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When a couple comes to town,
Ihe husband walks ahead, silent,
morose, even sullen ; the wife car
ries the farm products to be sold
on her head, but she never ven
tures to walk alongside her lord
and master always she brings
up the rear.
The men drink little, smoke
little and care little about amuse
ments, except card playing, and
seldom leave home at night. Even
in Sofia, the capital, everybody is
in bed by 9 o'clock.
Men dress in sheepskins, and
lie woolen cloths around their
legs in place of socks. The wo
men display a love for gatidy col
ors, and wear embroidered jack
ets of many hues, which, unfet
tered by stays or belts, hang down
loosely to their knees. Under the
jacket is a red flannel petticoat,
which reaches nearly to where
their shoe tops w.ould come if
thev wore shoes, which thev rare-
ly do. Beneath that petticoat is,
anotner, a wmte one, wnicn goes
on down to the feet.
The Bulgars are not beautiful,'
judged by the American standard.
Their complexion is muddy, their
features are coarse and ill-formed.
t33ut at the same timer they are a;
strong built, powerful race. Both
men and women are broad-shouldered,
wide chested andfull-Ieg-ged.
They live plainly, eating coarse
foods. c . s
, They can hatch up a plot to as
sassinate a Turk without batting
an eyelash. It took the Bulgar
j500 years to make up his mind to
shake off the sultan's shackles,
but when once decided, he did the
job almpst over night.
The people don't like thejc
ruler, Czar Ferdinand,, anGerman
prince, because he" spends too
much money, but they admire the
way he can stand up to the Turk
and darejiim to knock the chip
off his shoulder. They have their
hearts set on getting Salonika and
Adrainople of European Turkey,
which would bring the southern
border of Bulgaria down to the
The Bulgarians are a mixed
Counting out the quarter who
are Mohammedans, there are less
than 3,000,000 real Bulgars. They
date their history back to the first
Slav invasion of the Balkan pen
insula, when great hordes of Slavs
came from central Asia, to be fol
lowed in turn by Bulgars, them
selves a Tartar tribe, kindred in
race to the Turks.
The Bulgars, strong ferocious
warriors, conquered the Slav in
what is now Bulgaria and East
ern Roumelia (a part of the Bul
garian kingdom) but, strange to
say, the conquerors gave up their
religion, language and nationality
in favor of those of the Slavs.
These two peoples make the pres
ent Bulgarian population, exclu
sive of the Turks.
From 1392 until 1376 the Bul
gers were subjects of the Turkish
sultan ; in the latter year they re
volted and established a semi-independent
state, which was made
entirely independent four years