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THE BEPUBLIC: SUNDAY. MABCH 17. 1901.
THE MOST IMPORTANT
Difficulties of the Five Tribes.
The Land Allotment Quesfon by
Mabel Washbourne Anderson,
BABY IN THE WORLD,
WRITTEN FOR THE SUNDAT KCPCBLJ&
Although he Is In complete Ignorance of
the fact, little Prince Edward of York is
the most Important Jux-enlle In Europe. On
the death of Queen Victoria he succeeded
to his father's title of heir presumptive of
the throne of Great Britain and Ireland.
As soon as tho title of Prince of Wales Is
bestowed on the Duke of Cornwall and
Tork. young Edward will become Duke of
Tork. Earl of Inverness and Baron Kil
larney, and Parliament will bo asked to
provide him with an income mmclently
large to keep up the dignity of his posi
tion. It Is not likely that he will be in
formed of his new rank, nor will his allow
ance of pocket money be Increased. He
will have to be addressed as "Royal High
ness." and will be shown to the people on
certain public occasions, but the signifi
cance of this will hardly be impressed on
his mind for some time to come.
When the new King and Queen made their
first appearance In London, Prince Edward
rode in the carriage with them and was en
thusiastically greeted by the crowds. He
THE KETEKEND DOCTOR J. T. M. JOHNSTON, PASTOR OF. THE DELMAR AVENUE BAPTIST
CHURCH, ST. LOUIS.
Since the beginning of Doctor Johnston's connection with the Delmar Avenue Church, which cov
ers a period of less than three years, its membership has largely-increased and its indebtedness of some
thing over $15,000 has beenpaidA
Prince Edward of York, Heir Presumptive
smilingly ealutea from side to side find en
Joyed himself hugely, but he did not dream
that he was being hailed as a future King.
Neither did he understand why ho was so
conspicuously placed at the funeral services
at St. George's Chapel. He stood next the
Queen and held tightly to her hand during
the solemn ceremonies. When they were
over he remarked fervently: "Wasn't it
loely. granny, dear? Poor daddy! What
a pity he was ill and couldn't come!''
The real Importance of the little Prince's
position lies in tho probability of his suc
ceeding to the throne before he reaches his
King Edward Is 60 years old, and his
habits are not such as to assuro him a
very long life. No one Imagines that he
will last beyond seventy. The Duke of
Cornwall and York has never been robust,
and of late his delicate health has caused
considerable anxiety. He was not able to
attend the late Queen's funeral, nor was he
present at the opening of Parliament. He
lives very quietly, and has never been
strong enough to take much Interest In
in St. Louis Ministerial Circles.
racing or outdoor Eports. his father's favor
ito dlersions. It would surprise no ono In
the Kingdom If he died before Edward VII.
So England may ceo another youthful mon
arch on the throne.
Fortunately, Prince Edward Is an unusu
ally bright and attractive child, very
healthy, and large for his age. Ho Is a
born leadtr, and dominates the York nur
sery Just as far as he Is permitted. There
are four children In the family, only one of
whom is a girl. They are all pretty, lively
youngsters, having Inherited the ruddy
health of their mother, "Prlnces'i May." as
she is still affectionately called. She is a
most devoted mother, and deplores tho ne
cessity of leaving her children at homo
while she and her husband are making their
state visits to the colonies. They will be
left In charge of Mmo. Brlcka, an old and
very Intimate friend of the Duchess and
her family, the Tecks. In addition, they
will have the grandmotherly care of Queen
Alexandra, who Is devoted to them all, es
pecially Prince Edward.
, . X i
The treaty with the Cherokee Indiana
was ratified In both houses of Congress
February 23. and is now before tho people
for ratification or rejection. If ratified at
the comlnp election the allotment of lands
will follow as soon as the Dawes Com
mission can complete Its labors. At present
no occupant of land In the Cherokee Nation
has title. In spite of this fact, many costly
business buildings nnd residences have
been erected on tho tracts set aside for
The Dawes Commission Is one of the
most Important commissions working under
tho Interior Department of the Federal
Government. Under an act of Congress op
proved March 3, 1S93, the commission was
created. It was to enter Into negotiations
with the Cherokecs, Chlckasaws. Choctaws,
Semlnoles and Creeks, the five civilized
trlbe9 of tho Indian Territory, concerning
the abolition of their tribal government and
tho allotment of their lands In severalty.
Tho commission took Its name from Its
chairman, and Is familiarly known as "Tho
Dawes Commission." Since this date nu
merous acts of Congress have been passed
relative to the commission and Its work.
Several resignations have been tendered
end new appointments have been made.
The personnel of the commission as It
stands to-day comprise the following gen
tlemen: Henry I Dawes of Massachusetts,
Clifton R. Brecklnridsc of Arkansas, Tarns
Blxby of Minnesota. Thomas B. Needles of
Illinois, with A. L. Aylcsworth secretary.
The commission has its headquarters st
Muskogee. Since its organization, secn
years ago. the commission has been negoti
ating with the Five Tribes, endeavoring ro
effect a result satisfactory to all parties
concerned. But the work of reaching any
definite conclusions has been slow on ac
count of the complex and diversified condi
tions existing in the Indian Territory. In
1897 the commission reached an agreement
with the Choctaws and Chlckasaws where
by these Indians agreed to allotment and
the abolition of their tribal autonomy, with
the condition that they retain the latter
for a period of eight years from the date
of the ratification. The commission has ne
gotiated two treaties with the Creeks. The
llrst, In 1697, failed of confirmation, and
another agreement was made In the winter
of 1899 and 1900, and was ratified by the low
er house of Congress, but failed In the Sen
ate and is now pending.
In the meantime a land ofilco has been
opened in Muskogee and moro than two
thirds of the Creek citizens have selected
their allotments and filed on them.
In 1897 tho commission negotiated a treaty
with tho Chcrokecs. after a long and tedious
session, which was submitted to a popular
vote of the people In February. 1S98, and
was ratified by an overwhelming majority,
only a few fullbioods voting against it, but
It was nfterwards rejected by the Govern
ment. After the passage of the Curtis act,
June 28, 1898, the commission again reached
an agreement with tn'e' Cherokee delegation
at Washington, D. C, and this has Just been
ratified by the lower house, but neglected
by the Senate In tho closing hours of Con
gress, with amendments. A solemn treaty
to an Indian Is the end of the law. He does
not know how to go beyond it. Therefore,
It Is difficult for the fullblood Indians to
realize that the Government has repeatedly
broken faith with them.
The passing of the Curtis bill by Congress
was the culminating act that shattered the
Indians' faith in" the good Intentions of the
Government. 'F6r this reason the Chertf
kees, who are leaders among the American
Indians In progress and civilization, have
been more reluctant about coming to an
agreement with the commission than the
other tribes. One of the many objections
to the Curtis act, made by the Cherokees,
Is the clause regarding the right of the
white adopted citizen nnd the freedman.
They have rebelled against the Idea of be
ing forced by the Government to divide their
deeded lands equally and without consider-
M i1vst r p" " i '
Special Ctorrescondencs of The gundar Republic.
Boston, Mass., March 14. Alfred E. Giles,
A. B LI B., a retired lawyer, who prac
ticed In ihls city for twenty-five years, has
made provision to guard against premature
Mr. Giles resides at No. 26S Fairmount
avenue. Hyde Park. His home stands on
top of a high hill, amid pleasant surround
ing's. A shed runs at right angles from the
main building, and therein he has pre
pared a room, furnished It, and In this
apartment, whenever the time may come,
his spirit will disengage Itself from the
Mr. Giles believes that real death works
gradually; never Instantaneously. The
death of the body Is the birth of the spirit.
The death trance continues at times for
days, even for weeks. The lungs then cease
to breathe, the heart to net; the corpse
like face, glazed eyes, absence of sensation
and Intelligence, rlgldness and coldness of
the body not one 'nor even all of these
appearances are conclusive that the person
Is really dead. The only Blgn of death
which Is sore both to manifest Itself In
dne time, and to be absolutely conclusive
and undeniable. Is the development of a
sufficient degree of putrefaction.
He doesn't Intend to rely upon the doo
tors to determine when he Is dead.
Mr. Giles concluded the Interview thus:
"The practical deductions from the proved
facts are that a person Is not to be In
terred or cremated as dead until his body
plainly manifests visible and offensive evi
dences of putridity and decay, even though
a delay of ten, twenty,- forty or more days
Intervene before those proofs appear. Let
not the body be chilled by ice nor touched
by the surgeon's knife. Let It be tenderly
cared for by the gentle hands of relatives
and friends, with further assistance as
may be necessary, but not by an under
taker alone. Let not the coffin (if one be
used) compress the limbs nor Irs cover be
closed: let it remain in the home and In
some safe and convenient room till the
body decomposes. Let the religious exer
cises, if there are any, be held at the
grave, at the crematory, or at some con
venient time and place In the Interval be
tween the apparent and the real death.
Such procedure, thoughnot so floral and
ceremonial as certain 'existing modes of
speeding a body to Its last resting place,
would be more considerate and beneficent."
In exhibiting this room Mr. Giles threw
open a door and disclosed -what appeared to
be a closet with clothes hooks. But the
back' of this closet formed a second door.
This, too, 'he opened, and there In sight wa
the 'private mortuary. The old bare walls
of" the end of the shed have been plastered
and are white and clean. The little rafters
are. painted blue. The room now Is fur
nished like an ordinary sleeping apartment,
with stnglo bed, washstand. mirror, a pic
ture or two, knickknacks and a chair. An
exit at the rear leads directly out lntq the
open air, where lattice-work, bars the In
trusion of wandering men, women and children.
' i i I tB
ABEL, WASHBOURNq AMDCROISr
AMD IJT-ri.E". OIS .
J. A. SEQUICHIE.
Full-Blood Cherokee, Interpreter for the
atlon with ex-slaves and their posterity.
The fullbioods are equally as opposed to a
division of their lands with the white adopt
ed or Intermarried cltizms. They hold
that the white man has bought no latins
and the Indian has none to give away. This
Is the Indians' position in a nut shell.
In the meantime the work of surveying
and sectlonlzing the Indian Territory has
been in progress and was completed more
than a year ago.
In 18SS the commission made preparation
to enter actively upon the stupendous task
of making a final roll of the citizens of
the Indian Territory, conformable to the
laws of citizenship which are In force at
tho present time. To those unacquainted
with the conditions In the Indian Territory
the work of enrolling its citizens might
seem a simple matter. Indian blood Is not
the sole qualification necessary for citizen
ship In the Indian Territory, and if other
Important requisites are lacking. It is not
even an element. The commission must be
Literary Clubs of
the Sunflower State.
Special Correspondence of The Sunday Republic.
Atchison. Kas., March 16. Atchison's lit
erary clubs at present number three. First
In point of age 'as well as literary suprema
cy Is the Friday Afternoon Club, which was
organised In 1S81 with a membership of flf1
teen, which limit was afterwards extended
to twenty members, the present number. In
April this club 'will celebrate Its" twentieth
anniversary. WTilleit Is tho oldest literary
cfub In the State, It docs not. and never has,
belonged to a federation. At present there
are only two active members "who were
charter members Mrs. Charles Osborn and
Doctor Lydla Stockwell The honor of life
membership has been--conferred upon 'two
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Principal Chief of the Cherokees and Prob
ably Their Last Chief.
governed by certain arbitrary laws and de
cisions, which govern the right to citizen
ship in each nation, as to who are and who
The Creeks are the only tribe of Indians
known to have amalgamated to a large ex
tent with tho negroes.
Some rather amusing things occur when
the applicant for enrollment Is a fullblood
Cherokee. Many of them are very perverse
and obstinate about speaking the English
language when. capable of doing so, and
they at once begin to look about for an In
terpreter, and wilt remain as stolid as a
rock till one Is provided them, while others
will give written answers to the questions.
Many of them can read and write the
English language, but are unable to speak
It. But there are others who are very ami
able about talking and reply in broken Eng
lish to the questions without hesitation. At
Pryor Creek I. T., a fullblood applicant,
when questioned as to his degree of blood,
replied "Got no white, got no negro. Just
111 PI RS. J. GAULT. liilW
PRESIDENT OF THE rom'IGHTlY CLUB.
cha'ff&r" memEe"?,' airs" Mary "s. "CondlF of
Kansas City, Mo., and Doctor Lydla Stock
Well of this city. i
For the first ten years the body of ";work
of the club was1 the study of 'history of-all
nations; since then a study of the best there
Is In literature and the arts. The present
year has been devoted to the study of
mythology. The club Is strictly a" literary
club; its members, however, are not, strict
ly speaking, "club women," but busy homer
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good blood, all Indian. Just all Cherokee.
In another case ono of the fullblooi
came Into Fort GlbMm to enroll soon after
the telephone lino was completed between
Fort Gibson ard T.ihlequali. He stood listen
ing in interested silence while a message
was bcinc sent to T.ihlequah. When asked
whether he would like to try tlv "talking
machine" he replied. "No talk It Cherokee
that machine." An interprt-trr was called up.
at Tahlequah. and the fullblood was per
suaded to try the machine without havlnff
been Informed ns to who was at the other
end of the line. "
After listening to the Cherokee message
he laughed and said:
"Big machine understand Cherokee good
ns men and only pat up yesterday." Ono
of the Cherokee enumerators employed as
interpret-r Jeff Mukrat. a fullblood Cher
okee, who speaks the HnglNh as well as
tho Cherokee language. Whn the enu
merator question? d one person as to hi J
degree of blood, he replied "l-2I6th Chero
kee." after which the interpreter observed:
"Well, If I was no more Ingun than jou
are I'd Just lie down and sleep It off."
As an Illustration of the value btowctl
upon their own national council, the follow
ing story is told by u half-blood Cherokrc:
"When Gnbrlel shall blow his horn on th
resurrection morn one cf the old reuervators.1
in the Cherokee National Cemetery will rL-e
up and say, 'Who is that making all thN
nolser 'It Is I. Gabriel.' 'And why are you
creating all this disturbance?' 'Did you not
know it was. the resurrection day and all
jou who have been asleep la death must
awaken and arise?"
" 'Did you get your authority from tho
Cherokee National Council at Tahlequah?"
After an answer iii the negative he wi'l
say 'Well. I'll Just lie still then 'till I'm,
called by the proper authorities?' "
Many of the full-blood Cherokees are re
fusing to enroll under tho Dawes Com
mission. Fully one-half of them belong to
tho secret political organization known as
the "Ke-too-yahs." This society Is opposed
to allotment under the Curtis act, and to
any allotment that requires a division of
the lands with tho white adopted citizens
and the freed men.
The full-blood Cherokees are estimated at
present between 10.WO and 12,000. They are
a distinct type of tho American Indian,
differing from all other Indians In features,
characteristics and movements.
Allotment under the Curti3 act will prova
distasteful and unsatisfactory to the Chero
kee Nation. They want a fee simple title to
thelr'lunds' and not a surface allotment. As
cne rull-blcod said, and he expressed tho
sentlmenw of the nation, "We want our
lands as deep as they go and not as deep
as we plow." Tho Cherokees
almost unanimously In favot
and they realize that the tii
the iame. If they could come to a covenant
among themselves and a satisfactory
agreement with the Government corre
tponding to their sense of equity.
The Indian can no longer turn his face
toward tho setting sun and seek for homes
amid the plains and forests sew. But ha
must turn his face eastward and meet the
oncoming tide of a more powerful and civil
Ized race. It is hard to say what tho con-
elusion of the matter will be No prophet
has arisen to foretell the end.
Allotment and eventually statehood seems
the only solution of the Indian problem.
Tho end of Indian autonomy Is approach
ing, but when the Indian Territory shall
take her place, with drooping head, under
"Old Glory" In the sisterhood of States
'et her not enter In conjunction with any
other Territory, but Independent and alone,
taking her place as one of the most beauti
ful, law-abiding and progressive of the
constellation of States. Though the full
blood may ever remain a melancholy mark
of a regime that Is passed, and while his
country may never seem to him "a land o
of the free," let him ever be able to claim It
as the home of the brave.
MABEk WASHBURNE ANDERSON.
PIRS. J.P. ADAMS .lLLLU
MtMKI? OFTHE FORTNIGHTtt-CLUDJ
women, resolved to set aparTone afternoon
each week for self-improvement, and right
diligently do they pursue their course.
Mrs. Flora Zoll Brlggs, one of the most
arduous workers of -the club, was tho win)
ner over a large number of contestants of
the J150 prize offered by tho Cosmopolitan
Magazine for the best article on "The Chil
Brought Up At Home," which article was
published In, the December number of th
Cosmopolitan, in 18J9.
I tSSs!SSKSSsJ V I