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not concern itself with the affairs of
another caste. The extent to which
these, principles have been carried
can never be grasped by people in a
country where caste is practically un-
known, but hardly in India itself has
.caste gone further than in Great
I Without much reflection, with only
a vague instinct about it, many of tie
working castes are now making such
an application of the caste doctrine
as almost shakes the national foun
dations. The upper castes got the country
into this row; let the upper castes
get it out.
In times of peace the ways of the
(Upper castes and the ways of the
workers lie far apart.
In Great Britain they 'lie so far
apart that in times of war they do not
come together again.
The enlistments tell the story.
In Great Britain military service is
voluntary; in every continental coun
try it is compulsory upon all. When
the war broke Great Britain had
about 170,000 men under arms. From
Aug. 4 of last year to the present
time the British government has been
laboring with astounding effort and
vast expense to secure enough enlist
ments to enable her to cope on the
battlefield with Germany and Austria.
The recruiting campaign, therefore,
Affords the infallible test of the real
interest the masses of the people, who
are chiefly workers, take in this war.
This subject, with methods, details
and results I shall take up hereafter.
For the present it is enough to point
out that after nine months of this
most extraordinary campaign, in
which every corner of the country
has resounded incessantly with every
conceivable form of appeal and in
ducement, the government conceals
the totals, but it is well enough
known that they are not a third of
what they ought to be.
The workingmen do not respond.
Take the coal miners; they have
made the best showing. About one-
fourth of the able-bodied coal miners
have enlisted and Yorkshire, for some
unexplained reason, has furnished
the most of these. In other regions
the product has often been exceed
ingly meager; some mining towns
report nothing at all. For instance,
Frampton Cotterell has among its
miners about 300 able to do military
service and not one has enlisted.
Among the railroad workers the per
centage is nearly as large as among
the miners, but in some other trades
neither arguments, pleadings, in
creased allowances nor the coercion
of employers could move many of the
They were looking first after their
own interests, as they had been
taught to look.
The comfortable and the well-fed
are horrified in such a national crisis
workingmen strike for higher wages
and better conditions. In the last
four months there have been 21 such
strikes great enough to retard the
making or handling of war munitions.
On April 19 the Welsh miners voted
unanimously to strike for a 20 per
cent increase in wages. Denuncia
tion in a flood descended upon them
and all like them.
"Have they no patriotism?" was
indignantly asked. "Have they turned
traitors? To strike now is to help the
Nobody said the coal mine owners
were traitors when they took advan
tage of the urgent need for coal by
advancing prices. Nobody said the
contractors that have been gouging
the government were traitors. When
the name of traitor was reserved for
workingmen that had a similar re
gard for their own interests, many of
them were not particularly gratified.
It iBn't their war. The country was
plunged into it by the arbitrary action
of an irresponsible council dealing
with treaties and obligations of which
the common man knew nothing and
for which he doesn't give a hoot
What is Belgian neutrality to -him or
he to Belgian neutrality? He doesn't