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THii? VA2StlllIXJN JUSKALU, SUiNUaX. SlSriiLBiSK 2 iyi4.-
SOME OF THE'STRONG MEN WHO HAVE BUILT UP THE GERMAN POWER
. DANGER AT SEA
LATEST PHOTOPLAY NEWS
Kaiser Has Wonderful Aids in
Sf vr &SBsf - .-m? Mr Ks3assSfiK.
English Tribunal to Pass on
War Prizes Sits First Time
in Sixty Years.
PROCEEDINGS ARE DIRECT
Fields of Commerce, Diplo
macy, Army, and Navy.
The word Pan has always stood for
If and signified joyous abandon without, re-
rgard to consequences, and the worshlp-
! exs of this Idol have been the care-free
individuals who assume no responsibility
or hardships. Fan, is a character, was
a seducer of morals. In the caldron of
humanity Fan was looked upon in con
' Junction with the god of libation and
irorked hand in hand with him.
"The. Pipes of Pan," a two reel Rex
drama, coming October 4, carries through
the spirit of the cloven footed half man.
Stephen Arnold, a young artist, tired of
his wife, receives an inspiration through
a dream, interrupted by the daughter of
Pan. He awakens from the dream, but
the face of the daughter of Pan is ever
before him. In searching for a model ht
raee,ts Caprice, a dancer, who fits in! a
the spirit of Pan's daughter and poses
for the artist's masterpiece. His wife,
neglected, naturallv becomes friendly
with the artist s friend. Arthur Darrell,
who is m love with her. However, she
spurns his advances The slnster Influ
ence of Caprice upon the artist is ap
parent and even alter the picture is
flntsoed lie is too fascinated with her to i
let her go
Urjfkhile his wife agrees to leave,
v l itarrc'L b.ut decides in fairness to t
r- h j dnrt to inform him of her de- i
jj RK finds the studio -mpty. but
th. i Hi m tuif beautiful and complete,
is v ' e t mock hei In a rage she
H hc , (i nhiuno With the destruc
ilt i i ) i.icturt- the spell binding
r c . ' imc and deserting Caprice,
re i -u .no receives forgiveness
i ' ,' li.v repentant wife
TV i . n t' p.i.n Arnold, the artist.
5 . .oellci 1 uii ;ed through by Joe
Kiri faci1 i e Uush plas the part of j
Ma an. Ins wira. while the part
he r iuer is taken by Carmen I
.nhi. Darrell. the artist s .
friend is he 'laracter portraj ed by Lon
JIA1HEWS0N WITH MOVIES.
Giant Mnr Ilnrler Has Jrlned "lOl
Fans, attention' Your beloved idol has
jone n6 iO"nd the movies. And when
w sa idol that is. baseball idol you
know his narr" For the benefit of those
"who have never been out of doors, how
ever we will whisper the name. Now
listen it Is dear old "Big Six" Christy
Mathewson No he hasn't resigned from
the New York Giants nor has he left the
national game but just for the sake of
"pleasing what he calls "an oversized
bump of curlositv he has laid down the
vat. doffed the uniform of the diamond
and gone int the Universal studio to
live for a time in the land of the blind
ing an-s and stent? d grease paint.
Christ is to be a movie hero. In the
first pirture Love and Baseball," re
leased Octobtr 4 he plays the true hecp
not onlv of the diamond, but of pnvafe
life. rd so the series of Christy's sub
jects W'!I tontinue for a vear, one pic
ture being released each month. Many
of the incidents which go to comprise the
stirring plots are taken from tne life of
the big leaguer carrvmg the fan right
back into th extremely Interesting an
tecedents of friend Christy.
Xove and Baseball" consists of a plot
In which Christv as a outh struggles
against the inward all of the ball park.
To satisfv his t.weetheart'8 desire he en
ters her fathers stoie as a bookkeeper.
Through the effort of a bitter rival
Christy has a misunderstanding and
leaves the store Christy a-ks his sweet
heart to wait for him and starts out to
make a career on the diamond. He is
discovered b a big league scout, who
makes him an offer Christy accepts and
comes to the itv . There he makes
cood, overcomes all obstacles and at last
obtains permission from his sweethearts
father to marrv the girl whenever he
Stuart Paten, who has already won
distinction as an author of Universal
plays, is the author and director of th
HiliSt. ' THE ROYAL j Hanard
Sth, Near G ae.
The blgeest and best show S. E. '
WaaMnfTton. See today's paper for fall
E & F Sts.
ETO THE DEPTHS,"
This Schedule Changes Daily
Mabel Normand. of Keystone Mabel, as
sne is popuurlv Known to motion picture
lonowers all over the wona
for herself the name of 'The
of the Movies." Her daring pranks in the
Keystone comedies have endeared her to
audiences from America to Australia. She
receives more letters from admirers than
any other star, but with her great pop
ulaiitv she remains a steady, hard-working
and modest screen heroine.
HEWS NOTES FROM FILMDOM.
The ease with which Lyllian Brown
Leighton swings from the obscure char
acter to the most striking figure in the
cast has attracted much attention from
the fans. But they never have enthused
to such an extent as at present- The
Selig actress appeared as a nifty, at
tractive widow in "The Decision of
Jim O'Farrell." and few could believe
the same woman was the suffragette,
supreme In the great farce "Oh, Iok
Who's Here." The haught society
dame to her finger tips In "When a
Woman s Al.' Miss Leighton also was
the wonderfully blundering Irish wash
erwoman in the "Red Head" series.
Few actresses have essaed both dram
atic and comedy leads with such cer
tain success as this Selig favorite. She
now is a member of Director McGre
gor's comedy company at the Selig
Colin Campbell, the veteran director,
whose work has impressed millions since
his pretentious productions have Cound
their way to the screen. Is to write an
article for The Script, official organ of
the international'organlzation, the Pho
toplay Authors' League This will be the
first public article from the man who is
acknowledged to be among the five fore
most producers in the entire film world.
It required the efforts of eminent P. A. L.
members to induce Mr. Campbell bo
consent but the prize was landed and
the article soon will appear, perhaps In
the same issue with one from the Pen
of Richard Harding Davisv a vlee-rjres-ident
of the order Mr Campbell will
write of greater needs in the photoplay
- Frank Llovd, who has been directing
the Turner Special Feature Company
during the temporary absence of Otis
Turner, is at present working on a story
woven about two babies that bids fair
to outshine in point of heart interest any
of his previous films, however worthy of
note they may have been.
The story Is entitled. "The Bache
lor's Baby." and deals with the unit
ing of two young people through the
man's love of children and his Jocular
offer to buy a baby from a "little moth-
fnr fiftv rents The Rtnrv is reDlete
with heart interest, and the contrast!
between the two little tots, one the
pampered daughter of the rich, the
other the neglected son of an overworked
washerwoman, is at once humorous
and pathetic. BoYh children are under
a year in age. and not realizing ths
difference in their stations,the little un
affected "love scenes" between them
helps to make one of the prettiest:
stories ever pictured.
Since Mr. Turner's departure on his
vacation. Mr. Lloyd has successfully
undertaken the. production of practi-
caiiy every form of story and trick
known to the profession. His "Royal
Rogue", a phychologlcal drama; "The
Vagabond", calling for the series of at crisis occasioned by Great Britain's de
double exposure, have been done with) velopment of the Dreadnoughts and the
an artistry seldom encountered in so super-Dreadnought, the all-big-gun ships j
young a director, which speaks well for) which have revolutionized the navies of I
Mr. Turner's choice of his successor. But the world.
most credit is due him for the success-.
ful handling of the children ln the
"Bachelor's Baby" for two of them
are at just the age when It is next to
Impossible to direct their action. Per
haps Mr. Lloyd's success Is due, in part
to lis love for children, and partly to
the fact that He himself has a llttlvvj
tot of bis own of about the time age.
Former Chancellor Von Buelow Forced
to Give Way After Muzzling His
Pan-Germanism and the yellow peril
have been the two bugbears of the last
twenty-five years. The terror from the
East is at worst undefined, unorganized,
a thing of the, future depending on the
awakening of China to second tne ei
flciency of Japan.
But the terror of Europe has behind
it what even enemies must admit is the
most formidable war machine ever got
together, based on the sound foundation
of most astonishing industrial and mari
time prosperity. -Japan'
Growth Exceeds Germany's
The healthy, flourishing growth of the
German empire since the Franco-Prus
sian war of 1ST0-71 has only been ex
ceeded by the example of Japan.
It is this marvelous Increase In re
sources, matched with giant strides In
war preparations, which has led Ger
man pforessors and hard-headed men
of affairs alike to dream of a greater
Germany which should include the three
Scandinavian countries to the north, Hol
land. Belgium. Austria-Hungary. alTd.
lastly. Turkey, as a gateway to the
Personal leader of the flourishing of
the Teutonic colossus, the present Kaiser
has been beyond peradventure of a doubt.
He Is seconded by a royal family which
in intelligence and virility casts other
reigning strains in the shade. His six
sons, the splendid figure of Prince Henry
of Prussia, brother of the Kaiser, and
the leaders of lesser German states,
while insistent on the divine rights of
kings, have laid little less empba'is on
the necessity of making Germany the
greatest of nations. Around the Kaiser,
as captains of manufacture, of finance,
of merchant marine and of the army and
navy, he has gathered a coterie of strong
men, stirring chieftains whose achieve
ments are worthy of the highest praise.
Declines 3In- Honors.
To Albert Ballin. head of the greatest
steamship line In the world, is due morci
than any other man the upbuilding -of i
the German merchant marine, that phe-
nomenal grotvth which has been the I
specter of Great Britain. Many a tlmei
the. Kaiser has sought to make Ballin al
cabinet minister, a peer, or a "von." but
the wily Hamburger had rather rule thei
commerce of the world than take a sec-!
ond place at Potsdam He would only
accept his sovereign's photograph, ana!
on this Wilhelm wrote "To the far-1
seeing and tireless pioneer of our com-
mcrce and export trade." t
It Is general!; believe that the Kaiser
Is a personal partner in the Ballin en-j
While Ballin has been causing the sea
lines to be crowded with German ship-'
ping. Admirals von Koester and vor.
Tlrpltx have brought into being a fleet
second only to England In strength out'
of an insignificant b-ginning. ' I
Due to Grrmnn .Navy I.esgis, j
The growth of the German navy has
ben ln sreat part due to the propa-
jKa"da f ? German Navy League.
I This organization of a million natrioln
This organization of a million patriots
has caused the doctrine of sea power to
become a part of the German conscious
It was Admiral von Koester. the grand
old man of the German navy, who
caused the Navy League to become the
great force it has been.
Von Tlrpitz will be remembered ln the
1'nited States from his visit here with
Irince Henry of Prussia in 1902. He is
a magnificent figure in the Reichstng.
with his great forked beard and his 'six
feet of solid energy. It Is said that he ,
tan give the name of every battleship In
the worid. Its tonnage, the date of con
struction, and the displacement and de
tail of armament, and his knowledge of
evert shipbuilding yard on the face of
the earth Is no less phenomenal. Von
Moltka and Von der Coltz are the two
names whit h spring to tHe lips at the
mention of the Incomparable German
army Field Marshal von der Goltz lost
reputation through the defeat by Tur
key's soldiers by the Balkan alliance
after he had trained them. But this Is
probably unjust. Von der Goltz's genius
as an army organizer is unsurpassed. He
has done superlative work in building up
the border defences, men and fortresses
of Eastern Germany. He was s tationed
at Koenlgsberg as genera' of the First
Army Corps between IOC and 1977, and I
here gave an imprint to all Germany)
army life j
He Inculcated ln officers and troops th
doctrine that soldiering is all work and
no play. His comments on army maneuv- '
ers were extremely Illuminating.
Gen. Count Helmuth von Moltke, now
in supreme command of the German
forces. Is the nephew of the leader of
the Franco-Prussian war. He fought :n
that struggle as a sublieutenant, and has
had the personal friendship of the Kaiser
to an extraordinary degree. The Kalsjr
twice offered him the field marshal's
baton before he would accept.
Perhips after Bismarck the most er-
phasis should be laid on the work of the !
predecessor of the present chancellor.
Prince Bernhard von Buelow, fourth
chancellor of the German Empire, would
probably be In his high office today were
it nut for the unfortunate incident of
the interview with the Kaiser in the
London Dally Telegraph. On November
I", 1908, It became the duty of Von Bue
low to take his painful journey to Pots
dam for the purpose of "muzzling the
Kaiser " He extorted a pledge of "great
er reserve" from his exalted master, but
his knell politically was tolled.
Present Chnncrllor SIronnr FIicnre
But Von Buelow had to give way to
the courtier Dr. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg,
a man to be depended
upon to bend to every slightest wish of
the autocrat Yet Von Bethmann-Hollweg
is undoubtedly a strong figure. He
preaches the divine right of kings might
ily to the Reichstag. He has undoubtedly
achieved many a victory by methods
more spectacular, contemporaries at
home and abroad are accustomed to shun.
His influence has always been on the
I side of moderation. j
Prince Henry of Prussia has been I
spohten of as the trainer of the German
navy, the brother of a reigning sovereign
Is usually a nonentity, but not so in
this case. The sailor prince is Inspector
general of the, German navy and its
ranking officer. It was under the per
sonal supervision of the Kaiser's brother
that Germany met and overcome the
Lastly were it not for their utter failure ;
la the outbreak of the present war, the
Kaiser's foreign office would deserve '
mention. At the head stands the foreign
secretary. Herr Gottlieb von Jagow, a
slight, attenuated man, who was famous
until two months agji for his supposed
feat of smoothing over the difficulties be
tween Austria and Italy. )
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In the vast development of the Ger-J
man empire under William II, the Em
peror has hd the assistance of a group '
of splendid military, naval and indus
trial leaders, fle of whom are shown
On the left above is Admiral von Koes
ter, president of the German Navy
League, an organization of l.jO0,On0 Ger
mans who do all In their power to stir
up sentiment for a big navy The strides
of the German navy, which has grown
from an insignificant force to probably!
the second largest In the world, are due
in great degree to the league. Before
heading the league von Koester spent
half a century aboard ship.
May Be Able to Land Soldiers
There Five Days After
They Leave Home.
TOTAL DISTANCE NOT FAR
Ekterina Never Closed by Ice, Though
Other Arctic Ocean Ports Are,
Petrograd. Sept. 19. It is impossible as
v et to conjflrm officially the report of the
landing of SWO) Russian troops In
France, but from what I know of the
magnificent wor,k done by the military
railroad organization In driving lines to
the Arctic Ocean the feat appears' entirely
possible and probable.
It should be remembered, too, that
while Archangel is ice-locked a large
part of the year, the new port of Ekterina
still further north, is never closed, on
account of the mellowing Influence of
the Gulf Stream. For this reason Rus
sian troops can be sent to the west coast
of Europe by this route the whole vear
Vnllmltetl Nnmliers Conlil Come.
A practical!) unlimited supply of men
can come around the North Cape to Nor
way and thence to Scotch or English
ports, whence they have a simple rail
way run to the Channel and a short
passage across to the scene of fighting.
Archangel Is about forty-eight hours'
steaming for England's best transports
from North Cape, and after making the
turn here, the run south to Lelth, Scot
land.' can be done In about fifty hours.
Five days would be plenty for a fast
troop ship from Archangel to Lelth.
South or Archangel. ZX miles by rail
way. Is Volzda. the junction point of the
Petrograd-Perm line, and another 301
miles south from Volgda Is Moscow.
Troops can pour Into Volgda from these
three cities Moscow, Petrograd. and
Perm and the latter point undoubtedly
sees hordes of seasoned Siberian troops
going west The men from Siberia could
well oe turned north to Archangel at
Volgda. This maneuver would take much
of the strain of concentration off the
western railway lines of Russia.
Archangel Open Tlntll I.Ate.
The total distance from Moscow to
Archangel Is 700 miles. 2X miles less than
between New York "and Chicago.
The Archangel line, bulit by Ameri
can excavator machinery and to a large
extent through country never before trod
by man. was finished ln 1S97.
Of perhaps even greater Importance
than Archangel is Ekterina, -midway be
tween Archangel and North Cape. It is
a landlocked harbor pvhch has been de
veloped as a military port and the waters
here, except In the small Inlets are never
frozen with more than the thinnest it
A line has been projected to run to
Ekterina from a point on the Archangel
railway. This has been shrouded In
secrecy, and I can't say how much Is
completed. Perhaps It Is In working or
der. At any rate. Archangel Is open
until some time In October.
WONT OPPOSE -ALLEY BILL.
The District Commissioners are not ex.
pected to raise any opposition to the ally
bill, passed by the Senate Friday. Al
though the bill is not the same as the
one recommended by them. It is be
lieved that the Commissioners regard It
as an Improvement over' present condi
tions and will not attempt to prevent Its
becoming a law.
RUSSIA CAN AID
On the right above is the second great
naval figure. Admiral Alfred P von Tir
pltz. the minister of the navy He is
a magnificent man In appearance and his
mental equipment is as formidable as
his physical aspect He has an Intimate
knowledge of the details of every navy
In the world.
In building up the German army, the,
greatest war machine ever developed, the
Kaiser has depended largelv on Field
Marshal von der Goltz, shown b-rlow in
the center. Von der Goltz Is a master
of the science of war. He has trained
thousands of officers and left his impress
on many sides of German army life. He
superintended the defense measures of
the eastern frontier, where some reports
MONTE CABLO DESOLATE.
1 Canton Close! and Ilnler Snapected
of IJelug German Spy.
Sprotl Cible to The Wuhuutm llttili.
Villefrance. Sept 19. Monte Carlo la
a scene of desolation these days. Several
high officials ofthe Casino at Nice are
now ln prison, 'waiting to be tried as
spies, and It is reported that one has
been shot. The Prince of Monaco, de
spite his patriotic speeches, is under sus
picion because he is a friend of the
Kaiser and a cousin of the German chief
For sheer, forlorn desolutlon. It la diffi
cult to behold anything to compare with
Monte Carlo In time of war. The buzzing
hive, the center of wild dissipation and
haiknoed scenes of melodrama, has ac
quired all the silence and gloom of Pom
peii. Outside the Casino, one is Informed
by a placard on the closed shutters that
owing to "the events" the building is
closed until further notice.
HAVE $55,000 ADDITION
New Building Will Afford Quarters for
Sunday School and Social
Work of Congregation.
RESIDENTIAL PERMITS ISSUED
Calvary M. E. Church, in Columbia
road, between Fourteenth and Fifteenth
streets. Is to have a tiS,W addition. Its
building permit. Issued this week, was
the largest asked.
The addition will afford quarters for
the Sunday school and social work of
the church. The building will be fire
proof, of brick and stone, two stories
high. Work on the building has been
begun by the Boyle Robertson Construc
John Meinberg obtained a permit to
build three two-story residences at 706-710
Eleventh street southeast. The cost will
F. T. Bowler will erect a two-story
brick dwelling at SS Third street south
east, to cost J4.3D0.
H. L. Rust Is to erect an automobila
repair shop In the alley between Eight
eenth, Nineteenth. U and M streets. It
will be one story high, and will cost
Permits also were grantedlo M. D.
Campbell, to build a two-story frame
residence at 1317 Newton street northeast,
to cost Jl.iOO. and to Henry T. Baker, to
build a similar residence, to cost S1.000. In
Clay street, near Dlx street.
TO PLAN GERMAN DAY.
Lnited Societies Will Offer Prayers
Instead of Holding" Fete.
Germans In this city. Instead of cele
brating German Day with fetes, this year
will spend their time praying for the
success of their cause and for peace.
At a meeting of the United German
Societies to be held Tuesday evening, a
date for the day of prayer will be an
nounced. The executive committee has
charge of plans for tne observance, and
at that time it will outline 1U plans.
Martin Wiegand. In announcing the
celebration yesterday, said that Germans
wish to observe President Wilson's neu
trality proclamation, and therefore would
abandon the plan to hold patriotic serv
ices. BRITISH-USE AEROPLANES TO
FIND GERMAN MINES IN SEA
8ldil Cble to Tht Winhhurton Herald.
London. Sept. 19. The work bf freeing
the English Channel of German floating
mines Is largely being done by aeroplanes.
At least fifty aeroplanes have been era
ployed for weeks ln crossing and re
el ossing the Channel ln search of mines.
An observer on an aeroplane from a high
altitude can see several fathoms under
the surface of the water, and the mines
thus can be spoUd easily.
declare he is now in command with the
co-operation of the crown prince.
Belbw to the left is Prince Bernhard
ion Buelow and to the right Albert Bal
lin. Von Buelow was the predecessor of
the present imperial chancellor. Dr. Theo
bald von Bethmann-Hollweg. He did an
enormous amount to strengthen the em
pire and perfect the power of the Em
peror, but had to lose his official head
In checking the Impetuous autocrat after
the nasty mess of the Interview the Em
peror gave to a London newspaper
Albert Ballin. head of the greatest ship
ping concern in the woTId. has done more
than any other man to create the tupen
dous maritime development of Germany.
The Emperor is said to be financially
Interested in his company
GIRLS HAPPY TO
Give Brothers to Fight With
out Tears, Writes Scotch
Nun in Belgium.
LADS ANGRY AT ORDERS
They Wanted to Go. But Were Not
Old Enough Praises Belgian
I Sri! Orfe to The waunctcn nmll
London. Sept. IS. The following letter,
written by a Scotch nun residing in a
Belgian town, was Just received by her
father in England:
"In the colleges the boys had stirring
speeches from their masters. In conse
quence, hundreds of volunteers left on
Tuesday, -boys of fifteen shouting with
rage because they were refused The
limit for enrollment Is fixed at Mxteen
ears of age. Our girls send off 'heir
brothers without a tear, telling them to
fight till they die. Since yesterday morn
ing our schoolroom ara cleared of desks
and benches, fifty sewing machines, bales
of cotton for mattresses, sheeis, etc . He
piled In the corridors.
Ntum Prepare Bandages.
"For two days we nuns, on our side,
have been rolling bandages, tearing linen
into squares, triangles, bandages for the
head. etc. In our schools alone the com
mittee or the ladies of the 'own have to
provide ISO beds, sheeting, blankets, etc..
and there are at least six other centers
of the same "committee" In this lown.
VTe (the covent) gave twenty-live beds.
all ready and complete, from the retreat
house, and offered our big classrooms to
the town for any use they desired. The
big Jesuit college has done the same. and.
as you know, last week. If you got my
letter, the troops were quartered In the
Jesuit Collfge on their way to the fron
tier. "Every day our nuns hear from their
homes that their brothers are leaving as
volunteers. On Tuesday sir brothers
left their home with their bicycles to
Join the bicycle corps; the are a very
old family of Bruges, the de la K's; their
sister, one of our nuns here. Is fulU of
Joy, and it Is the same with all classes,
the poor and the rich, all think only of
the liberty of their country.
Uelizlnns Do Glnrrlna; Dfdt.
"Poor little Belgium. It I pitiful to
think of its resistance against the Ger
man troops. If God does not come to Its
aid. how .long can It hold out? But they
are a brave people, and upright, too. I
wish with al my heart that England
could see their courage; 1 am sure no
nation could refuse them any help It
could spare. '
"I am glad England Is aroused, and
that the British lion la out with all his
teeth showing. Here, these little lions of
Belgians are raging and doing glorious
"Tell father I am cheery, and feel some
times, far too warlike for a nun. That's
ray Scottish blood. I hope to goodness
the Highlanders, If they -come, will march
down another street on their way to the
caserne, or I shall shout and yell and
cheer them, and forget I mustn't look
out of the window.'
Now. goodby, dear folks. Don't be
anxious; don't believe we. are all a feuest
au sang, tort. for one, am not going to
let myself be killed like a chicken. In
the future I am going to, try and get
through postcards,; ss.L think letters will
be stopped it the row Is thicker."
The Question Always Propounded Is
Whether Vessel Transgressed Rules
as to Neutrality and Contraband.
London. 8ept- 19. The capture, of Ger
man merchant vessels all over the world
since the beginning of the European war
has caused the British admiralty to re
vive that ancient Institution, the priie
court. The captured vestels now held by
the government must be disposed of and
the proceeds, according to precedent,
will be prorated among the men who
made the captures.
Not for sixty years has a prize court
sat In England. The last was in ISA. in
the Crimean war. when the fate of the
Leucade was decided. In the wars vf
the present generation, hair forgetful of
the possibility that this country might
once again be swept Into a huge Interna
tional struggle, the expressions "prize
court and prize of war" have an un
familiar sound. To many the announce'
ments of the prize court sittings to be
gin today at the Royal Courts of Justice
probably convey little definite meaning.
Booty means spoil taken from the
enemy on land. Prize means ship or
goods taken on the water. The first Is a
simple affair. A belligerent Is In pos
session of certain property; his conqueror
takes it from him and there Is no more
to be said. Prize is much more eomplicat
ed. The capture of a ship may give rise
to all sorts of questions affecting nations
who are not at war at all. and whose
rights as neutrals must be respected. It
Is here that the need for adjudication
arises, and It is lr. order to settle all
such questions and to decide In each in
stance whether the captive is or Is not
lawful prey that recourse Is had to
prize court like that over which Sir Sam-
.' Evans is presiding.
FUhlniz Boats Exempt.
When a ship belongs to the enemy it
Is almo't always lawful to take her.
There are a very few exceptions. A fish
Ing boat is exempt, and so is a small
local trading vessel, and a mission ship,
and a ship conveying exchanged prison
ers of war. Apart from such trifling and
fairly obvious exceptions, a ship sailing
under the colors or pass of the enemy
may always be taken either in our own
waters or on the high seas. It Is when
a vessel flies a neutral flag that difficult
ties begin. If the neutral flag was hoist
ed aboard an enemy ship without a bona
flde sale and delivery to a neutral com
pleted by the payment of the purchase
money, there Is no transferror property,
and the shlD is an enemy shin still
Again, a ship, the undoubted property
of a neutral, may be violating her neu
trality. She may have committed i
breach of blockade. She may have ab
solute contraband on board goods, that
is to say. that are deemed specially
adapted for warlike purposes. Or she
may be conveying conditional contraband
goods rendered contraband by the
If a neutral ship is bound for an ordi
nary commercial port, a cargo not spe
cially warlike will be presumed not to
be Intended for a belligerent, but to be
Intended for civil use only. whereas If
the destination be a military or naval
station a preciseb opposite conclusion
will be drawn. Moreover, the neutral
ship may lose her character by conveying
military or naval officers or carrying a
belligerent's dispatches. In such events
she is liable eoually with the avowed
enemy to be captured anywhere except
within the territorial waters of a neutral
These are a few of the points that may
be connected with the capture of a ship
at sea. Hence the importance of the rule
that the matter shall be brought prompt
ly into court for adjudication, so that the
vessel may be condemned If her capture
was rightly made, or that restitution
may be ordered in the event of any mis
take having been committed. The hear
ing Itself is necessarily quite unlike any
ordinary legal proceedings. Difference of
languages, distance, and the ImpracM
cability of collecting foreign witnesses
for cross-examination are all factors
which help to put anything like normal
legal methods out of the question Ac
cordingly. a' series of simple tests or
rules have been laid down relating to the
ship papers, the character and destina
tion of the cargo, and the answers of
those on board to the interrogatories put
to them. If these rules have been trans
gressed, the presumption is agairst the
ship, and she Is condemned in the ab
sence of contrary' proof in her favor On
the other hand. If the rules haw not
been transgressed the presumrticn is the
other way. suspicions are iiisregaraea
and the captive goes free.
Sltlp'v Paper Important.
It will be seen that the ship's parers.
the books, nasses. charter parties, bills
... l.Jl 1.. an, I mn fnrth fAllnil nn
UI ijiuiiik. inc-m. H. .w. ... .v .. -..
board are of the greatest importance if
the ship Is to be convicted "out of h-r
. .. ..,. v.r thf nnners make
signlficent revelations, or where there is
a 4t.,T-nnn,.v h.tn..n the OaDCrH 8nd
the ship's course, the evidence against
the snip may De even more u-uiiiiuk
than that afforded by the character of
the cargo or the statements of her crew.
It Is. therefore, one of the first duties of
the captor to secure all the papers, and
arrange and dumber them, and when the
prize has been brought Into port the pa
pers are handed over to the custody of
the registrar of the prize court.
As soon as a ship Is condemned it Is
the property of the crown, and it was
as grantees of the crown that the cap-
a- nf rl, nrl... In th nlH dflVI wr
enriched. The system, however, worked
unfairly to the navy as a whole, ror the
actual captors were ordinarily the com
manders and crews of fast cruisers who
a.,.I .,vu.n ttm .n.mv'a Jnmtnr4
while those bearing the brunt of battle
1 ...k I......... nf.lna a. .ma 1t. .nl TlAth-,
If) II1C 11CA.J B(I(,a WI .117 .tt 5,w ..-..-
Ing. A new plan is now being adopted.
and It Is to be hoped that in Its working
It will not deprive the navy, which
guards our very existence as a na
tion, of the rewards that are Its
due, but. will only provide for more
Prize courts are still subject only to
their own sovereigns. Belligerents are
sole Judges In their own cause, and It Is
not surprising that their decisions have
often been disputed by neutrals. To
avoid these difficulties and the necessity
of getting over them by wch cumbrous
expedients as mixed commissions at the
end of a war. various plans for an Inter
national court have been formulated, and
III 1907, at The Hague conference, after
endless discussion, a convention was
actually framed. The rule to be applied,
however, remained the subject of such
conflicting views that it was not practi
cable to et up the court.
REDFTELD GIVES PROMOTIONS.
The Department of Commerce yester
day announced that William H. Sllgh,
of the Bureau of Standards, had been
promoted to SS40, and Radph 8. Busch.
helper, to VM.
Britain Told J;o Be Very Care
ful It Does Not Arouse
Anger of U. S.
MAY EVADE THIS BY CARE
Cargoes Should Be Decided Upon by
Older Officers. Not Young. Says
London. Sept. 19. Grave warning
against the danger of becoming embroiled
with the United States and other neutral
nations are being given to the British
government by writers in tne public
press here. The lesson of 1SH must be
remembered. It 1 declared, and no pos
sible cause fcr fault-finding be allowed
The right of the United States to ship
various stores to the neutral country of
Holland Is a danger point because of
the Impossibility of assuring the allies
that these Importations will not eventu
ally And their way across the frontiers
"It must be a guiding principal of the
British government in this war so to
direct its naval policy that we may not
become embroiled with any neutral pow
er." says one publicist.
U. 9. Is Only Povterfnl.-Ve-utral.
"In nearly every war of tire eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries we incurred
this danger, and In kome cases, as In
ISM and 1S1-. war resulted. Tbo only
really powerful neutral or the present
time Is the United States, and If tnrre
Is wise statesmanship we shall remain
in perfect amity with that power, and
also with the Netherlands, which pos
sesses the great gateway opening to
the heart of German)
"It must not be overlooked that
the L'nlted States being a neural power
possesses the right to send cargoes to
Rotterdam or any other Dutch port. She
will exerctse this right, and we must
be prepared to see neutral American ves-:-tl.
Oisch-r ng -ai;o in the n--trai
ports Of Holland." Many questions are
Ukel to arl- with regard to the ex
clusion of absolute and conditional con
trabandthat is. of things to be used br
the German naval and military forces,
or what ma) b- so used
"It has been the British practice in
the past to regard as liable to carture
any contraband cargoes concerning
whuh it could be proved that they had
an ulterior hostile destination.
Older Officer Should Deride.
"The character of a cargo can only
be determined by exercising the right
of search, and resistance to that right
excuses the neutral vessel to belligerent
consequences. Including the risk of being
sunk on ihe spot. The United States
has stronglv restated the right of
search, and it was the chief cause of
the outbreak of the war of 1S1
"We are therefore to think of an
American grain ship approaching the
rort of Rotterdam, and of the oncer
commanding some cruiser exercising the
right of search and also of detention If
there is presumption that the gram is
contraband. The coolest Judgment will
require to be exercised if disputes be
tween the two countries are to be avoid
ed We must take no step capable of
being misunderstood or misconstrued.
It has been suggested that food ships
should be allowed to enter Dutch ports
on theTaith of a declaration that their
cargoes are for Dutch consumption and
not in transit to the enemy. Whethe
such a declaration would suffice, it would
be difficult to say. Obviously there Is
nothing to prevent American shippers
from dispatching grain, even if pur
chased in Canada, to Dutch ports
"It is for us to determine and that
speedily how we shall deal with such
cargoes. The taking of decisions which
may affect the good understanding be
tween nations, and perhaps even Involve
them in war. must not be left to voung
officers who may have little knowledge
of the gravity of such things
REST ANB RECREATION
OLD POINT COMFORT
Mcdern Meel Palace Steamers from
Washington Dally i4S P. M.
City Ticket Office 731 15ta St. . W.
Phone Mala 1.10
NORFOLK & WASHINGTON
Leaves Seventh St. "Wharf
at 2:30 P. M., returning at
Excellent Cafe Service.
ROUND TRIP 25c
Enjoy this delightful autumn
trip every Sunday on the
beautiful and historic Poto