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THE WASHINGTON HERALD. SATURDAY, JANUARY :. 1913.
THE WASHINGTON HERALD
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SPECIAL AGEJkCT. .Brunswick Bunding.
Chicago Beirescntatire. A. E. KEATOB. tli
Atlantio City Bepreaentatirr. MB. a K. ABBOTT,
SATURDAT. JANUARY 11. 131i
Trarel and Human Fallibility.
The Interstate Commerce Commis
sion takes an exceptionally strong
ground as regards the safety of pas
sengers on our railroads. Its annual
report admits that the majority of ac
cidents are due to the emplojes, but
declines (and quite properly so) to
place the chief blame and responsibility
upon them, when it says:
Sixtv-three per cent of all accidents
were due to errors and misunderstand
ines on the- part of emploves. The
most oerolexins and disauietinc fea-
ture in the problem of accident pre
tention is the large proportion ot train
accidents caused by dereliction of duty
by the emplojes involved. Higher
speed, heavier trains, and greater
density of traffic greatly have increased
the duties and responsibilities of
train service emplojes and multiplied
.he chances ot error on their part.
That means the commission is con
vinced that human fallibility has to be
reckoned with. To prevent collisions
measures must be taken to reduce the
chances of human error to a minimum
and to neutralize the effort of such
error whenever it occurs. It ia not
sufficient to caution engineers in the.;
printed rules against excessive speed-
all that is self-understood if on the
other hand they are subject to marks
of demerit for being only a single
minute even behind time. It is
sufficient to instruct engineers to take
crossings at moderate speed when they
arc under strong pressure to run at
verj high speed
The first duty of any railroad com
pany adds the report, is to use every
mechanical improvement and device
known that will promote safety. No
doubt that some railroad companies are
derelict and have no right to blame
their emplojes. Of &215 derailments,
1,877 were caused by road defects, and
3.847 by defective equipment. The
railroad companies and the railmakers
for j car have been blaming each other
for the increase in rail breakage' The
commission holds that the weight of
evidence seems to be against the rail-
roads, though there is also fault with
the rolling mills The weight and
speed of trains have Increased greatlj'.
The railroads demand a very hard rail
to withstand the present-da j- severe
usage. But the very hard rail is brit
tle, and passengers in the meantime
are being killed It were high time
that the two parties should reach a set
tlement and give sound rails to the
traveling public The Interstate Com
mission has this to add:
Of thirty-one derailments investigat
ed "fourteen were due directly or indi
rectly to bad tracks In nine of the
fourteen cases no adequate speed re
strictions were in force, and in three
of these cases the track was in such
condition that derailment was likely
even to occur at low speed. In one
serious derailment .an examination of
the track in the vicinity of the acci
dent disclosed 906 rotten ties within
147 rail lengths. Under many of the
rails there were as high as eleven bad
ties each, while under two of the rails
there were twelve ties so badly de
cayed and broken up as to be totally
unfit for service.
The company that owns this road
cannot reply that the Interstate Com
mission does not allow it to earn
enough to keep its tracks in order.
Facts do not justify such an answer.
Earnings may not have been in some
cases all that could be desired, but
they have been increasing steadily for
To Safeguard Arbitration.
In the wage controversy between the
railroads of the Eas; and their fire
men it is pleasing to note that both
contending parties arc ready and quite
willing to have the matter in dispute
arbitrated. But as to the method to
be used they disagree. The railroads
are unwilling to make use of the pro
visions of the Erdman act, while the
firemen declare themselves satisfied
with such a procedure.
After the principles established in
arbitrating the case between the rail
roads and the engineers last summer,
the reason advanced by the railroads
seems worthy o'f consideration. Under
the act mentioned there are three ar
bitrators, each side being represented by
one, it is naturally the third (disin
terested party) who decides the dis
pute. The railroads maintain that this
places too hea,vy a responsibility upon
that third"" man, especially iNie is not
ble to master all the points involved
In the dispute. This appears to have
been -fully .recognized in the engineer,
:n. Uet i.,- 'ti,- a t-
dispute last jear. The danger of in-
trusting the entire decision to one
roari, whether he be qualified to decide
a momentous case or not, in the best
interests of the road, the employes and
the public at large, was obvious.
Hence a different mode of arriving
at a satisfactory .result had to be
adopted. The board was made to con
sist of seven members. Each side
named one and those two endeavored
to agree upon the remaining five. Had
there been a failure to agree upon the
five, the Chief Justice of the United
States, the presiding judge of the Fed
eral Commerce Court, and the United
States Commissioner of Labor were to
act together in appointing them. The
(award -was to be made by a majority,
of these seven members.
Undoubtedly this course gave a bet
ter safeguard to all concerned. The
railroads were represented, so were
the emplojes, and among seven men,
five of whom were not prejudiced to
ward one side or the other, the needs
of the public could not very vvcH fail
to be considered.
The firemen wish to arbitrate, the
railroads also. Why, then, do the for
mer not adopt a mode of procedure
that has be'fore had good results and
pleased the laboring men?
. Notable Annrrersaries.
The current jear, among other anni
versaries, includes the centenary of the
versaries of 1813, as well as the semi
centennial of some of the most telling
fights of the civil war. There was
Commodore Perry's victory on Lake
Erie, ending Bntish-Canadian attacks.
and the battle on Thames River that
crushed the power of Great Britain's
Indian allies in the Northwest In the
civil war there were the battles of
Murfreesboro (December 31, 1862, to
January 2, 1863), Chancellorsville
(May 1 and 2), Gettysburg (July 1, 2,
and 3), Chickamauga (September 19
and 20), and Chattanooga (November
24 and 25), all of them fights of the
first magnitude, and offsetting the easy
victories at Fredericksburg and Chan
cellorsville. The fall of Port Hud
son and Vicksburg caused Lee's armies
to leave the North, giving the Union
a clear way to the Mississippi, and,
so to say, detaching Louisiana, Arkan
sas, and Texas from the Confederacy.
Finally Lincoln's emancipation also
went into effect on New Year's Day,
The jear 1813 in Europe saw the
downfall of Napoleon's fame and for
tunes True, he held his own against
increasing pressure at the famous bat
tles of Luetzcn and Bauthen, in Si
lesia, and in August even defeated the
armies of the allies near Dresden, in
Saxonj. But his fate overtook him
in October of that jear in the terrible
slaughter of the "Voelkerschlacht" o'f
Leipzig (as a result of which Frederick
William III of Prussia founded the
famous order of the "Iron Cross," be
cause "mj lojal subjects, having noth
ing else to offer besides their lives.
brought their plows and scythes and
other agricultural implements to the
arsenals to have them melted into
bullets and cannon balls"). To top it all,
Spain drove his "grandc armee" back
beyond the Pyrenees
The New York Tribune has compiled
table of Americans of note whose
hundredth birthday anniversaries will
be celebrated this jear. The names are
John C. Fremont, Albert Sjdncy
Johnston, Stephen A. Douglas, Lot M.
Morrill, Montgomery Blair. David D.
Porter, Henry Ward Bcecher, Lyman
Trumbull, Allen G. Thurman, Zachary
Chandler, and Samuel J. Kirkwood,
What Prevention Means.
According to the statistician of the
newly created Children's Bureau, 300,-
000 babies under the age of one jear
die in this country annual!.
Ji conservation of our race is to
reach any effectiveness at all, if there
is any virtue in the maxim, it must be
gin with our children. Each baby saved
means a that much stronger nation.
The army of young women who were
sent out into the country districts
throughout the land to start the cam
paign on behalf of the babies are to
ascertain for the Childrens Bureau
exactly what kills them off in such
The bureau proposes to obtain its
information through personal investi
gation in the field, which is to include
rich as well as poor. While these prob
ers have no way of enforcing answers
to their questions, they mean to appeal
to the mother instinct to help them in
this crusade. And surely they could
find no better source. They are to
gather all they can find out regarding
the health of the parents, housing con
ditions, milk supply, manner of feed
ing the little ones, care of the baby
and the economic situation of the fam
ily in general.
A tabulation of such returns and
their comparison with other -districts
will help to show the true conditions
that kill our babies.
There is another and sad side to the
problem. Thousands of families mourn
over the loss of the little one, do
everything possible to preserve life in
the little bod', and to them even the
suggestion that its death might have been
averted under different conditions
would cause poignant anguish. Na
ture seems to be particularly cruel In
The public would almost be justified
In assuming that William Rockefeller
has no urgent desire to testify before the
lf a m-n tells you that all crime- la a
j"""6 and th" crirmnal "J
roP. on jnar be reasonably certain that
n. thi.r h. .. hi. ,.
A LITTLE NONSENSE.
A 'SAD RKLIC.
I aaw a "caatoftvChrtatmas' tree sojourn
Ins. on the dumn: . .
It was a ,mournf ul Using to see and
made my tough bean thump. '
Some bitsot tinsel here and there went
cllnglnc to a bough.
But otherwise tbe treer- was bare and
quite dismantled now.
I thought of glories that bad s fled, ot
granaeur in aecay.
And tbenI sadly shook, my bead and
hurried on my way.
It sorely Jars a thoughtful man such
sights as this to sec
There Is no sadder object than a cast-
off Christmas tree.
Once In Airhlle.
A little winter now and tbtn Is relished
by the wisest men.
It All Depends.
"I was surprised to see that those
suffragettes had a hard time making ten
miles a day on the hike from New York
"A woman easily makes thirty right
here In the shopping district."
January 11 In History.
January H. 1531. Henry VUX has a
terrific combat with a snow man.
January 11. 17X. Boswell has Dr.
Johnson's shoes half-soled.
"VVoald Be Awful.
"That doctor charged me JSO." com
plained the miserly millionaire, "and
then gave it out that I was slightly In
disposed." "What of It?"
"I couldn't afford a doctor at 'all 1f,l
was to get sick."
"Farewell forever," cries the lass,
Forever." says the lad.
He goes away; perhaps to stay
Two days, which Isn't bad.
"We should never put off until to
morrow that which we should do to
day." "I realize that now. I Intended to call
on Miss Wombat last night, but put It
off. To-day I saw 'em throwing th
A Subtle Approach.
"Madam, do jou give board?"
"Could you give a small sample?"
"Most of us have to be careful what
nent to claim we were misquoted and get
away with It."
we say about others."
"Yes: few of us are sufficiently promt-
GEOLOGISTS IN SESSION.
Canadian BnKlneers Attend Dlen
nlal Meeting; of the SurTer
The biennial meeting of the District
engineers of the United States Geological
Survey was held In Washington yester
day. Reports were made on measure
ment and power, length, breadth, and
usefulness of nil important streams re.
cently surveed In the united States
Representatives of the Cannd'an Geo
logical Survey were also present.
The Canadian engineers are as follows
Leo C. Denis, Commissioner of Conserva
tion. Ottawa. Ontario; Douglas L. Mc
Lean, Chief Engineer H) drographlc Sur
vey, province of Manitoba. Winnipeg. II.
C. Acres, hvdrographlc erglneer, repre
senting the IIdroeIectric Power Com
mission of Ontario; P. M. Suder, cblef
engineer Irrigation branch. Department
of the Interior. Calgary, Alta; Arthur V.
White, Commissioner of Conservation,
DEAD LETTER AUCTION.
Sale to Start In Sloan's Auction
Rooms January 20.
Without Its lottery feature the annual
dead letter sale of the Post-office De
partment will be held In Sloan's auction
rooms beginning the morning of Janu
ary M at 10 o'clock When the sale opens
every package will be dlsplaved to the
The sale was originally scheduled to
take place on December IS, It having
been the annual custom of the depart
ment to hold the sale before Christ
mas Owing to numerous complaints
made by merchants of the District It
was indefinitely postponed.
VOL. VI. NO. 35.
Suck, il ua't 1
Observations by Our
Own Fashion Arbiter
Ccrseti are beuiff dfocanled br
our toucz smirt et (uid old. too).
and It if to be detplr whittled
uut our WftJUilDCtoa beaux rant
fnrtiire a rib any more without
rxrttlns tbo dear ladies to troobla.
Wireless oommimicatkma between
tho Arllnrloo and Eiffel tovm
will make it poasibl for our offl'
clil aodetr to en the raria ;am
ioea freah from tbe coosultatlona ot
A Solemn Protest.
Before proceeding in ecr usual
diEDised manner, ve with to rec
ister our solemn rrotest azainat
appointing any outsiders to local
ofoeea such as the postoAee, Dis
trict Attorney, judge of the Jut
nOe Court and so on. although
ire are wiui Mr. Flanagan vhen be
ears that "to the Tictors belong the
spoils." we would much rather see
tbe present Incumbents retained
than supplanted by outsiders. We
Belters in a vvuolngton xor
VTashingtODiaiui. There, now, and
8AMUEI A. KIMBEULET.
fJen. Wood would if he coull re
store the canteen, but Woodyf
Capt HaKRY HHAN.NON.
'Tis True, 'Tis Pity, &c.
That sign writer engaged to let.
ter the sew offices of r. E. P. Co.
and W. Ry. ft B. Co. offWilv oc
cupying offices In the new buQdlna
of the . Potomae Electric Tower
Company, certainly was pn to his
Job when be suggested that the
lettering for the door of the room
assigned to Publicity Agent Schloaa
be. inscribed, "In this room lies
the publicity agent
Such Is Life.
Busy! Well, I should say. Lis
ten. Within the last twenty Tour
hours we ptld out dates aa fol.
lows: 1. Crawled under the bed
and a needle lying on the Boor ran
-Into breastbone. CCOOL 2. Lett
arm broken by inning board, tU 000;
Z, injured at home, ran against
wife. XSS.OX; 4, Injured at home,
yawning, dislocated Jaw, $10 000; at
the dab, looked at Henry SI. Camp
crosswise and 'talked back. $50,000.
Ac, Ac, ftc
- THOMAS A. GREEN. ,
- ut eaeMGB fitch.
..'( "As. Saw fJM .aiwaakV
OveralJs are, the uniform .of prosperity.
Overalls must not. however, be con
founded with dress suts. Dress suits
are merely the advertisement of pros
perity. Overalls are not worn much by rich
people. They are. confined mostly to men
who, are producing riches. Put a cap
tain of Industry da a desert Island, and
't tbe end of a, year bs would be a
living skeleton hunting shrimps for food.
But give him a thousands privates In
overalls to boss, and in the same time
he would be loading corn for export and
writing for automobile catalogues.
Overalls are made of cheap, stout ma
iertal, and are made to .get dirty. A
clean pair of overalls constitute an In
dictment for laziness. Nothing looks
more ridiculous .than a pair of clean
overalls, except perhaps a dress suit
shirt which looks xas If the owner had
been working In It
On the other hand, nothing adds to the
dignity of overalls so much aa grime.
The more grease and grime a pair of
overalls accumulates the more success
ful they have been In their career.
Overalls and-succcss go hand In hand.
Wherever the overall Is found In any
abundance there also csn be found the
growing crops, tho advancing railroad,
the soaring buildings, and the roaring
factories. The only parts of America
still In their primeval lonllness are
those unfortunate spots which have not
known the beneficent and inspiring over
all It takes a dozen pairs of overalls to
support a dress suit In the luxury to
which It Is accustomed, and there are
people blind enough to think that over
alls were created for this purpose.
This Is the chief trouble with many
At "Family" Conferences Even Ton
nage Is Distributed, Says
The existence of a "family" of confer
ences among the shipping Interests of
the world to regulate sailings and amount
of tonnage, arrange conformity ot rates
snd to parcel out the territory In which
each line shall do business, was dis
closed jesterday by the House JCommlt
tee Investigating the Shipping Trust
Paul Gotthcll. New York representa
tive of a large number of ocean trans
portation companies, was on the stand,
and told how rates were made by the
Australian conference. South African
conference, the Trans-Atlantic confer
ence. Caribbean conference, and others.
As a general proposition, the witness
said, most of these conferences had for
merly practiced the system of giving
deferred rebates, but In most cases this
bad been discontinued
It was brought out that one ot the
members of the Caribbean conference
was the Panama Railroad bteamahlp
Company, a government owned line, but
the witness said that the only feature
of this conference was the Joint agree
ment on what he called non-competitive
Other witnesses 5csterday were Paul
F Gerhart. business agent of the Prince
Line at New York, and William E.
Halm, New York agent ot the South
WANTS DEMOCRAT NAMED.
Senator I'anierrnr Rite President
Taft at Dlt ot -Vmrletj.
Senator Pomerenc. the Democratic
Senator from Ohio, gave President Taft
esterday a bit of variety in the mat
ter of dally Importunlngs for Federal
patronage by requesting that he fill a
vacancy In the customs service by a
The case In point Is the office of sur
veyor of the port at Dayton. Ohio,
which was recently resigned by Edward
L. McConnaughe). Senator Pomerene
Is understood to have come to the con
clusion that since the Democrats will
not allow the President to make any
new Republican appointments, he might
as well give the office to a Democrat
now as to allow It to remain to be filled I
by President-elect v llson.
THE BIG STICK
WASHINGTON. JANUARY II.
Leading; Clt Has Hard ut to Craclc Before In
"Will the turkey trot!" has got to be a sore question ht the
country around Bunnyhug. Vs., according toour weekly letter from
"rioughbor," The Big Stick's correspondentat that burg.
"Dame Rumor has it" thus "Ploughboy" starts bis eommunica
tloo "Dams Rumor has It that iir. Ben Minor, the Waablngton
bass and inaugural ball magnate, has not ret decided about the
makerp of the programme for rres -elect Wilson's ball. Bunnyhug
citizens do not take kindly to this when they remember that some
of them lost sereral fine birds through ctrexerclalng them to lesd
Mr. Minor back to nature, tbe true source of ail knowledge, whether
about the terpalchcreaa refinements of the day. or the tlgh cost of
The Big Stick here omits a phlloaorhla dinertathm highly meri
torious and creditable to "rionghbor." but hardly germane to the
anbject "Ploughboy" then contlnure:
"According to Dsme Rumor, arter seeing one gobbler strut across
the big pasture sJust beyond the turn-off into' the Tsngp road. Mr.
MlDor ssld his mind waa made up beyond a rjendrentnre. but be
did sot ssy what It was made up to. Mr. Minor had Just as well
know sow that these dilatory tactics will not do for the Bunnyhug
CitlMns Association, and their ultimatum, is that if be does not
ctTtTan answer by midnight March 3, they are going to take it up
with Mr. Wilson himself,
"Anybody this has erer seen a turkey trot snows that If dona
naturally, it is as frank as aa epen-face pie, and the Runnrhug peo
pls who originated the measure wlU not are It derogated by a lot of
dty dandle." , !
The spirited picture of Mr. Minor was snapped by "Blue Eyes,"' a
Bunxrrhng-beue, 'according to "rioughbor."
countries.' When the overall must de
vote Itself to tbe support of -dress salts,
aold braid, diamond stomachers, and
fur-lfned overcoats It becomes sullen and
indifferent, and soon wears out in the
Tli uniform of piuipwHr."
The success of a government can be
determined from the region of greatest
wear on the overall. If this region is
on tbe seat the government is a failure
and will, sooner or lster be closed out
below cost If, however, tho seat still
endures, while the rest of the garment
has gone gloriously ts rags, all Is well
with the government and the savings
banks bulge with plenty.
The emblem of America should be the
overall. It has mado us mighty.
(CoprrUli, Mil. lr 0to Mtlww Adaaa.)
Fears of Future Mast Be Attended to
in the Fatare, Says
Chairman Underwood, of the Wars and
Means Committee, which yesterday be
gan hearings on tbe metal schedule of
the tariff law, preparatory to revision
at the extra session of Congress, declared
that the committee In framing Its bill
could not take Into account the fears
of manufacturers as to future increase
in the ability of foreign manufacturers
to Increase competition that American
producers must meet in the home mar
The statement was made while H. D.
Sharp, of Providence. R. I . represent
lng manufacturers of machine tools, was
testifying. These articles now are pro
tected by a duty of 30 per cent which
Underwood declared, has shown by the
small Imports into the United States.
that It Is a prohibitive tax. Sharp urged
the retention of the present duties, saying
the German manufacturers were In
creasing their efficiency st such a rate
that they soon would be able to compete
with American manufacturers In the
market here even at that high rate.
"We have got to write this bill." said
Underwood, "not on what is going to
happen five 3 pars from now. but we
have got to frame It on present con
ditions. We cannot legislate on jour
fears. Ever since I have been a mem
ber of this committee manufacturers
have been expressing this same fear of
growing competition from abroad. If
conditions change In the next few years,
the tariff will have to be changed accord
ing as the conditions change "
H. V Rellly. of Newark. N. J. of the
International Association of Machinists.
a labor union, urged the retention of
present duties on machinery to permit
of continuance of the present scale of
A new council of 'the Independent Ordr
of Sons of Jonsdab will be formed to
night at MS Louisiana Avenue. There ts
a movement on foot to have the organ
ization named In honor of Police Cspt
John C Daley as a recognition of his
many efforts In enforcing the liquor regu
lations. Capt Daley and Representative
Caleb Powers of Kentucky wilt address
I the meeting.
Miss Msggie de Giddi Murphy,
of Aur Street entertained Baron
Kyrsoff do Cat ft Tac the ac
complished and brotrdnpois mas
seur and manicure of the Swahili
Legation at an "rumination
lunch" yesterday afternoon. Miss
Murphy wore her famous military
Jacket orer a NuttJngham lace cur
tain gown with arraight front ef
fect, and her beautiful round slip
pers tlrpcd off with imitation
rhinestones. Miss Mnrphy is the
originator of the "elimination
lunch." which means that all eat
ables and drinkables are eliminat
ed. In tbla manner solring the
question of high cost of bring.
Among others present was her fa
mom Irish terrier, who wore a
green ribbon around his beautiful
neck, and whose UU was hand,
soraely csuTured for the occasion.
HALIj op fame
rtank naggerty Qualmcatlons
Quiet but Ann.
Warren Blab Qualiacatlons
firm but pttient.
Both are the proud roe
scssors of Wick hair and Uaek
eyes; no wigs or glsss eyes.
either. Very fine looking st
that too. .Jack Coatlgan has
posted his candidacy and will
be passed upon the next time.
Good luck to Yon.
Mine boat W. H. Barse. of the
6boreham. certainly dU himself
proud last Saturday at the opening
of his new cararansary. It's a
reach, old man. and you deserre
success. We hare taken a liking to
that griQ room, but keep it dark.
.Joa, W. Cherney, that ardent ex
pert of the rainting art of Claxton
and GuUenberg, ia axing a course
la Big Suck Journalism, and is do
ing right well, thank yotc After
graduation hall be appointed cub
reported at a weekly salary ot 5
to begin with.
DR.' WJt H. BTME.
President "The Beuerua Club."
the Coal Man.
The coal man is a sly old fox.
In fact, be a quite a paradox
For coal he always mskes us ray.
And yet be rites his coal a weigh.
W. W. UlUtilTU.
OE6RO t vMniN0X6N
& -.3TJJKJg STORf sT IWTraST VBLSUXKZSMFLLsjZ
3w f V TMC PREMBEWT-'ELBCT. a
A Refkunt of Vktkiaju b Raised,
Washington Hade Lieutenant Colonel and Starts for the Ohio The French
BnUd Fart Dnaaesne The Toug Virginian Becomes Coanunder-in-Chkf
First Victory Orer the French.
(ConrrUbt, IMS, BT Htrptr Brot&en. AQ rlrhu
(CbrJTlftt. U13, br McCIors Newipsper Srodlate.)
Vlrelnla. It turned out was. after olL
more forward than her neighbors when
it cant tq action. The Pennsylvania
Assembly very coolly declared they
doubted his majestry'a claim to the lands
on the Ohio, and the Assembly In New
York followed suit "It appears." they
said. In high Judlclsl tone, "that the
French have built a fort at a place
called French Creek, at a considerable
distance from the Ohio River, which
may, but does 'not by any 'evidence or
information appear to us to be. an in
vasion of any of.hla majesty s colonics.
The 'Governors of tbe other colonies
whose safety was most directly men
aced by the movements of tho French In
the West were thus even less able to act
than Dinwiddle. For the Virginian bur
gesses, though they would not yield the
point of the fee upon land grants, did
not mean to leave MaJ. Washington in
th. lnrch. and before an expedlton could
b got afoot had come together agalg to
vote a sum of money.
A Regiment Is Raised.
It would be nosslble with the sum they
appropriated to put 300 or 400 men into
the field: and as spring drew on. raw
volunteers began to gather In some num
bers at Alexandria a ragged regiment
made up for the most part of Idle and
shiftless men, who did not always have
A Itntrsed ResJment
shoes, or even shirts, of their own to
near, anxious to get their elghtpence a
day, but not anxious to work or sub
mit to discipline. 'Twas astounding how
steady and how spirited they showed
themselves when once they had shaken
their lethargy off and were on the
march or face to face with the enemy.
A body of backwoodsmen had been
hurried forward In February, ere spring
bad opened, to make a clearing and set
to work upon a fort at the forks of the
onio: but It was therd of ,AprlI before
men enough could bo collected at Alex
andria t,o begin the main movement to
ward the frontier, and by that time it
was too late to checkmate the French.
The little force sent forward to begin
fortifications had set about their task
very sluggishly and without skill, and
their commander had turned back again
with some ot his men to reloln the forces
behind him before the cettv works he
should. have staled to finish were well
When, therefore, on the 17th of April,
the river suddenly filled with canoes
bearing an army of more than 500
Frenchmen, who put cannon ashore, and
summoned the fortv men who held the
place to surender or be blown Into the
water, there was no choice but to com
ply. The young ensign who commanded
tbe little garrison urged a truce till be
could communicate with his superiors,
but the French commander would brook
no delay. The boy might either take
his men off free and unhurt, or else
fight and face sheer destruction: and
the nearest succor was a little force of
1M men under Ool. Washington, who
had not jet topped tbe Alleghanles In
their painful work of rutting a nay
through the forests for their field pieces
Second In Command.
Tho Governor's plans had been altered
by the assembly vote of money and the
additional levy of men which It made
possinie. col. Joshua Fry. whom Dln-
wlddlo deemed "a man of good sense.
and one of our best mathematicians."
had been given the command in chief.
aid Washington had been named his
second in command, with the rank of
lieutenant colonel. "Dear George," wrote
Jlr. corbln. of the Governors council,
"I inclose you lour commission. God
prosper you with It!" and the brunt of
the work In fact fell npon the younger
But three hundred volunteers could be
gotten together: and, all too late, half
of the raw levy were sent forward under
Washington to find or make a way for
wagons and ordnance to the Ohio. The
last days of. May were almost at hand
before they hsd crossed the main ridge
of the Alleghanles. so Inexperienced were
they In the rough labor of cutting a road
through the close-set growth and over
the sharp slopes of the mountains, and
so ill equipped; and by that time It was
already too late by a full month and
more to forestall the French, who had
only to follow the open highway of the
Alleghany to bring what force they
would to the key of the West at the
forks of the Ohio.
aw - ..- ...w. 1
As the prlns advanced, tbe French J
F Street Headnnarters for
Columbia Grapaophonea and Grafonolaa
bat tie French Win the First' VicterT.
force upon the river grew from five to
fourteen hundred men, and work was
pushed as rapidly forward upon fortifica
tions such as the little band of English
men they had ousted bad not thought of
attemptlng-a veritable fort, albeit of a
rude frontier pattern, which lta build
ers called Duquesne, In honor of their
Washington could hit upon no water
course that would afford him quick trans
port: 'twould have been folly, beside,
to take his handful of ragged provin
cials into tho presence of an Intrenched
army. He was fain to go Into camp at
Great Meadows. Just across the ridge of
the mountains, and thero await his colo
nel with supplies and an additional hand
ful of men.
Becomes Commander-in-chief. ,
It was "a charming field for an en
counter," the young commander thought,
but it was to be hoped the) enemy would
not find their way to It In too great
numbers. An "Independent Company"
of provincials In the King's pay Joined
him out of South Carolina, whence they
had been sent forward by express or
ders from England and the rest of the
Virginia volunteers at last came up to
Join their comrades at the Meadows
without good Col. Frye, the doughty
mathematician, who had sickened and
died on the way so that there were pres
ently more than 300 men at the camp, and
Washington was now their commander-in-chief.
The officers of the Independent Com
pany from South Carolina, holding their
commission from the King, would not.
Indeed, take their orders from Wash
ington, with his colonial commission
merely: and, what was worse, their men
would not work: but there was no doubt
they would fight with proper dignity and
spirit for his majesty, their rojal mas
ter. The first blood bad already been
drawn, on the 3th of May. before re
enforcements had arrived, when Wash
ington had but Just come to camp.
Washington's First Fight.
Upon the morning of that day Wash
ington, with forty men, guided by friendly
Indians, had come upon a party of some
thirty Frenchmen where they lurked deep
within tho thickts of the dripping forest,
and. with thrust of bayonet when the
wet guns failed, had brought them to a
surrender within fifteen minutes of the
So one In the Virginia camp doubted
that there was war already, or dreamed
ot awaiting the action of diplomats and
cabinets over sea. The French bad driven
an English garrison from the forks of
the Ohio with threats of force, which
would certainly have been executed bad
there been need. These men hidden In
the thickets at Great Meadows would
have It, when the fight was over, that
they had come as messengers merely to
bear a peaceful summons, but did It
need thirty-odd armed men to bear a
llrousht Them to Surrender.
Why had thev lurked for five davs
so stealthily In the forest, and why had
they sent runners back posthaste to
Fort Duquesne to obtain support for their
dlplomac) ? Washington might regret
that young JI. Jumonville, their com
mander, had lost his life in the en
counter, but he had no doubt he had
dene right to order his men to fire when
he saw the French spring for their arms
at the first surprise.
Now, at any rate, war was unquestion
ably begun. That sudden volley fired in
the wet woods at the heart of the lonely
Alleghanles had set the final struggle
abiaze. It was now either French or
EngIIh In America: It could no longer
b both. Jumonville. with his thirty
Frenchmen, was followed ere many weeks
were out by Coulon de Vlllers with seven
hundred 'ome of them come all the way
from Montreal at news of what had hap
pened to France's lurking ambassadors
In the far-away mountains of Virginia.
Monday! "War Begins lu Earnest.
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