Newspaper Page Text
OF YUMA COUNTY
jOndcpcndent in all thing. . ' - ' C Yuma, Arizona The Gate City of the Great Southwest
VOL. XXXVII. YUMA. AJRIZONA. WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 1908. ' NO 46
. i I l i 1
I'iISHED EVERY WEDNESDAY
YUMA, : : : : ARIZONA
! J. W. DORRINGTON. Proprietor.
One Year ?2 00
Six Months 1 00
Goverr.oc Jofaph H. Kibbey
Secretary w. F. Nichols
Auditor John N. Page
Treasurer H. K. Kirkland
Attamex General E. S. Clark
Survivor General F. S. Ingalls
Sunt ."ot Public Instruction R. It. Lone
Delrer&te to Congress Mark Smith
aupt Territorial itisoh jerry juuiuy
PHOENIX T.AND OFFICK
Kertsfr . Milton R. Moore
Receiver Ken S. Hildreth
District Judcc John H. Campbell
Clerk of District Court.. ....C. H. TJttlng
, .. (H. H. Donkersley. Chairman:
supervisors H Kent and J, H. Shanssey.
Clerk Board of Supervisors ..Jas. M. Tolhamus
Probate Judge and Sup't of Schools
I. H. uoairey
District Attorney . . .
P. T. Robertson
W. H. Elliott
Dr. Thomas J. Puch
County Recorder. . . .
...Jas. M. Polhamns
C. V. Meeden
Justice of the i'cace mr weaonao
Constable Julio Martinez
Truss es Yuma School District V. H. Elliott,
J. Y. Dorrington.O. C. Johnson.
A. L. DeMund
P. J, Miller, r,. W. Alexander.
Squire. Munroe, John Gandolfo
V. Jj. Incraham-
oire;i- wrauaiwiuuu n. uun.j
Mail open on Sundays from H to 8 a. m.
Week days, 8 a. m. to 6 p. ra.
7IO iUOney urwr nusin;ss un ruimi.vj.
Mall (East and West) closes every day at 7 p. m.
it. ti. v:nanaier t:
vrrMA LODGE NO. 7 A. O. U. W. MEETS
JL. every Tuesday evening at 8 o'clock. Visit
ing brethren in pood standing arc invited to
Attend. Yours in C H. and P.
r. U. EWIKti, Al. W.
ED. MAYES. R.
10. meets every Sunday at Elks' hall, 6 p.
f B UlUUUl.-. A...V-W-. .....
pastor. J. M. Ocbeltrce. Sunday School every
Sunday morning at 10 o'clock, P. T. Robertson,
FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. SERVICES
on the fourth Sunday in each month at
2:30 p. m. Prayer meeting on Friday night of
each week. Eugene Keen, pastor in charge.
CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY: SUN
davs. Mass at 9 a. m. Rosary and Bene
diction at 7 p. m. Week days. Mass at 7 a. m.
Christian doctrine taught daily by the pastor
n English at E:30a. m.; In Spanish' at K:30 p. m.
XRANK BAXTER, Attorney at Law and
NotRi-v Pnhllr.. Will nrae.tlee In all the
...cJTVP-l ho Ttrritsri' KrA.iiil n t(rlit,!fini? o
Klnlns and Land Laws. P. O. Box 401. Kim
Btreet, South Side, Yuma, Arizona.
Trr"E'lX3HERSIDE & ICETCHERSIDE. PHY
w. sl-.ians and Sunreons. Office in Cotter's
H. Woppkrman. Mary A. Wuppermas
TTTUPrEKMAN G WUFfJSBMAH, A'lTUK-
V V neys at law. Notary Public Court Re
porting, umcesm wupnerman uuuumg, juraa,
Arizona. Telephone No. 206.
ETER T. ROBERTSON. ATTORNEY AT
Law, Office in Cotter Bldg., Yuma, Arir-
'V Surveyor: U. S. Deputy Mineral Sur-
yor. luma, Arizona.
OOME TO THE SENTINEL OFFICE
for Job Work. Satisfaction assured.
TRAUTMAN, Jeweler and Optician.
I KILLthe couch
(and CURE the LUNCS
run I zyx1 boc & $1.00.
OLDS Trial Bottle Free
AND ALL THROAT AND LUNG TROUBLES.
OS HONEY BEFUNDED.
Neahfs Boarding House.
Have your meals at. Neahr's
Meals: 25c and up.
Sunday Dinner: 35c,
MEAL HOURS Week days:
Breakfast, 5 to 10 A. M., Dinner,
11:80 a.m. to p.m., Supper, 5:30
to 8 P.M.
Yo$ find your meals just as
you jpj them, and, if desired,
can liive them cooked to order.
A.11 kinds of Spanish dishes, if
vou like them.
All-home cooking. Come and
try our fare.
Mrs. D. L. Neahr.
Wanted: good hustler in every
town to sell our perfect water filters,
retailing from $1.50 to $8.00, 160 per
cent profit to agents; exclusive terri
tory. Seneca Filter Co., Seneca, Mo
PATRONIZE HOME INDUSTRY.
ALPHA STEAM LAUNDRY
Turns Out Frst-Class Work
ZT Leave orders at Shorcy'a, Southwestern News Company.
BEAUTIFUL RESORT OP PICO HEIGHTS, LOS ANGELES
-i f PICO HEIGHTS HOTEL i J-
American and European plan. Special
excellent table board. Write for illustrated booklet, reservations and lowest
Pico Heights Hotel, 1816
Colorado River Lumber Company
DEALERS JN ALL KINDS OF
LUMBER I BUILDING MATERIAL
Builders' Hardware, Lime, Nephi Plaster, Glass, Ctc.Etc ,
COR. THIRD ST. AND MADISON AVENUE
president and manager
H. H. DONKERSLEY
PIONEER LIVERY TRANSFER COMPANY
Light Livery of all descriptions. Outfits for the Desert
and Mountain. Ezpress Wagon service.. Trucking
and Hauling in all their branches
Livery, Phone 48. 4 Transfer, Phone 47
JOHNSON & BOWLES
Next Door to Postoffice
fidelity Title Guaranty Company
And Certificates of Title
The Only Complete Set of Abstract Books in Yuma Cunty
PROCURED AND DEFENDED. Send model,
drawlntf orpiioto.for expert search and froo report. I
Free novice, how to obtain patents, trade marks, '
copyrights. etc, in ALL COUNTRIES. I
Business direct n-UM Washington saves fimeA
tnoney ana cjien tne patent.
Patent and Infringement Practice Exclusively.
Write or come to ui at
82S iriath Street, epp. United States Patent OflceJ
WASHINGTON. D. C.
you should always bear in vjnind it's not
a final "Good-bye," as we ex-pect to see
you again. Yes, indeed; it's as certain
as the shining sun that we'll see those
again who buy our
They're satisfied to the limit and bring
their friends, that they, too, may have
the benefit of our unusually good things
Besides, when other purchases are nec
essary, here is where they mak3 them.
Stock was never higher grade than it is
Alexander & Co.
The Up to Date Groeers.
raes to families; all home comforts:
Vermont Ave., Los Angeles
G. H. ROCKWOOD
G. S. PT R KIN k CO.,
Horse Shoeing a Specialty.
Shop cor. Second St. and Maidsn Lane
A Lesson in Intensive Farming by
R H. Forbes, Director and
Chemist of Agricultural
University of Arizona,
Januury 15, 11)07.
Just vest of Yuma. Arizona, in the alluvial
flood-plain of the Colorado, lies a little farm
of 7.2 acres which on May 1, llXw, was virgin
bottomland, covered with saltweed. arrow
brush and creosote bushes. The original
purpose of the tract was for planting selected
varieties of uate palms imported by the u. .
lepartment of Agriculture from the Old
World. The Experiment Station, May 2, be
gan preparing the ground, and on May 20 the
work of levelling, bordering and irrigating
the tract and the planting of 152 palms, was
TIIK PLAN OK WORK
Recognizing, however, that a farmer with
his living to make meantime, cannot afford
to wait for an orchard to come Into bearing.
it was planned to plant crops for quick re
turns between the tree-rows, thus putting the
work on a feasible basis from the small farm
er's point of view. In order to economize
ground the irrigating borders were so placed
as to coincide with the rows of palms, thus
utilizing space otherwise usually wasted.
The tract was divided by the borders into
lands, for the most part one-naif an acre In
size. Irrigating water from tiie Colorado
Vsillev P. & I. Canal was obtained in t.hu cus
tomary manner, and E. i. Crane, himself a
Yuma Valley farmer, undertook the care of
what was nicknamed our play farm."
In size, as well as in the Intensive character
of the work planned, this farm" is the op
posite of the average holdings of this locality
The prevailing crops of the region are alfalfa,
corn, barley, and forages in general, compara
lively little attention being given to vege
tables and fruits. Withal, the cost of levelling
land in this region is high, rarely falling be
low twenty dollars an acre at current prices.
for labor and teams. Moreover, the cost, ex
elusive of maintenance, of the Government
irrigating syslem now under construction
will be about sj.oO an acre annually for ten
years. To meet these and other heavy items
of expense in connection with t he establish
mentof a farm In this region, intensive crops
of a more remunerative character than those
now in vogue, are essential. It was partly,
therefore, as an object lesson bearing upon
these financial aspects of the general situa
tion, that this cultural work was planned
RECLAMATION OF THE GUOUND.
The soil of our tract, a warm, sandy loam
well adapted to gardening operations, was
levelled, ditched nnd bordered at a contract
price ol S17.20 an acre, considerably less than
the average for Ihe locality, reckoning the
labor of men and teams at current rates. In
addition, barbed wire and posts for fencing
cost 860-he lumber for headgates cost bSd.o
a drive well point and pipe, a pitcher-spout
pump and a barrel, IK.45: a small lumber
two-room house, Including five and one-half
dnvs carpenter hire, 8162.75; and a brush-roof
shelter for horses, about So.OO. Only skilled
labor employed In levelling, bordering and
ditching the ground, and for part construc
tion ofthe house, Is included in the above
estimates, as the common labor required or
dinarily would be, and in this case was, fur
nished by the fanner himself.
To bring this ground under cultivation and
make it habitable for a small farmer and his
fii ml ly, as stated above, therefor? required a
cash outlay or about siiHMK). n addition, in
the average Instance mustt be included a
team, wagon, plow, harrow, haying equi-
ment shovels hoes, and 'other small tools. .
CROr.S AND JIAKKKTS.
The crops selected for the season of litOO
weie Karly Hose potatoes, White Bermuda
onions. Kockyford cantaloupes, Dwarf Cham
pion and uurpee's (Quarter cent ury tomatoes,
and alfalfa, besides a few hills of watermelons
and sundry vegetables.
The produce was marketed In Yuma with
the exception of tomatoes, which, for (he
largest part, were expressed to Tucson and
Blsbee. The following statements for the
various crops are on the basis of net cash le
turns to the small farmer, who with an aver
age family of live and a team of tiorses is as
sumed to do the work required, as explained
below. Items necessitating cash outlay, as
seed. Irrigating water, and crates are deducted
from gross returns. Water costs an average
of 50 cents for irrigation per acre for the crops
grown. The yields in certain instances are
low! due to the unimproved condition of the
soil, which, like desert soils In genial, was
low in nitrogen and organic matter. Some
small salty areas also atTected yields locally.
White Bermuda onions; .17 acres; Heed
planted Sept- 27-Oct. 3, lf)05. Young onions
transplanted, Feb. 5-fl. 190i. Crop matured
about June 1. Yield, 3011! pounds of dry on
ions. Highest price received, 24c a pound;
lowest price received, 1.8c a pound. Entire
"-rop marketed in Yuma.
Seed S 2.88
9 Irrigations in seed bed and
8 irrigations In field, about 3.50
Sacks and sundry, about ixfi
391K pounds of onions at 2.5-
Net cash returns, not de
ducting labor (HO
The amount of labor expended unon this
crop was large for the area, especially at the
transplanting lime, une nays team work in
preparing the land and about 32 davs. men's
time, were required to bring it through, al-
tnougn tne worK was not Heavy and could
have been largely performed bv bovs. The
yield was low owing to the desert nnd unfer
tilized character of the soil, onions requiring
large amounts of organic matter In the soil to
give good results.
Early nose potatoes; .81 acres: Seed pota
toes planted Feb. 16-19, 1906. Beginning to
bloom April 13. Crop all harvested June 13.
Yield. 2615 pounds. Highest price. Mav 21.
3'4c- Bulk of crop, 2?ic. All marketed In
250 pounds seed-potatoes an d
freight on same S 8.03
Irrigating water for sesbanla
used as fertilizer 2.08
2 irrigations for crop .81
frormaltnc for scab, includ
2615 pounds of potatoes at
Net cash returns, not de
ducting labor o7.15
The amount of labor renuired for the r.mn
itself was about 15 working days, with team
Us days. The sesbania used as green manur
ing on the west half of the Potato irround was
given 17 irrigations. Bermuda grass, more
over, flourished beneath the sesbania to such
an extent as subsequently to require 23 days
labor for cleaning up the .ISacres so fertilized.
Although the larger part of the crop came
from the sesbania fertilized portion or the po
tatoes, this method of enriching the soil
proved very costly, 27 days mans time and 8
days team-work being required to put the ses
bania under and afterwards get. rid of the
Bermuda grass. Nevertheless, the labor eng
tailed could easily have been managed by a
careful farmer, as the Bermuda digging was
done In January when other work was not
Tomatoes. Dwarf Champion and Burpee's
Quarter Century; .52 acres: Seed planted in
cold-frame, Feb. 1, 1906. Transplanted to field,
March 12-15. First ripe tomatoes, June 10.
I,ast of marketable crop, Sept. 8. Yield, first
class, 11282 pounds; second class, salable, 2249
pounds; waste, most of which could have
been canned, 1810 pounds. Total crop or 3300
vines, 15341 pounds or 4.0 pounds, gross, to the
vine. Highest price received, 30c for a singlo
pound on June 10. Bulk of first-class crop sold
during July In Tucson and Blsbee markets, at
iilA to 4'4c f. o. b. Yuma. Second class crop
sold locally down to 2c.
18 Irrigations, Vt acre t.fiO
438 crates for shipments to
Tucson and Blsbee 66.50
13531 pounds or tomatoes at
30c to 2c
Net cash returns, not de
ducting labor ."551.88
Jsot including 814.60, railed to collect.
Until the last or June this crop required but
little labor. During the shipping season,
however, four persons were employed on
about hair time In picking, packing and shlp
ing the crop. The entire labor requirements
for the crop were, men's time, 85 days; women
and boys, 38 days; and team 10 days, the
heaviest demand upon labor being during
July Dwi-ri Champion and Burpee's Quarter
Century yielded about equally well, both be
Ing of the dwarf bushy sorts best adapted to
this climate. Barnyard manure was used un
der the double rows, otherwise the eround
was unfertilized save by the muddy irrigating
Rockyford cantaloupes; 1 acre: Seed planted
March 7-9. 1906. Cold, backward saason re.
suiting In thin stand equal to about three-
inurms or an acre. Crop picked July 5 to
Sept. 7. Yield 780 dozen, sold locally at from
aoc to i;c a dozen.
1 pound seed........ 3 1.00
16 irrigations 8.00
780 dozen cantaloupes at 85c '
Net cash returns, not de
ducting labor 135.60
. . . $144.60 8144.60
l ne moor on tnis crop was light, but in this
case ume consuming, because of Inconvenient
arrangements for marketing. There were em
ployed on the crop 31 days men's time; 8 days
wumen ana ooysjana u uays team, not other
The crop was fertilized with barnyaid man
ure in about three-fourths of the hills, and. as
stated above, thestand was poor. The results
or tins acre are therefore conservative.
Watermelons and sundry small Items of
produce were sold locally to the amount
eea ana irrigating water, about S 2.00
Leaving a cash return of about- 13.65
Alfalfa: 1.70 acres: This was sown Afn.v lfi
1905, yielding three cuttings of about flve'tons
or clean nay the nrst season. During the sec
ond season, covered by this Timely Hint,
there were seven cuttings with a total of
about ai tons or hay. The only cash outlay
was szi.ii ior irrigating water. Tne labor re
quired was, nianls time, 14 days nnd team
nine days, which is rather hirh lahor reoulre-
ment for this alfalfa on account of the small
size of the field under consideration, and lim
ited use of machinery. This crop at 85 00 to
810.00 a ton, loose, which has been the price
mis season, represents a cash return of not
less than 8120.00 for the crop; but this hay was
used to feed the team employed on the place.
proving to bp more than sufficient for that.
purpose, since a stack of about three tons re-
mains at the end ofthe season. The manure
from this source, being free from Bermuda
grass seed, was especially valuable for fertil
izlng a part of the crops grown.
THE LUHBER WASTE PROBLEI!
Jf l v e
hundred manufacturers of
plosives, pulp wood and similar
products have been asked by the
National Conservation Commis
sion for information as to all pos
sible uses of sawdust. From this
it will be seen the Commission is
going into tine details in its in
ventory of the natural resources
of the country. Seven thousand
lumbermen have been asked for
their opinion as to the waste of
lumber in saw mills and more
than two thousand lumber deal
ers and cooperage, veneer, f urni
ture, box, vehicle and implement
manufacturers have been asked
to point out striking features or
waste in their respective lines'
ret all this is only one part of
the general scheme of liuntin
down waste which the Commis
sion is following in making its
inventory. It is going after the
little wastes here and there,
which, added together, and put
into dollars and cents, make an
For instance, take the making
of veneer. At first blush it mav
not seem worthy of consideration
with the manufacture of other
products mentioned. Yet, the
scarcity of the more attractive
finishing woods in the last few
years has led to the annual pro
duction of over 1,100,000,000
square feet ()f veneer. This, of
course, has been made possible
only by the introduction of new
The use of veneer is generally
regarded as exemplifying the
scarcity of the finer woods and
typifying the complete utiliza
tion of various kinds of woods,
yet, from one of the schedules of
the National Conservation Com
missionjt is evident that the
Commission expects to discover
great waste even in veneer man
ufacture. Though the word veneer carries
many meanings, from a glaze ap
plied to pdttery to the "polish"
of a man of the world, it is most
commonly employed as the name
for the thin slices of wood now
extensively used in the manufac
ture of all sorts of articles of
use, such as wood plates, baskets
and the exterior finish of furni
ture and wood work. The man
ufacture of veneer in the last few
years has advanced by leaps and
The best veneer is sawed, but
a great deal is sliced and still
more is "rotary cut." By the
last named process logs of the
desired wood are steamed until
they are soft and then fixed in a
lathe-like machine, in which they
are turned against a wood knife.
As the log rotates against the
knife, veneer of the desired thick
ness is peeled off in a continuous
slice, as if you should pare an
apple, going deeper and deeper
at each complete turn, until
nothing is ieftbut the core. The
center of the log left after
veneer is cut is also called a
The woods principally used in
making veneer are red gum,
maple and yellow poplar, which,
together yield more than half of
the total product. Red gum is
largely used for baskets and
maple for furniture. More valu
able than these, however, are
white oak and walnut veneer.
Beech, which can be cut very
thin, is used very largely for
wooden plates. A number of
other kinds of woods are used.
A good deal of waste occurs in
the manufacture of veneer. It is
always a problem, for instance,
what use to make of the cores
left by the rotary process. In
many cases these uses for pulp
wood, pillars,or panel headings,
and they are largely used also
for fuel, excelsior, crates, boxes
In the schedule of inquiries
which the National Conservation
Commission, through the Forest
Service, is sending out, several
questions are aimed to secure in
formation as to the amount of
waste in veneer manufacture and
the possibilities of finding ways
to utilize it.
Had Tetter for Thirty Years.
I have suffered with tetter for thirty
years and have tried almost countless
remedies with little, if nny. relief.
Three boxes of Chamberlain's Salve
cured me. It was a torture. It breaks
out a little sometimes, but nothing to
what it uaed to do. D. H. Beach, Mid
land City, Ala. Chamberlain's Salve
is for sale by Ketcherside Drug Store.
The Jolly Jokers.
"Mr. Middleman, ah desires to
perpound a cundrum."
"Very well, Mr. Tambo."
"Why does dey designate dat
beautiful vegetable as ah water
melon?" "That's easy. Because it
makes your mouth water."
"Nowhar near de answer. It's
called ah watermelon becase yo'
cut it in de spring."
"Speakin' ob despring reminds
me," broke in the other end man
"M' ol' daddy went out to git
some water one day an' he done
fell in de spring."
"Was he drowned?"
"He wuzzently 'zac'ly drown 'd,
but it done killed him."
"That's strange. He fell in the
spring and was killed?''
"But he wasn't drowned?'
"We!, did he die in
"No, sah; he died in defall."
"Our golden-voiced tenor, Mr.
Vio Lett, will now sinjr that
heart-touching ballad, entitled,
"Warden, Brush Those Locks
Away; I Yearn for Liberty
"Does your wife like that fine
set of furs you got her for
"Don't now haven't seen her
since I gave 'em to her."
"Haven't seen her?"
"No; she's spending all
time calling on her friends."
"Yes," said the thin man,
munching his apple, "I'm a strict
'You mean you think you are,'
replied the observant man.
"What do you mean by that?"
"I mean that I noticed a worm
n that bit or apple you just
Romantic She: "Ah, the fall
ing dew! What is more delightful
thau the time of falling dew?"
Practical He (reminded of that
notice from the bank): 'Heavens!
guess you never had one fall
due,did you?" Browning's Mag
azine. A journalistic philosopher has
remarked that there is no mar
ried bliss compared to that in
which both the husband wife are
base ball fans. But he forgot
the possible contingency of each
one rooting for a different qd-
CAHERON AND STATEHOOD.
The Gazette, commenting on
Mr. Cameron's speech at Phoe
nix last' Friday, said:
His speech was not a long one,
but he went straight to the
heart of things. He was not at
all slow in expressing his confi
dence of victory this fall. He
has said right along that he will
win, and told his audience so.
But to win he must have votes,
and he admitted that is what he
is out for. He expressed his de
sire of meeting every man, woman
and child in the territory before
the campaign is over.
"If you vote for R. H. Camer
on! promise you that you will
never regret it," he said. "For
years and years you have been.
waiting for statehood. If I fail
to secure statehood for Arizona
before March 4th next I will
never again ask a man in this
territory to vote for me for any
The manner in which Mr.
Cameron was applauded showed
that his remarks were well re
ceived. The crowd went wild
with excitement and delight.
Lifelong democrats pushed their
hands down out of sisht and
used them with good effect, until,
in their excitement, they were
openly applauding the opponent
of Mark Smith.
(From the Emporia, Kan., Ga
Some folks say it is my duty,
4? 4-u t i r a ' it-
he isn't chosen captain, our ship
won't stay afloat; but a chap gets'
tired of voting for the man with
out a peer; I can always vote for
Bryan, so I'll vote for Taft this
year. Change is sometimes nec
cessary, if this life we would eng
joy, and, although onr sweetest
boon is voting .for the Peerless
Boy, yet some little variation
makes the landscape seem less
dear; can always vote for Bryan,
so I'll vote for Taft this year.
Even though our children's child
ren hang their heads in deepest
sname, oiusnmg ior tneir ruae
forefathers who at one time
jumped the game who in gloomy
desperation voted down the peer
less dear; we can vote for Bryan .
always, so we'll vote for Taft
It would add spice and spirit
to the political situation if it
could be arranged for Texas and
Alabama, like Maine and New
Hampshire, to exploit a Septem
ber election every presidential
A USEFUL WELL.
Yields Two Kinds of Water Which
are Drawn from It by a Double
Set of Tubing.
Those who have marueled at the ease
with which stane magicians have made
wine and water flow from the same bot
tle have yet to learn that Dame Nature
occautoqally tries a trick of that kind
herself to amuse and mystify those who
bold close communion with her.
Quite frequently the geologists con
nected with the United States yeolog
ical survey report discoveries on their
investigation tours which make of hu
man magicians rank imitators and
place, the mysteries of nature far ahead
of those which man may invent. Among
these is a well at Welaka on St. Johns
River, from which two kinds of water
Tnis well-is 30!) feet deep. The length
of the casing is 110 feet. The well was
first drilled to KiO feet, and from this
depth ordinary "sulphur" water was
obtained. The drill was then carried to
a depth of 309 feet, where it encounter
ed a disagreeable salty taste. In order
to use both kinds of water nn inner
tubing was run nearly to tho bottom of
the well. Both this and the outer cas
ing were connected with pump, bo
that ordinary water and mineral water
can be pumped at the same time. A fa
vorite joke played on visitors is to give
them a drink of the weaker water in
ihe iirst gla&s and to-replace it with tho
brine in the second.
Not more than a half dozen wells of
this kind are known in the country.
In these investigations of the uate-
of Florida the uational and state sur
veys are cooperating and much valuable,
information has been gathered during
the winter's work. Exchange.