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well balanced machine, .driven .by
fuel and;self;-repaired by' the ma
terials taken into the body, under
the general -name of food. The
term "food." in this general
sense, not only applies to the
solid foods which we eat, but also
' to the food beverages which we
drink. In the national law the
term "food" includes all materials
used by man for his nourishment,
including beverages and condiments.
The scientific definition of
food is. as follows: Food is that
which, taken into the stomach,
furnishes heat and energy, builds
tissue and repairs waste.
The animal body, in a state of
health, is a perfectly self-repairing
machine. It is also a ther
mostat, since in a state of health
the animal body always ' .has a
constant temperature, varying, to
be sure, for different species of
animals, but constant for the
same, animal. The' human being
has a constant temperature
slightly above 98 degrees Fah
renheit, commonly referred.to as
"blood heat" In a state of health
the variations from this standard
Food, therefore, must first of
all furnish heat and this is accom
plished "by the actual combustion
of the food in the body. ' If you
burn coal the smoke consists of
carbon-dioxide and water. The
burning up of the food in the
body produces, carbon-dioxide
and -Water., j
When you burn coal, you have
a very high temperature in a re
stricted spot" Wh'en you burnJ
food you have a low temperature .
throughout a healthy body. In
other words every part of the ani
mal body is a stove which has its
own little-combination going on
all the time. Eyery man weighing
150 pounds requires a quantity of5
heat daily amounting to about
3,000 calories. A calory is the
amount of heat which will raise
one kilogram "of water .(2 2-10
lbs.) one degree centigrade, or 1.8,
The iood which furnishes heat
most abundantly is fat or oil.
Next in importance ate starch
and sugar, which, weight "for
weight, furnish a little less than
half as much heat as fat and oil.
Next in importance as-heat pro
ducers in the body are the "foods
containing nitrogen, known apo
proteins, -typified by the white of '
eggs and lean meat, which,
weight, -furnish about the same
quantity of heat as sugar or
The tissues of the bpdy, the '
muscles, the nerves and the hair;
depend chiefly for their nourish
ment upon the nitrogenous ele
ments found in food.
The t i.s s u es dis'tributed
throughout the body,, under the
name of fat, are, nourished by
starch and sugar.
The mineral substances of the
body, the bones of the teeth; de-'
pend for-their nourishment upon
(he lime and phosphoric " acid
found'in ?the natural foods.
Foods,-therefore, .from the, nu
tritive point of" view are divided
into four classes, namely: 1, fats
gutter an,a onve on; generau-