium, and carbonate of
calcium. There are also In sea water
minute quantities of Iodine, phosphorus.
arsenic and a number of metals. In
cluding gold, sliver, and copper.
It Is Interesting to observe that nearly
all of these substances particularly so
dium, magnesium, calcium, potassium,
and phosphorus are conspicuously rep
resented In the make-up of the 'bone
and other tissues of the human body.
uiooa ana sea water. It appears, art.
chemically speaking, much the same
thing. This remark applies, however,
only to the watery part of the vital
fluid. In which the tiny red corpuscles
(which give It color) float about in mul
titudes If a small quantity of blood be
drawn from the veins of a roan or other
animal and allowed to stand for a few
hours In a glass receptacle, the red cor
puscles will sink to the bottom, so that
the clear watery "serum" can be poured
Blood serum and sea water contain
exactly the same chemical constituents,
and In approximately the same propor
tions. Thus It will be understood why It
Is that sea water can be Introduced with
such good effect Into the veins of a hu
man being, to take the place of blood
that has been lost In large Quantities
during a surgical operation or through
The rtri corpuscles have no life of their
own. It Is quite otherwise with the so-
called white corpuscles of the blood.
which are individually alive. The latter
are. In fact, a living population of the
blood stream. But recent experiments
have shown that they will continue to
live and to move about In ordinary s-a
water for a number of hours, flndlnr It
a medium in which, for a while at least.
they can get along very well.
TJee of Hypodermic.
All of these facts hare a direct bearins
upon the utilization of sea water for the
cure of disease. It has long been known
that we are In a sense aqoatto animals.
Inasmuch as every living cell In our
bodies Is surrounded by water. Further
more, the water is salt water. Arenee It
la that the human body may be called
a "marine aquarium" this term being
applied to It by Dr. Robert-Simon, one
of the most distinguished of the French
scientists and physicians of to-day.
Science tells us that animal life on the
earth first appeared as a simple cell In
the ocean. And (says Dr Robert-Simon)
there Is "always a tendency In animals
to keep the cells of which each organism
consists in the aquatic marine conditions
of their origin.'
Sea water Is now counterfelted-wltb.
such exactness that the most delicate
marine animals, such as anemones, are
kept alive In the imitation fluid for many
months. But for medical purposes the
real stuff is wanted, and fortunately
toere Is plenty of it, though some diffi
culties In procuring It In an absolutely
pure state have to be overcome.
The hypodermic syringe used for giving
the sea-water injections is a huge affair,
compared -with the ordinary ones, hold
ing twenty cubic centimeters, or about
two-thirds of an ounce. Its barrel Is of
glass, and marked (graduated) In such a
way that the operator can adjust tho
dose to a nicety But sometimes two or
even three ounces are administered nt a
time requiring a series of punctures and
the repeated refilling of the Instrument
Public Opinion Seems to Be Settinsj
From the Hartford Post.
Within the past five years or so there
has been a growing feeling against socie
ties In colleges and schools. Many have
been the arguments waged over these
organizations and great have been the
efforts to oust them as a part of school
and college life. It has. however, re
mained for the colleges and particularly
the women's colleges to do the ousting
Elmlra and a number of other promi
nent schools have already begun the
work fbr the good of the colleges.
There Is no quesUon that the secret
societies havo raised Insurmountable bar
riers In the student body and created
class distinctions where the purest de
mocracy should prevail. College women,
both the alumnae and the students, have
come to see the wisdom of the argument
against the societies and are lending
their aid to their disbanding.
The deteriorating effect of the school
secret society has been twofold: it has
operated against the college or school,
and It has worked against the student
as an individual. If the student was not
sufficiently popular to be selected for
membership In some one of them.
The demand now Is for tho letUng
down of the artificial barriers so that
natural friendships may be formed and
progress as they should. This accom
nii.hi eftiueh of the snubblshness that
Lhaa been creeping into .college life will
nave oiativvwu- .
The young men of the colleges and
schools will do well by, following xtho
lead alt "by the young women.
The Governor of Ohio.
Prom the rar Tort; Sun.
. In the way of personal equipoise and
freedom from all symptoms of political
excitement. Gov. Harmon's speech at the
Lotos Club last evening was a master
piece. Ha yielded neither to the tempta
tions of opportunity nor to the Insidious
hypnotic Influence of contemporary x
ample. Ha made the sort of address that
might be expected at any time of any
year from a patriotic citizen and tho
chief magistrate of one of the greatest
States of the Union. Not one word of
politics. This. In our opinion. consUtutes
a new title to the esteem of the Judicious.
Wo also think wo detect a senso of hu
mor In the remarkable, performance of
the governor of Ohio. The sense of hu
mor is not yet quite extinct In Use laaC