FRANK CARPENTER FINDS THE QUAINTEST
PEASANTS OF EUROPE IN HOLLAND'S BACKWOODS.
A Visit to the Island of Marken in the Zuyder Zee Dutch Farms and Farming Small Estates and Low Wages
Among the Dairymen Where the Cattle Live With the People How Cows Are Cared For
A Look at the Alkmar Cheese Market The Tulip Farms of Haarlem.
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8pcuf Ctewtponi'DCo cf The Buntiar Republic.
Amsterdam, Feb. IS If you want to see
the Dutch as they era you must go to the
backwoods of Holland.
Tou will And there districts where the
people dress the same from generation to
generation and where their customs aro un
changed by the ages.
This Is so on some of the Wands of Zee
land, lying In the mouth of the Scheldt and
also In North Holland on the edge of the
Take for Instance the Island of Marken,
In tho Zuyder Zee, not far from this great
city of Amsterdam.
It seems to be another world. The people
look down upbn modem clothing and dress
as the Dutch did nrty j ears ago.
The men wear bloomers no full at the hips
that you could make a dress skirt out of one
pilr of trousers.
They have roundabouts or shirt waists of
black wotl, with big silver buttons running
in two rows down to the walii, where the
trousers are fastened by buttons aa large a
an after-dinner cotfee cup saucer. The
trousers stop at the root of the calf and
below are woolen stockings and clogs.
The women wear gorgeous red and whits
caps, red bodices and white skirts, which
fall to the knees and below have blue or
black stockings and clogs.
Their caps come donn almost to the eyes,
ending In a fringe of banged tialr. which
covers the ears, a curl of hair hanging down
each cheek to tho shoulder.
I went out to Marlten'one day and spent
the day photographing the people and
I had no trouble in getting good pictures,
for every man, woman and child was ready
to pose for a certain number of pennies, and
the little ones trotted along at my heels
In their clogs begging me to take their pic
tures and then asklnc for money.
Even the men demanded money when pho
tographed, and I think the burgomaster
himself would have posed for less than a
guilder. I usually paid 4 cents a person,
and a little more when I photographed In
The houses' of Marken are low, one and a
half-story buildings, with ridge roots paint
ed Mack, built along narrow streets In littla
villages here and there over the Island.
I entered one at the Invitation of the own
er, an old Dutchman, who wore a pair of
trousers each leg of which was as big as
a two-bushel bag.
His whole house was not mora than twenty-four
feet square, but It was so clean that
you could see your face In everything In
FLOORS SCRUBBED LIKS
A KITCHDN TABLE.
The floors were scrubbed like a kitchen
tnble on Saturday night, and the plates on
the walls fairly shone.
About the room were cupboards, each con
taining a bed. with the whitest of pillows
And Quilts beautifully embroidered.
The kitchen utensils were copper, and two
brats candlesticks, which shone llki gold,
itocd on ihlf under the plates, . i
Jtt Holland' JSAtrrtWoan
On my way to Marken I stopped at
Brocck, a little farming town In the midst
of the meadows, to see a cheese factory.
The factory was house, stable and cheese
making establishment combined.
This Is so throughout the dairy regions of
Hollnnd. The liny Is stowed away In the
garret, and one-half of tha house Is given
up to the cows, which are brought In doors
during the winter and kept there.
The stable part of the house had accom
modation for thirty cows, tvo for each
stall, and It was cleaner than the average
American kitchen. The cows were out dur
ing my visit, but I walked with clean feet
from stall to stall, making notes of the ar
rangements. The walls of the stalls are' painted black
to the height of tho cows and white above
In front 6f each stall there Is a window
with lace curtains over It, and at the back
a drain six Inches deep, which la flooded
dally with water and kept so clean that
there Is little perceptible odor.
But as for that the Dutch say that cow
smells are healthful, and the farmers do
not mind them at all.
I was Interested In the arrangements to
keep the cows clean. Every cow Is well
bedded, and It has. In addition, a rope tho
size of n. clothes line with a strap loop at
Its end to hold up Its tall.
One end of the rope Is fastened to the
rafters just ocr the cow, so raising the
tall that there Is no danger of It being
flirted through the milk or into the ee Of
In a room adjoining this was the cheese
room with a hundred balls of fresh Edam
cheese on the racks.
CHEESE OF A RICH
Tha cheese v. as of a rich yellow color and
more delicious than any we have In the
United Staes. I was shown the cheere
presses, and as I examined them I noticed
some American oil stoves on the shelves
near by, an evidence that the American
Invasion has evidently found Its place In
this out-of-the-way factory.
The old lady who owned the establish
ment explained the processes of cheese
making, bobbing the gold horns over her
eyes to and fro as she did so.
I like the Dutch country people! They are
'the quaintest orall the characters of the
Netherlands, and they remind you of the
pictures of Holland ou see In the gal
leries. The people of the towns dress about the
same as we do, but In the back districts
are girls with lace caps and helmets of
gold, stiver and brass, and also corkscrew
gold horns sticking out on each side of the
The women working In the fields wear
black hats and wide linen skirts, and It
Is not uncommon to find a young man with
a thick mop of hair cut stratftht off at the
necKr a ncniy emDroldered shirt, a rounds
trousers of velveteen, which 'look-like enor-
bout with enormous silver buttons and
moui hags tied to at the knee. . .. . . '
THE REPUBLIC: SUNpY, MSROH 8, 1903. 1
The Dutch are- blaln and simple In their
ways. They are sxjuer-inoicing, Dut tney can
laugh upon occasions, and many of them
More than half of tho farmers of Holland
own the lahds which they farm, but the
holdings are contparathely small..
There are t.ot In tho whole country 200
farms, each containing more than 250 acres,
and 80.000 of the farms have each less than
fifteen acres. Indeed, a large part of Hol
land Is tracts ot heath or of swamp and
water, which are good for-nothing.
SIX HUNDRHD THOUSAND
ACRES IN FORESTS.
There are two and one-half. million acres
In pasture, and more than 600,000 acres In
forests, so that the land actually cultivated
does not comprise more than one-third of
The people ere more devoted to stock
farming and dairying than to tilling the
soil. Tho country raises excellent grass,
and there are now here something like a
million and a half cattle, chiefly Itolstelns.
There are a million and a quarter hogs,
more than half A million horses and 700,000
Some of the chief dairy regions ara In the
north, and at Alkmar is o. famous Cheese
market, to which the people from seventy1
or eighty villages, bring in their cheese for
Each cheese 'Is marked with the Initials
of its maker. The stock is spread out on
waxed clothsi and Is bought by wholesale
merchants, who sh'p It to all parts of the
Holland exported about J3,OW,060 worth of
cheese In 1900. the bulk of the product go
ing to England, Belgium, Germany and
Thousands of tons of this are sold at Alk
mar, the stuff being brought In In wagons
over the road, on barges Up the canals and
by the small farmers In dog carts. Tho
price of cheese makes good or bad times In
the dairy regions, and by the rise or fall of
a cent or so a pound the farmer Is happy
I am surprised to see how well the Dutch
care for their cattle. They treat them like
children, and are careful that nothing Is
done to excite or disturb them.
On a cold day. If Inithe fields are blank
eted, and when hot the. blankets aro often
kept on as a protection from the files. The
cows are fed In the fields, and the milking
Is done in the pasture, the fanners claiming
that the animals should not be worried by
being driven- Into the stable.
On large farms the milk is collected by
wagons, and on tho small ones the milk
maids often bring It in themselves, using a
yoke which Jits over the shoulders, with a
bucket hung to each end.
In France I found the cattle tied to stakes
to ke.'p them from destroying the crops
next the pastures. Here In Holland noth
ing is tethered or watched. There are but
few fences but' little canals, two or throe
feet wide, take th!r places.
The gate to a field Is often a drawbridge.
which Jslet down when the animals paSs
in or-out, but at other times rema!s up.
Other bridges have gates built upon them,
and It looks funny to see such gates stand
ing here and there alone in tho fields.
THE PLACE OF FENCES.
Tha falmers aro r everywhere thrifty.
Nothing goes to waste. The haystacks at
roofed with boards or thatched In such a
way that the thatch can be lowered as the
hay la fed out.
All woodwork Is painted, and rot and
rust are not to be seen. Indeed, the only
things that show rigns of decay here are
the windmills, some of which are hundrtds
of years old.
In some cases these hnv bcn replaced by
steam or oil engines, but they still do a
great deal of pumping nrd grinding. You
sea them everywhere upon tho Dutch land
scape; pome aro huge affairs, with arms
thirty or more feet long, and great ston
or brick towers rising high above the rest
of the landscnpe. Some saw lumber and
others grind flour for the stock. It takes
only two men for a large mill, so that tha
expense of running Is slight. I am told that
a large, mill costs $1,000 or $2,000, and that
the smaller ones aro much more expensive
thatuthe steal structures of a similar kind
TheDulch make money out of gardenlrtgi
Rnrt especially flower gardening. They ralss
vegetables and fruits for England, but tliclr
peaches and pears lack flavor, though they
are full of juice.
They taste to me much like the fruits of
Japan, which has about the same climate.
There are parts of Holland, however,
which are Just right for flowers. Take the
region about Haarlem, where more bulbs
are raised than at any place In the world.
The soil there Is a mixture of sand and
loam, Just fitted for the best of tulips, hya
cinths and gladioluses.
There are syndicates and individuals at
Haarlem who do a big business In bulb
raising. They have patches of tulips, hya
cinths and others bulbs acres In extent
OLD-FASHIONED CRAZT QUILT.
The hyacinths load the air with their per
fume, and the fields are of such colors that
In passing through on the railroad at cer
tain times of the year, you seem to be trav
eling over a craty quilt more gorgeous than
any ever put together In reality.
There arc In all about 2.000 different kinds
of tulips raised here; tOCO varieties of gUd
lotuses and 1,700 hyacinths.
The bulbs are planted In trenches, with
the large plants In the center and the small
ones at the side. The varieties ara kept
separate, each row being labeled with its
The most of the bulbs exported by Hol
land are raised near Haarlem, and this
means an amount equal to about $3,090,000
annually, much of which comes from the
It was at Haarlem that the best tulip
were raised during the great crux, whin
uch bulbs brought their weight in gold.
auuui die uiiiv mnv inai me
went , wild ovtr
WniTTKN FOn THE SUNDAY RENJBL1C.
Modern life I llkf ft three-ringed clrcu,
and he who has the longest neck gets the
best of It. We are told that our ancestors
Were quiet, leisurely people who drifted
through life taking things as they found
them. alwas at their pane, never In a
Perhaps that Is why thlr portraits look
down from the walls with such an evident
eVi.rpsaion of disapproval. Wpi the'r grand
children, no longer drift. It we did. we
hould Quickly drift out to sea and d'sap
pear. Unl'ke them, we are nervous, active,
qulck-wtttcd and supple in the neck.
It Is In this last respect .that we differ
mest radically from thoe who went before
us Scientists find that there Is 65 per cent
more rubber In the neck of a succes'ful man
now than there was twehty years ago.
And there Is need that there should be. If
a man cannot see backward as well as for
ward, and on all sdes as well, how Is he to
make any progress through the whirlpool
that we call modern life? If a woman's
neck Is not as lengthy as a swan's, how is
sl-e ever to keep up with all the things that
her Intensely modern ne'ghbors are doing!
AH thinking people admit these facts. Ev
ery one realizes the crying need of rubber
necks. Yet it is only here and there that
we see a finely developed specimen. The
owner smiles mysteriously, admits that his
or her success Is due to the possession of a
rubber neck, but refuses to tell how that
valuable phvs'ologlcal condition is obtained.
Too much cannot be said against such
selfishness. What If all great discoveries
were kept secret In this msnnerT Where
would the human race be now?; What If the
man who Invented printing had kept It for
his own amusement or the astonishment ot
his friends? What if Columbus had gone
They speculate still, but most of their en
terprises are on an investment basts. Dur
ing the tulip craxe. along about when Bos
ton was started, one Haarlem tulip bulb
brought $1,500. with a team of gray horses
and a carriage throwh In, and an Amster
dam bulb was sold fortwetve acres of land.
Both of these bulbs were of the variety
known as the Semper Augustus, of which
there were then only two In existence.
At the same time other varieties brought
enormous sums. Tulip buying was a reg
ular business! and men grew rich and poor
from the trade.
Rome Dutch mortsAS-ed their hmt to
buy tulips, and the loss of a peck of bulbs
caused a man's rulh.
The Dutch tulips now sell for ordinary
prices, but they are still handled on busi
ness principle), and both cultivation and
marketing have been reduced to a science.
The bulbs are set out In Beptember and
October.. They are carefully cultivated by
skilled workmen, many of the farms em
ploying hundreds of hands. They aro packed
for the market Just so and are shipped to
seed and flower dealers all AVer the world.
I doubt If the ordlnarv Dutch farmer
makes money. Take the tO.Ooo who have
less than fifteen acres. They eannot at
best produce more thaH a living. Indeed,
some bf these are selling their farms and
FARM LABORBR9 HIRHD
FOR 20 CENTB A DAY.
Lands are high and rents are-calculated
at about 3 per cent of the land values.
Wages are very low. A good farm hand
can be hired ft-;Jrom $0 to 40 cents a day,
and a common- price Is $fl0 a year, with a
suit or ciotnes ana a pair or Doots tnrown
In. Manyof the farm hands) now go off to
Belglutn and France at harvest time, so
that labor is scarce. There is also an exo
dus from the country to the Cities and the
factories, where the wages are higher.
Even In the cities tha wages paid seem
ridiculous in comparison with those of the
United States. The Government usually
pays as much as any one.
Here are some figures recently published
as to what men received who worked on
State contracts: Common workmen got 5
cents an hour, carpenters 6 cents and ma
sons and bricklayers 7 cents.
Blacksmiths received 7 Cents an hour and
turners, planers, fitters and Iron workers 8
cents. The wsges in the factories are no
better, ahd the hours ot work range all the
way from nine to thirteen per day. On the
farms both men and women work, and tha
women, as a rule, do as much as the men.
In the factories there ere also women and
children. , ,
Children are allowed in the factories at
the age of 11 The little Ones go to their
labors at 6 o'clock, starting work on noth
ing but a cup of hot coffee or perhaps a
piece Ot rye bread, and coming home to
breakfast at fc. They to back an hour
later, and lay Oft for dinner from 12 to 1,
when they return to complete the day.
Tha wages paid children are but a few
cents a day, and boys start into a trade as
low as 20 cents a week.
There are fixed rules u to apprentices,
some shops refusing to take them because
there are ho law by which they can hold
them after they have learned enough to be
Of late, however, technical schools have
been established, and the children will have
a better chance to learn trades than In the
past FRANK G. CARPENTER,
cspjrfltht. lHt, by F. O. carpenter.
From Paris comes the report of a new
amusement known as "electric billiards."
It Is played on a table. In the center of
which Is placed a plate ot some easily elec
The billiard balls ara of compressed
pitch, and the cue la a short rod with a
cork tip, prepared chemically.
The balls art, of course, subject to the
Influence of the electrified plate In the
center of the table, and owing to this fact
It Is difficult to make caroms.
It is said to be purely a game of skill.
and When it is mirogucen into sew xoric,
which It is said will be In the near fu-
I H A GREAT BOTAIICAl BISCOf EEY Hi
PRACTICAL VALVE OP THE BELOVED RUBBER PLANT AS OUTLINED BY HENRIETTA HUMMER.
ture. It Is 'iy.lo..one Paf.nJ"nJooAon Front street. Just west of where
ISVKJ " CooMy Bank is, and was .kept
for new difficulties
by all others who nnd handling the cuo a
,r'rt&& jfcgJ voiBrfE" ' ""
back home and never told? All the world
would have lost by It. And yet there hava
been people who have known the secret of
acquiring rubber necks and let that secret
go down with them to heir graves.
Napoleon must have known.
His life proves It. And to a keen observer
the apparent shortness of the neck In his
portraits shows It to have been of that ex
tremely fine quality of gutta percha that
snaps back Instantly Into place. The artlst3
chce to represent the great man In his
qultt moment. But Napoleon on the battle
field, Napolon In the council chamber, must
have been a different man.
Only think how that neck must have shot
suddenly forth when no one expected It,
enabled Its owner to rubber quickly all
around, see all that was In sight and more
tco, and then how it must have snapped
back firm and short and strong, ready tor
use again at an Instant's notice. Yet he
never told. His knowledge died with him.
Astonishing as It will seem to future ages
the secret Is now about to be given to the
world for tho first time. In this, humble
and unpretentious essay I shall endeavor
to clear up the mystery.
So simple Is the explanation that the read
er will say to himself: "Why, or course!
How odd that I never thought of ltl"
Reader, has It never occurred to you that
coincident with the Increase of rubber-necks
in America has been the astonishing growth
In popularity of rubber plants? Were there
electric lights In our cities before there were
electric light plants? Would we expect to
find oysters on our tables without oyster
plant In our gardens, or pie without pie
plant? Tha newest housekeeper knows bet
ter than that.
The rubber plant has long been known and
revered as a household Idol, as a symbol of
Money Advice by th:&
Oldest Illinois Millionaire
Bloomlngton, III., March 7. One of the
oldest millionaires In Illinois lives here. His
name Is Abraham Brokaw, and he Is S3
years of age.
He accounts for his wealth by saying that
he always stuck to what he set out to do.
His vigorous health he attributes to the
fact that he has never tasted liquor or used
tobacco In any form.
Mr. Brokaw was t personal friend of
Abraham" Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas.
In fact, he knew all of the prominent men
of Illinois at that time. Peter Cartwrlght,
the blunt old Methodist evangelist, who ex-1
pounded the gospel with his fists whenever
It becamo necessary, was a close friend of
The Bloomlngton millionaire has lived to
see all cf his former associates pass away.
KNEW DISTINGUISHED MEN.
He was but a young man when the little
company of lawyers, Stephen A. Douglas,
David Davis, Wells Coltoh, Abraham Lin
coln, Jesse B. Thomas and others accom
panied Judge Treat on his circuit to hold
court They would come from Springfield
to Bloomlngton for a week, then mount and
again move on to Pontlao for a session of a
day. Again turning their horses toward
Bloomlngton they passed through en their
way to Clinton for another day's court
Brokaw always associated with them when
they stopped off in Bloomlngton, and many
a funny story has he heard Lincoln relate.
After a time this band of jfoung men be
gan prospering. Brokaw manufactured
plows and accumulated a fortune.
Judge Treat was, appointed to the United
States District Court and David Davis, who
subsequently moved here from Pekln, was
appointed his successor. Leonard Sweet aft
erward located here. Colonel Orme and Ed
Baker were prominent lawyers who lived
here. John T. Stewart, who prepared him
self for law in Lincoln's office, was In the
volunteer service during the Black Hawk
war, and served Illinois as a member of
Congress. Ward H. Lemon became an ora
tor and able politician. Ed Baker after
ward emigrated to California, where he be
came a Senator.
When the rebellion was In progress he
enlisted with a California regiment, and
met his death at Ball's Bluff.
Judge Stephen D. Logan was a young
man. He had tried and lost two or three
cases Ih Kentucky. He had grown so dis
couraged that he decided to abandon the
profession, but his friends rallied around
him and urged him to hold on. He did and
in time came to be a bright light.
LINCOLN AND DOUGLAS.
In speaking ot these acquaintances tho
other day Mr. Brokaw said:
"Stephen A. Douglas did considerable
business here and was active In the courts
He was a fine statesman nnd a gifted speak
er. I frequently heard him talk, both in
the courts and on political occasions. One
day, during the Harrison campaign, court
adjourned In tne morning in orner id urai
a debate between Douglas and Lincoln In
"As the abolition question was red hot.
public sentiment was very sensitive. In
closing his speech, Lincoln, who led off. said
that If his opponent tacked the wool upon
Harrison's head he would pull it off again
In his closing speech. When he took the
floor Douglas retorted that he would begin
Just where the other gentleman left off, and
that he would stick to the wool question.
"I was well acquainted with Lincoln. He
went to the Legislature the first summer
that I was here. When here he stopped at
the same hotel where I boarded. That
Dy JBines lISO. At mo tcauiiig iiwici.
.When h earns bar Lincoln would always
IftPiSer "-?, T'?jV-CirfViv1-r'"'
the home. It has long been loved almost as
a member of the family. It has stood In
the minds of many for the very thought of
It has held as high a place as the sacred
fire upon the hearth 'did In the minds of the
people of nnclent Greece. Mottoes have
been worked In shaded silk by loving fingers
bearing the legend, "What Is Home Without
a Rubber Plant?" arid hung on the walls of
ourdrawing-rooms, and friends coming Into
the house have been greeted by the ex
clamation, "See how our rubber plant Is
But of the practical value of the beloved
plant too little has been known. With a
strange, perverse blindness, people have re
fused to see that families brought up In a
pious reverence for the household rubber
trco have Invariably turned out successful
men and women. Very little Is yet known,
of the exact manner in which rubber Is
taken into the systems of those who coma
into does contact with a healthy rubbe
plant, but that such Is the case, no one who
looks Into the matter can for a moment
doubt. Let a rubber plant be Introduced In
to a family, and tha effect will soon be ob
served. The constitution ot erery member of the
family will begin to develop a certain elas
ticity, ahd their necks to become more elon
gated and easily extended. This will give
them s better grasp of current events, and
the knowledge of details that Insures suc
cess. Too much cannot be said in favor of the
adoption Into every home of a rubber plant.
Parents who wish to do their best for their
children should take this matter seriously
'into'ebnslderatlon, and people who feel that
they have not been a success In life should
remember that it is never too late to buy s
Men Can Earn
circle around among us young fellows anjd
enjoy a good time. He was as commonU
"In the hotel dining-room was a long din
ing table. One day during a term of court;
the coterie of lawjers were placed In agjj
lppf nmvrA fit ih hpnA nt thA f Ahte. VTjSSt
local boarders were at the lower end. cJSs?j-jji:
Ing in a little late. Lincoln got seated &''
tha wronr comranv. with the boys ofstiVt
... rri.- -......... tn.l,j 1.1m ,M JL Ia-iTC
tunua auo yirfjiniv, ,.icu u,u ,w gu v
among hl3 professional brethren. Lincoln
asked: 'Is the tea any better at the o.tjtil
ehd? but did not move. 'Z."
TRIALS FOR DENTISTS. H
"Do you see these glasses?" taking a pair
off his head. "They belonged to Doctor
Hobbs. He and I were for several years
members of the family of Lewis Bunn. 'He
was a dentist, but as people In that day did
not spend much money for dentistry that
profession did not afford him satisfactory
support So he taught school and did other
things. Many of Bloomtngton's people who)
are becoming elderly were his pupils. aBs
was a leader In society, a fine dresser, and
a gentleman of polish. -rr
"Then there was old John Hehdrix. tth
i first white settler who brought a family
! Infix nrhnt la n,. M.T.n- P.iinlrf Ia i j
....v. ,ib 13 nun -fcll .wumj. OQ ,W
a Very able man and a prominent class)
leader In the Methodist Church. I still have
a distinct recollection of his prayers, which
were the most earnest I have ever heard;,!
remember the first time I ever saw hlnvin
'37, not far from Orendolph Springs, a cams)
meeting was being held. The Reverend Mr,
St Clare who stopped at Mr. Bunn's a good
deal when here, was the Presiding Elderuaa
I had never seen a Western camp meeting
I went down one hot August day. Bqtb,
tents and log cabins were on the grouftd.
People went Into trances, fell over on tin
ground, and shouted lustily. o
"As I was approaching a woman was)
shouting so loud that she could be heardifes
a mile. I knew v cry well people on the ground
I noticed an elderly man laboring on'tas
knees in front of one of the cabins. Lock
ing around. I saw James Price, whom I hap
pened to know. When I asked who the oM
man was. he told me that It was John
Hcndrix. Price's eyes were filled with tears,
too. That fall Hendrlx passed away." i
"Well, did you remove the spikes?" ba
"Yes; but I never got the $3." T
Mr. Brokaw Is one of only a few surrts
Ing settlers In McLean County. When talk
Ing of old times and faces ho speaks wltm
emotion, sometimes with eyes welling with)
"Very few rich men are lucky enoughrta
reach a ripe old age," remarked Mr. Bro
kaw, after finishing his reminiscences. -J3
think tho reason I have been spared IS that
I never broke my neck reaching out after
money. Cohstant worrying will kill a raaa
almost as quickly as the excessive ties-ox
"My policy in life has been to stick ta
what I set out to do. I never rolled around
from one thing to another. To boys, who
want to accumulate money. I would offer
the following suggestions:
"Get a plan In your head. - 1
"Stick to that plan. a 3
"Keep in good company. r '
"Indulge no bad hablta "
"Avoid the company of those who doIn
dulge in bad habits.
"Cultivate your own abilities. i
"Rely upon vourself. a'
. "Study common sense." tA
In his present advanced age the old set
tier Is still methodical. He shaves hlm
jelf, heats his house with wood. stoves and
uses kerosene lamps. He goes to bed -between
7 and 8 every evening and arises,
between S and 6 In the moraine . . 22
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