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title: 'The St. Louis Republic. (St. Louis, Mo.) 1888-1919, May 25, 1902, PART I, Image 1',
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THE ST. LOUIS REPUBLIC
Is Printed la Six Parti l
Four News Sections, Comic
Section and Magazine. '
ST. LOUIS. -MO.. SUNDAY, MAY 25, 1902.
PRICE FIVE CENTS.
ft fadth oncer Akin rri i i iir
PELEE SPLIT WIDE OPEN;
LOOTERS KILLED AT TASK
WAVES AND CRACKED APART.
One Thousand Persons Were Killed and More than Four Thousand
Crippled in Guatemalan Eaith quake Forty Thousand Ilesi
v. dents of Quezaltenango Left Homeless Destruction
Occurred in Xinetv Seconds.
Fear-Stricken Inhabitants of Martinique Fight for Places on
Outgoing Steamers, and Some Have Been Drowned
While Swimming Out to Vessels Flames From Mont
Pelee Visible More Than 100 Miles at Sea.
FIRST DETAILED ACCOUNT OF THE DISASTER BY EYE-WITNESS.
San Francisco.. Oil. Ma 2) P.y advices
brought by the steamer Cits of I'ara It is
learned that In ninety seconds 1.000 perrons
were killed and more than 1WW were crip
pled In Guitemala. and nearly all Quezal
trnango's 40.00) resident were left homeless
by the earthquake on the night of Ap'U IS
Only fragmentary accounts of the disas
ter had been received up to the present time,
owing to the Interrupted telegraphic com
munication. But there arrived on the City
cf Para a man who was in Guatemala at
the time of the disturbance. His coffee plan
tation I only a few miles out from Quezal
tenango. In speaking of the earthquake he
"The great disturbance took place about
a quarter after 8 o'clock In the evening. I
was out on open ground at the time and
had great difficulty in keeping my feet. The
motion resembled nothing so much as
standing In a imall boat that Is being rocked
by the waves. I saw the ground rie and
fall with wavelike motion and everywhere
the earth was splitting and cracking.
C'revaisen Three Feet "Wide.
"Crevasses fully three feet across ap
peared. The greatest damage was at Quez
.tltcnaniiO, and the city was practically de--,cd.
All the buildings that were left
standing arn cracked and they will have to
be pulled down.
".My brother had Just completed a business
block at a coat of $300,000, and It is a total
ruin. Man others suffered In a similar
manner, and In addition suffered a greater
"There were three distinct thocks, each
nevcrer than the one preceding, but the
damage was all done within a minute and a
half. Among the wealthier classes the loss
of life was comparatively slight, probably
less than 100, though many were injured.
"Those v ho fled from their houses into
HORROR AND DEATH
Desolation and Ruin Everywhere, and Frightful Suffering Among
Those Who Have Survived the Death-Dealing Discharges From
La Soufriere .Tourney Through Stricken Country Reveals
Conditions That Are Still Full of Ferils.
FROM THE NEW TOnK HERALD AND ST
LOUIS REPUBLIC SPECIAL CORRESPOND
Port of Spain, Trinidad, May 13 (Cop -rlght.
1302.) Conditions In the stricken dis
trict of the Island of St Vincent are al
most beyond description.
I have Just returned from a visit to
Georgetown and the ruined country around
It, where it was found that the explosions
of the Soufrlero were at least as violent
as those of Mont Pelee, In Martinique.
That the destruction of human life was
not so great as at St. Pierre was due only
to the fact that no large city was near
Soufriere. Had there been a St Pierre near
that awful volcano there would have been
the same appalling loss of life as on Mar
tinique. Ab it was. 1,000 Inhabitants of the
sparsely settled country around the Sou
friere have been killed, and to those must
Intvltably be added very many of those
who escaped alive, but terribly burned, and
who cannot survive.
Nineteen shocks of earthquake were felt
at Walllhou on Saturday. May 3. and at
other places the ground appeared to be
oscillating almost continually. Th crater
showed signs on Tuesday morning of hav
ing awakened from its long plumber and the
next afternoon a column of heavy smoke
with a jet of lurid flame wan seen to Issue
from the summit of the mountain. That
Jet of flame, with Its sinister-looking column
of funereal smoke, was the death warrant of
two thousand human beings doomed to per
ih miserably within a few hour.
THOUSANDS I 11 All HACK
FOR Timm lives.
Then began that race for life which a
man who happened to be at Chateau Belalr
ha thus described:
"I was fishing at some distance from the
shore when my boatman said to me:
" 'Look at the Soufriere. sir. It is s-nok-lngl'
"From the ton of the cone reaching far
Into the heavens, a dark column of smoke
arose, while the mouth of the crater Itself
glowed like a gigantic forge, belching a
huge Jet of jellow flame. The mass of
smoke rpread out Into branches extending
for miles, and clouds of sulphurous vapor
overflowing, as It were, the bowl of the
crater, bejan to roll down the mountain
"We reached the shore and started to run I
jor our lives. We were soon enveloped In
Impenetrable darkness, and I was unable to
distinguish the white shirt of lay boatman
even at a yard's distance. But as he knew"
every inch of the ground, I held on to a
stick he had. and so we stumbled on until
we reached a place of safety. The lncesant
roar of the volcano, the rumbling of the
thunder, the flashes of lightning, added to
the terrific grandeur of the scene. At last
we emerged from that pall of death, half
nuffocated, and with our temples throbbing
as If they were going to burst."
THOSE WHO DELAYED
Although the estates of Walllbou nnd
Ilichmond, on the leeward side of the
Island, were entirely destroyed, and a large
part of the district Is covered by a thick
bed of lava, there appears to have been lit
tle loss of life there, most of the Inhabi
tants having escaped before the eruption.
Unfortunately, those Inhabiting the Carib
country, to windward, probably believing
themselves safe, did not. In most cases,
make any attempt to get away until the
last moment, with the result that nearly
every one in that district ha perished.
It was only on Friday afternoon that
residents of Kingstown, the capital, began
to gain some Idea of the disaster which
had befallen the country of the Carlbs, as
the northern portion of the windward coast
Is sailed. Georgetown is the center of that
once fertile and beautiful district, now a
desolate waste of ashes. Between this town
and the capital there is a fairly good road
running for the most part along the sea.
The country Is undulating and very pic
turesque most of the way, and at one time
was planted entirely In sugar cane. Wind
mills and factories In ruins remain as evi
dences of the past prosperity of the island.
To-day the cultivation of arrow root has
taken the place of that of sugar cane, and
one pastes field after field of broad-leafed
mar&ntas on the way to Georgetown.
The Journey Is usually performed on
horseback, but a mall wagon which takes
passengers passes regularly along the
road. It is also possible to obtain at times
the patois or conrN fared the best, though
even :n.iny who ran into the streets were
either killed or suffered broken limbs. Trie
streets are not half the width of the resi
dence streets of San Francisco, so that
scape from falling buildings was impos
sible. lnmllltN Hurled In Hulnii.
'The los of life was greatest in the
quarter occupied bs the Indian, or na
tives They are accustomed to retire earl,
and nearl all were asleep when the dis
turbances occurred. Their houses are built
of adope, and when they collapsed entire
families were burled 'n the ruins It Is
practically Impossible to give an accurate
estimate of the dead
"That night the entire population of the
city camped out on a plain in the suburbs.
The night was cold, and many of the wom
en and children suffered severely.
"To add to the horror of the situation,
overturned lamps and candles set fire to
some of the buildings Many persons suf
fered much from thirst, owing to the fact
that the water mains were broken. For
five dais the residents drank only the wa
ter that remained in the fountains and the
rainwater they could catch in basins.
"The surrounding towns of San Pedro,
San Marco, San Juan, Amttitlan and Solola
were also destrosed. The total dead will
number nearly 1,000.
CIt on Volcano's Crater.
"Before I left It was given out that no
attempt would bo made to rebuild the city
of Quezaltenango on its present site, but a
new town of that name will arise on the
plain of Ollatepque, three miles north. The
present site of Quezaltenango Is In a val
ley which Is about five or six miles across,
and there Is a crave fear that it is really
the crater of an ancient volcano.
"This Impression is created by the fact
that the city lies almost in the shadow of
Volcano Cerrequemado, that is known to
have been in a state of eruption about 100
"Quezaltenango was a ghastly sight the
day following the earthquake, Bodies were
bing everywhere In the streets and In the
REIGN IN ST. VINCENT.
some sort of vehicle drawn by mules, and
It was by one of these convejances that 1
proceeded to Georgetown on the day after
It Is almost Impossible to convey In writ
ing any Idea of the desolate appearance of
the country be)ond the fifteen-mile post;
that is. fifteen miles from Kingstown and
seven from Georgetown. The whole place
looked as If millions of barrels of cement
had been emptied over the land, covering
every Inch of ground with a coal of dismal
As we proceeded I noticed that the small
stones scattered about were of larger size,
and that the bed of dust became thicker
until we arrived at Georgetown, where the
streets were covered to a depth of three
feet. The roofs of the thatched huts, una
ble to bear the weight of volcanic dust cast
upon them, had in many cases caved in,
while the trees were burnt and bare of
leaves. Imparting a dreary appearance to
It was only when we reached the center
of the town, however, that we began to
realize the horrors caused by that fatal
eruption. We passed three "houses from
which there arose heart-rending wails of
suffering. It was in these houes that the
Injured, for few of whom there was any
chance of recover', were slowly being tor
tured to death by the inexorable hand of
FOUND IN ONE IIOLM3.
We hurried through Georgetown to the
country beyond, where most of the In
habitants had perished. The first place we
got to was the overeer's house in Langley
Park, where thirty-seven bodies had been
found. They had already been buried, but
as many dead animals, the worklnc stock
of the estate, lay scattered aboutthe stench
At every step we encountered fresh scenes
of horror and when we went to the ruined
works of Waterloo, a band of men who had
been at work from the early morning were
dragging the Inst corpse to the trench in
which eights -seven bodies had been
There was only one way In which their
gruesome work could be performed. One
of the men having first tied the handker
chief saturated with carbolic acid over his
face, leaving only his eeB uncovered would
rush Into the ruins and .slip a rope around
an ankle of one of the corpses. Then the
other man would drag the body by a long
rope to the trench Into which it was bundled
and rapidly covered over. Fortunately the
loose nature of the dust made the digging
of the trenches easy work.
In the schoolroom close to the Waterloo
works twenty-two bodies had been found
and they had been buried in a separate
trench close by. A few oxen and donkevs,
more or less Injured, were wandering about
in search of water or food, but the men
were too busy to attend to their wants.
DEATH IX WORST
Death was cv ery where death in Its worst
form. From under the shop at Rahaka tv o
corpses were dragged while we were passing
by. As we went along mounds were pointed
out to us which contained ten. twenty, thir
ty, fifty or mere bodies, bundled pell-mell
Into trenches and hastily covered.
In one shop forty nersons had taken ref
uge and had all perished. Singularly enough
a little girl was rescued from under the
flooring of this shop
We were-unable to get close to Turema on
account of the Intolerable stench which
emanated from the place where every liv
ing thing had perished on that awful after
noon. If the scene of desolation and death out
side of Georgetown was appalling, that of
anguish and suffering in the hospitals was
heartrending. Lying en the ground close
together was a mas of suffering human
beings, writhing and moaning. Now and
again a wall would be heard of "Ob, God.
help us!' O Lord, deliver us!" Then would
arise In agonizing tones the harrowing
chant, "O God, help us! O Lord, deliver
Every quarter of an hour the death cart
would pass, for there was sure to be some
victim ready for the trenches outside of the
I met Father Putt In one of the hospitals.
"Perhaps one or two will live," he told
me; "the rest are doomed."
As we passed between the rows of writh
ing sufferers, those who ha.1 the strength
would hold up their hands, swathed In 'Int.
and again they would stter .that awful
prayer, "O God, help us! O Lord, deliver
WJfJmst mm '
Ss. f5 la ) , 3 "? -- "
OLD KIXG COAL TO BEEF TRUST: "HELLO, THERE, BEEFY,
ORCHARD IS FORGED
INTO A PRIMARY
Democrats of Twenty-Second Sen
atorial District Will Express
Themselves on the Lobby.
TWO CONVENTIONS AT HOUSTON
With Both in Session in the Same
Hall and Two Nominations
Threatened, Terms for
Harmony Were Effected.
REPUBLIC ."FECI U
Houton, Mo. May 24 Then was a dou
bls convention held here to-day to nom
inate a andldate for State Senator from
the Twenty-second District. It was finally
agreed to refer the nomination to a pri
mary, the plan favored by the .intl-Orchard
delegates, and the two conventions ad
journed in harmony.
Two times during the das the Senatorial
Committee held sessions, but the candidates
could agree on no plan to perfect an or
ganization. rinally the committee selected the tem
porary officers, to preside over the conven
tion, J. B. Searcy of Shannon County as
temporary chairman and Doctor E. II.
Mitchell of Howell County secretary.
At 2 o'clock Chairman Carmlchal of the
Senatorial Committee called the convention
to order in the G. A. R. Hall. Two sets
of delegates from each county were present
The split came when a motion was made to
make the temporary organization perma
nent. The followers of Orchard supported
the men selected by the committee.
When It was declared that the motion to
make the temporary organization perma
nent was carried the anti-Orchard delesitc
aembled on the north side of the hnll.
They selected Doctor Hubbard cf Te.i
County, an their chairman and 12 It. Young
of Wright County secretary. Hubbard was
carried to the platform and the novel
spectacle of two chairmen holding two con
ventions was presented.
rirst one chairman would talk and then
the other. Pandemonium reigned and In
the midst of It a terrific rain and wind
storm set In. but "peakere gained the plat
form and each was allowed to tal'c
Committees were appointed bs- both chair
men while the delegates jeered and hooted
each other. After all the candidates had
addressed the gathering, each wanting the
contest referred back to the general pri
mary. Senator Orchard declared in favor
of a primary, if every candidate would sign
an agreement to enter the race. The can
The convention adjourned with the un
derstanding that the Senatorial Commit
tee would set the date of the primaries and
draw up the articles of agreement.
DEALERS IN POTATO COMBINE.
Kansas City Company Organized
and Files Incorporation Papers.
Kansas City, Mo , May 21 Articles of in
corporation of the Kansas City Potato
Company were filed with the Recorder of
Deeds yesterda-. The capital stock Is $20,
000. divided into 4.000 shares, at JS a share.
Fifty per cent of the stock is fully paid up.
Practically every commission and produce
merchant in Kansas is Interested financial
ly In the new cempany. The largest stock
holder Is T. C. Bottom, with 620 shares,
with James McKinney the second largest,
with 350 shares.
The Board of Directors, however, is the
important feature of the incorporation, as
in its hat.ds will be the policy of the busi
ness. The board Is composed of T. C. Bot
tom. Joseph Weston, R. W. Gees, Newton
Phillips. C. S. Urban. J. D. McFarland. C,
E. Walker. James McKinney, E. H. Pep
per, O. C. Evans, E. J. McNamara, Henry
Lorber and C. C. Miller. The life of the
company is fixed at fifty years, and its ob
jects are eet forth in the articles, "to bus.
sen ana nanaie poiaioes.
NEW GUSHER AT BEAUMONT.
Flow of 6,000 Barrels Daily Tapped
Galveston, Tex., May 24. The Texas Big
Four and Pipe Line Company of Galveston,
of which ex-Mayor A. W. Ely is president,
Charles H. Hughes general manager, XV.
H. Layton secretary, and J. Loblt treas
urer, are the owntrs of well No. 1 on the
Cleveland Heirs tract on Spindletop ave
nue, which came in this morning with
terrtflc force, throwing a solid stream of
on many feet over the top of the SO-foot
derrick. The depth of the well is Ijos feet
eighty of which Is In the oil sand. The es
timated capacity of the well Is 6,000 bar
rels per day
President Ely and other officials, who
went, to Beaumont to receive the well for
the company, returned to-night hixhly
pleased with Its performance.
ELECTRICITY BLOTTED OUT
THE LIVES AT ST. PIERRE?
St. Louisan Says the Most Stupendous Blast of Lightning in History
Killed the 28,000 Citizens Instantly and Painlessly by the Re
turn Shock Known to Scientists as Induction Position
and Condition of Bodies Indicate That Death
Was Caused by Lightning.
NEW THEORY'SEEMS TO EXPLAIN HOW THE PEOPLE MET DEATH.
I1V JOHN .1. COLE
Of No. -102:! Westminister I'lnce.
It is desirable that more should be known
about the part plased by electrlclts- in the
explosion of Mont Pelee than has been
communicated in the dispatches. Accounts
of the disaster have Indicated that the in
habitants of St. Pierre were killed vers
suddenl-, and probably painlessly, but the
exact manner of their death has not been
Indicated In the reports from Martinique;
nor have scientists explained in a satisf actors-
manner how 28,000 lives were to sud
denly (muffed out.
Much mention has been made of the great
display of lightning, which at times was
incessant. It is alo generally known that
all volcanic eruptions are accompanied bs
electrical dl"plass. but the eact nature
of some of this electrical action does not
seem to be well understood. Tor the bet
ter understanding of till- matter by thoe
who are not familiar with this electrical
phenomenon. I will state a rew scientific
It la generally known that there are two
forces, called, respectively, positive and
negative electriclts-, which exist in all
things and which are usually in equillb
: rium. So long as this equll'b-ium Is undis
turbed there can be no electrical manifesta
tion. Ans' electrical dlsplas' arles from the
separation of thee forces, charging one
body positlvel', while another body near to
it Is charged negatively. During a thunder
storm the cloud nnd the earth directly un
der it have become electrlcalls' charged
with opposite electricities, and, b- induc
tion, the moro intensely the one is charged
with positive electricity will the other be
charged with negative electriclts'.
The cloud and the earth thus became an
Immense Lcyden Jar, In which the earth
may represent the Inner metallic coating,
while the cloud represents the outer metal
lic coating, nnd the atmosphere represents
the glass wall of the jar.
In such condition tho electrical force of
the cloud usually concentrates upon some
point of the cloud nearest to the earth, and
over some object which facilitates the up
ward movement of the opposite electricity
from the earth, to bring the two close to
gether, when the tension becomes suffici
ent to break through the nonconducting
media of air and glvo the phenomenon of
a lightning stroke. The force of this stroke
will depend upon the extent and intensltj'
of the cloud. What Is known as the return
shock, or return stroke. Is not visible on
Inanimate things, but Is exhibited In liv
To make this plain. I will say that when
an electrical cloud hangs over the earth,
not only is the earth directly under the
cloud charged with an electrical force op
posite to that In the cloud, but also very
object on the earth Is, by induction,
charged as Intensely as the cloud itself.
When a discharge of lightning falls, it in
stantly restores the equilibrium in the
earth immediately around the spot where
the discharge falls. If a human being or a
live animal Is near to an electric discharge
the person or animal will be stricken down,
and if the force be great' enough, will bo
killed. This is where the lightning stroke
does not touch the living thing thus
stricken. It Is purely the effect of the in
stantaneous restoraUon of the equilibrium
which draws the opposite force out of the
MONT PELEE WIPED OUT
20,000 DEADLY SNAKES.
Most Polsonona Reptile Known to the
World Drtren to Volceno liy
" " Mongoose.
SPECIAL BT CABLE FROM THE ST LOUIS
REPUBLIC AND NEW YORK HERALDS
Fort de France, Martinique, May 24
(Copyright, 1902.) Louis Ezle, a well-known
naturalist of this city, says that as a result
of the eruptions of Mont Pelee more than
20.000 fer-de-lance, the most poisonous' snake
known to the world, have been killed.
Specimens of the mongoose were import
ed into Martinique two years ago and they
and their progeny had driven the snakes In
to,the mountains, most of them to Mcnt
The mongoose continue to kill the snakes,
and the Island, be rays, will now be In
great part free from the pest.
.Tlie Jlerald-Kepubllc relief boat, the Mary
JJL Luckenbach, and the United States
I'VE COME TO JOIN YOU.-'
body bo FbduVnly .is to produce death. This
Is what is known as the return shock.
In tho case of the volcano, the forces at
work generating electricHy were many and
of immense power, so that such quantities
of electriclts- were generated and such dis
turbance of the equilibrium was caused as
hat. hardly before been known. It must be
remembered that bodies charged with like
electricity rcptl each other, while bodies
charged with opposite electriclts" attract
each other. As Mont Pelee was
charged with one electrical force, while
the cloud above was charged with the op
posite electrical force, every stone and par
ticle in the mountain was violently pushing
from It ever' other stone and particle,
while at the same time the Intense electri
cal tension of the cloud was pulling with an
Immense force on all of Its particles. This
pubhing of the electrical force from below
was, added to the power of the heat, steam,
ga.es. etc. within tho crater. It was thus
that when the electrical tension which the
firt eruption had caused became strong
enough to break through the Insulating air
between the mountain top and the cloud,
the whole cloud, as It were, let go Its force
of electricity upon the crater, drawing bv
a force i robnbl before unknown to mm
the whole cap of the mountain, which, we
are told, was lifted off or blown off.
Neither statement Is literally correct, for
while th electrical force from under the
mountain was assisting to push the cap
up, the force in the cloud w.is with equal
power pulling the cap toward the clond.
When these two forces came together the
return shock for a great distance round
Mont Pelee was doubtless so great as to
kill every living thing, except in a few- iso
lated spot"-, where, for some reason, the
electrical tension was less Intense.
That the inhabitants of St. Pierre were
awe-stricken and filled with terror, and
that thev were here and there huddling to
gether In hopeIes fright, and in other
cases were trsing to seek places of safety,
is evident from the reports received from
those who have since visited the place. But
that this whole population, with the possi
ble exceptions above mentioned, was snuffed
out In an Instant of time is unquestion lole,
and it was done by an electrical discharge
one of the greatest In recorded bls-tnrv-.
Not by the direct stroke, which
fell upon the crater of Mount Pelee. but by
the return chock, which resulted from the
stroke. This will account for the fact that
mans- persons were found sitting peacefully
in their chairs, as though they had fallen
asleep, and for the fact that some bodies)
were found in an erect position. It also ac
counts for the fact that the majority of
those upon the streets, who were evidently
running for safety, were found upon their
fuces. The falling forward position of the
body In walking and especially In running,
would almost certain!- causa the body
to fall upon the face. In case of being
stricken down by a return shock. It alo
accounts for the fact that there were no
signs of a death struggle In the counte
nances of those killed, which must have
been the case had they been burned to
death with lava or hot cinders, or choked
and suffocated with gases.
It must be a great consolation to all civ
ilized humanlt-, and especially to the
friends of thosre living in St Pierre, to
know thit the first few moments of terror
attending the preliminary eruptions was
ail the suffering which came to this doomed
people, and that they were all killed In
stantly and painlessly.
steamer Dixie ore expected back from St.
AH animals drxad the deadly snake
known as the fer-de-lance, which is be
lieved to be confined to Martinique and
St Lucia. The horse prances and snorts in
terror on approaching Its hiding place
Birds of all kinds have a horror of its
presence, and will pursue it from place to
place, hover near the spot on which It
rests, and utter hoarse cries of mingled
rage and terror.
Against the effects of the poison of the
fer-de-lance there seems to be no certain
remedy, but the copious use of spirits neu
tralizes in some measure the full virulence
of the bite.
As with many serpents, the color of the
fer-Ie-lance Is rather variable. Its usual
tints are olive above, with dark cross
bands, and whitish gray below, covered
with very minute dark dots. The head Is
The reptile attains a considerable size,
being generally five or six feet long, and
occasionally reaching seven or eight The
tall ends In a heavy spine, which scrapes
harshly against rough objects, but does not
rattle. The mone-oose is its deadly enemy,
the little animal attacking the reptile fear
lessly and biting Its spinal cord in two,
once It has seized It back of ths head.
POSSIBILITY OF NEW VOLCANOES ADDS TO GENERAL TERROR
Tort de I'r.ince, Martinique. May 21
Workmen who have been imp!ov'."d In O's
poing of the dead In St. "itrre &.i that
Mont Pelee is plit from peak to ba-e end
that a fissure 1,0 feet wide exists .-s a re
puit of th continued internal convu'Mcns.
The crew- of the Government dredge
which called at St. Pierre hurned 130 bodies
of volcano victims, many cf thm having
met death last Tuesdas, v hen Mont Pelee
belched forth with renewed force while
they were looting the bodies of the dell and
ransacking the debris of the ruinej cuy for
KI.MI I'HOM IMAM)
tovriMEs t . wi vi 1:0.
The ruh of fear-'trlrken Inhabitants from
A panic reigns among thorn as they fight
for places on the departing ste imers
Mins" Jump into the ia and try to catch
the veols outward bound.
Some succeed, others go down to their
Mont Pelee Is still sending out great col
umns of fiame and steam .ind hurling fire,
red-hot stones and ashes upon the nclchbor-
Explanation Offered for Brilliant Flashes Seen From Pointe a Pitre
Cuadeloupe, in Direction of Mont Pelee. 10(1 Miles Away
When Air Is Clearer the Glow May Be Seen
From Much Greater Distances.
IIY l'HOF. C. WILLARU II WES.
Ill t'liarKC of the Lulled State C.'eo
Washington. May 23 Cable dispatches to
The Republic from Pointe a Pitre. which
state that a great light was seen last night
in the direction of Martinique, Indicate
clearly that the eruDtlops of Mont Pelee
continue with considerable violence
But the significance is apt to be greatly
overestimated. Pointe a Pitre is on the
Island of Guadeloupe, almot exactl- 100
miles from Mont Pele- and midway be
tween the two places is the Island of Do
minica, which contains mountains more
than 4,000 feet in altitude. The glow must,
therefore, be. at least S.000 feet above sea
level if itii origin is in Pelee.
Conditions favorable for the production of
such a phenomenon are vers simple. There
la doubtless a large mass of Incadescent
lava row- occupjlng the greatly enlarged
crater. This overflows, forming the lava
stream", which are described as flowing
down the mountain's sides in various di
rections. The streams quickly lose their heat
and a dark crii"t forms on their surface.
LAVA IX THE CIIVTER
REMINS WHITE HOT.
The lava In the crater, however, remains
Incandescent because of its greater mass
and because the escaping gases brirg fresh
supplies of h?ated matter from great
depths. This crater is like a ladle of molt
en steel which is kept in violent ebulltion
by the escape of the occluded gases.
The crater will remain in this condition as
long as the supply of gases is sufficient to
enable them to force their way through the
lava. As this suppl- gradually diminishes,
the lava in the crater will slowls solidify, the
vent decreasing In slz, while a new- cone
is built uo by the material thruwn out bs
the recurrent etplos'on.
To return to the light observed from
VOLCANIC ASHES FALL IN LAREDO, TEX.
Blinding Clouds of Soft, Drab-Colored. Dust Blown Along by Strong
Southeast Wind Is Different From Anything Ever Seen in That
Country Belief Is Strong That Matter Comes From the
Craters in the West Indies.
Laredo. Tex.. May 21. Volcanic ashsi
from the West Indies craters have been fall
ing In this cits- for two days.
Yesterday a strong wind blew up from
the "outheast. accompanied by a blinding
cloud of dust
At first no significance was attached to
this occurrence, as sandstorms are frequent
in this latitude, but attention was soon at
tracted to the peculiar drab color of the
sediment and Its softness to the touch.
The sand of the Rio Grande Valley Is
coars Tind red, while the substance which
ILLINOIS HAS WHAT MAY
BE AN EXTINCT VOLCANO.
"Bit? Hill," N'enr (he Mississippi River,
Sliovrs Etl-tence of Tremeli-
Red Bud. III., May 24,-It is doubtful If
many persons are aware that what Is sup
posed to be an extinct volcano is to be
found within the borders of the State of
"Big Hill" Is the name of the volcano
situated at Degonnla. just south of here,
on the Mississippi River.
There Is an old Indian tradition that
"Big Hill" was In erupUon about ISO years
ago, and that a few lives were lost There
Is plenty of evidence to show that the hill
Is of volcanic origin. The old lava beds,
the huge boulders and the deep crevices in
the adjoining bluffs Indicate that a mighty
uplift must have taken place.
Big Hill Is almost large enough ti) be
called a mountain. It is seven miles long,
two miles wide and 400 feet high. Big Hill
Is of remarkable formation and has re
ceived considerable attention from geolo
gists. The north end of this hill consists
of a solid wall of rock, varying from ISO to
400 feet In height, and is a mile and a half
It is the opinion of geologists that ths
Mississippi River once poured 1U powerful
volume of waters along a channel east cf
Ing countrv-. but decs not appear to be mors
wrathful than it has eemed for the last
Vcseik arriving report having seen the
Hume from the burning mountain over 10O
miles at tea.
AMIES IND STONES
FALL FMl OIT AT SE.
The rain of ashes and stones is also felt
far out at sea.
Visitors to St. Pierre report that all Is
desolation there now. Nothing but lulns
incruted with mud. which mil rolls In
huge volumes down the mountain side, greet
the eve on every'hand.
Investigating parties from the surround
ing country report that the area of volcanlo
ac tlon ! widening, and that signs of new
fissures opening In the earth appear in
The report generalls' circulated that new
volcanoes mav be thrown up has added to
the terror of the Inhabitants.
The perons who are not In hssterics are
hopeful that the mountain will become
lulet. though they admit there is little ap
parent reason for such fcel'ef.
LIGHTS UP CLOUDS.
Pointe a Pitre. the vapor thrown out by ths
volcano condenses and with the dust carried
up forms a cloud, which hangs over tha
crater and is illumined by the Incandescent
lava below. While it Is highly probable
that Inflammable gases, such as hydrogen
and chlorine nre given off by all volcanoes
In violent eruption and some actual flames
may be seen, by far the largest part of the
Illumination which characterizes all such,
eruptions Is due to the reflected glow from
SIMILAR TO nAY
It Is precisely what ma- be observed
when the ray from a searchlight is thronm
on a mass of steam or smoke. There is,
therefore, nothing unusual or specially e"ds
quieting in the report from Pointe a Pitre.
I Later reports will doubtless Indicate that
the same glow has been observed from
much greater distances. This report may
even' be regarded as somewhat reassuring.
It Indicates that the air Is much clearer and
freer from dust than for several days fol
lowing the flrft eruption. Otherwise th
glow from the Incandescent lava cou'd rot
reach clouds S.0O0 feet in altitude, but
would be cut oft bs the dense pall, -which
is described as hanging low over the island.
With regard to the retort ?d sounds it
should be remembered that every car In tha
Lesser Antilles Is :itr.ilnd toward Marti
nique nnd sounds are eagerl noted which,
under ordinary conditions, would be wholly
Ignored, and It does not follow that these
reports are louder than those whlcn ac
companied the first eruption.
Then, too. the distance is not much great
er thin the sounds of heavy cannonading
may be heard. The hearing of these reports
at Pointe -i Pitre,. especially if the atmos
pheric conditions are 'avorable, does not,
therefore. Indicate a renewal of activity
fell hero yesterday and to-day Is fin
trained, nnd when mired w-Hh wot.,-1 ,..n-
Men who have lived In this neighborhood
for a generation assert emphatically that
no such deposit ha- ever in their time fallen
here before. Samples of the ashes' hava
been sent to the State Geologist at Austin,
the State Capital, for a scientific examina
tion. Laredo Is only a few degrees of latitude
north of the volcano caldrons, and the
winds from the southeast are supposed to
have been coming directly from these at
Big Hill, and there are evidences to show
that this theory is correct
Tho situation of the lakes north of the
hill, their relation to each other and to
the river, the growth of the timber, the
kind of soil In the swamps, are cited In
support of this supposition. River sand Is
found In wells at certain depths, and pieces
of timber have been discovered forty feet
below the surface of the ground.
Along this side of the hill is found as
fino a quality of farming land as exists in
the entire Mississippi Valley. Two thou
sand acres are under Cultivation, which
yield In corn from fifty to a hundred
bushels per acre, and of wheat from twenty-five
to fifty bushels per acre.
EASY WAY FOR CHINA
TO RAISE NEEDED REVENUE.
German Firm Offers f 10,000,000 As.
nnallr for Exclusive Hlghta to
Sell Opinio In the Empire. i
Pekln. May 24. A German firm has of
fered the Chinese Government "35,000,000 an
nually for the exclusive rights of selling
opium throughout the Empire. The officials
are disposed to regard the offer favorably,
as It is an easy method of raising reve
nues. The promoters have sounded several of
the Ministers concerning the attitude of the
Powirs Outsiders cfhslder the project im
practicable, aa the monopoly la Imnoeilalt
of enforcement if granted.