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T Jl K HU '1' L A7N D II E II A L I).
RirW-iy. Mud 12, 18-3.
Tl lleVtt trBA tW f-u!ndrfitiso nf ttw fP
jv.rt bf lU Cralttc no EWtioftf on lb mty-tt
rrft! North Carotin. i'rteJ rVee'ion, abseil
SlWiy, Mn lb, I9M-
In trt B.t, Mf ruetfnttd thecrrdrn-
tlt cf W. C. Rite, a Hntr,r from Virginia, in
tKt Hsnw tl JAnT)Iff rc'eneJ,
Mr FU.et t then qualified, and rnoli hie eat.
On motion of Mf Jlurhxntn. I be r-'enate prnced
td In ibe eontidaritiito ef rircoiUe bosiiw'.
Th till rotking further appfnprlsiiun for p
awing Indian ho.iltllea In t"l.rd, ttt read tltr
third ttm. and passed.
Rwolied, Tbtt the Corociittfe r.n Resolutions
rj Prrwiont be instructed to inquire inin the ex
pediency of rttitmj anj cousoliJsliOsj the petition
On motion nf Mr Johnson, f Virginia,
HtsolrrJ, Tfmt the Committee nn Revo!utiu-
tj Pensions t instructed td inquire Into lite ex
pediency cf o amending the act oflhe O.li nf June
1882, as In extend its brneftta to those spies ami
rangera who served six inontht or mere during the
tr of the Revolution, Lather audi terrier
wtrt jscrfarmcJ in an Imbudicd enrpa nr otherwise.
IVrJnrriay. MartK, 10, 1830.
ABOLITION Or SLAV EH V.
Mr. WuMfM, pursuant to nniire.gtirn by him
OS Friday presented sundry memiitialt frutn
tho inhabitant! of lloiton; from Wayne county,
Michigan, ta other places, for abolition of Slurry
ID the District of Columbia, winch he uttered lor re
ception, without airy detirc in ;resip discussion on
the subject, and for the purpose of muting In refer
laeru tn the Commiltre on the District ufCnluui
bit. A memorial with t qucation was laid on the tn-
Himilar memorials were piesentcd by Mr Kwing
of Ohm, Mr Swift, Mr Southard ; Mr Mchan ami
Mr Huchanna", on all of which tho question of re
caption was put, and they weio linally laid on the
tibK to wait the decision nf the b'onntf on the inc
Inoritla presented by Mr S'cbter.
Mr Pi:to.n moved that the Secretory of the
(Fenilo thould prepare a ttatcincnt of the number,
lie. of memorial presented pro ard con, on ubuli
tinn, winch vrai oppoeed by Mr Walker, and bUo
laid on the table.
Mr. nto tubmitteda preamble Id ceitain res
oluticma to expunge from tlm Journal thn rceoln
tiona condemnatory of Pretident Jatl'snn by draw
ing black line round the tame, nnd inserting on
the face of the Heaolutiun, Eipuned by order of
the U. S. day of . lici on the table
Mr Kino, of Geo. mined that the Senate proccnl
to the cnnnidcralion of Executun bininei, which
nraa agreed to, and v. u'.i whicn they were occupicil
until Ibey adjourned.
1m Hi:?iatk Thursday, March 17.
Mr WnnyTrK roue to movo for the piiniing of
8000 extra copies of the ataternrut of th alTnirs of
ihsdepusite banks, transmitted by thu Secretary of
In making thia motion Mr Wcbntcr called I lie
attention of tbn senile tn tho document from the
treasury, showing the state nf the dupuiilo binks,
at the Ulrtt datvs. He quoted from the tabular
statement some of the lending fuels. The linuic
dial? labilities of tho banks amounted, it appeared
to nctrly seicnty-tu-o millions of dollars, nz: the
public depofilcs," 30,678,970 01; tho pritnte ile
positrs 15,013, 0'J3 0I; the bills in circulation,
The amount of specie held bv these bauks.it
farther appeared, was $10,103,050 '24, that is to
ay, there it lets than one dollar specie for i.
dollars debt ; and there is dun to the government
by thoto banks more than three timet tho uinuuni
of Sill lha pcic.
lhrc are other itetni flic said) which swell tho I
amlmnts on rr.rli side, sucli as Jitbts due to the
banks, and debts due from batiks. lint these nrc
equalling qoantitici, and of no moment in the view
I are taking of thr question.
Amun the means of tluvu depotitn bsnks I ice
ain item nfniher inicttments, ' of i.o Icm amuiiul
thin 83 777,2U5 70.
What is meant by l-ire .
other ioiestineu..." I a... n-t inhumed. I wish
. ... , . .
1 hare my
.t I.I..IIJ Iv... I I.-...
i '" oo ,
proofs. Sir, look al tho reported slate of the Far
mers' and Mivhanics' bank of Michigan, thn last in
Iheli.t. Tho capital ot that bank is only 81511,
000. Its portion of the deposit j i uu less sum
tfctn 8781, 701 76. Now, ir, where is this mo
bijf It it not in spr eie i.. the bank itself. All
its tpecie it only 01,011 05; all its disc-mils.
luana' 4-e irn only 8500.000,
or Iheieibout I
. .. :
1. .. ... L. .tl 1 1 I .
nnr win imuur j t hv, u when; ll l
ii it inciuieii m the Item due fiom other bank
guio iou ivtiat banks hate gut Hut 1 On
what tcruis Oil Ibey lake It I Dithey gue inter
ettt Is It Ml the depoul btnks in the great citits '
and dots this nuke a part nf tlm other liabihli.-s f
tbetc deposit Ivinkt in thn cines Now, this is
ont question ; what ire the.e other liabilities? Hit
at to there 4 other intestnienis,'' I yigsin 1 wuh
to know what ther
discount and exchange, I beg to know what other
investments LuW usually make. '
In my opinion, tir, .he present ty.tcn, now be- '
em. todettlotse ,elf. We see wl.n r .
Hon of prtvitc tnd rrunitry intern. h,e H,u.
wound ibemsehea rwino our fintnees. Whih, tho
present state of thing continues, or at it -oct on.
wwre w oe no ucKoiawor in oppo.mg the laud
bill, or any othtr propound, for distributing or ef
fectoilly uutij the pobbc money.
We hate certainly armed at a ierv xtraord.
.i .....i ...
Eterv wi rditi.n -til ... a ' . P r"emcJ- ,
U...-I inia uttu we must im i,,fle H,ii,
L.ery m p.dtan will set ,bst down a. a enrdt- J
" .mX,W;. l 0. prevented J I.rt,fi-'
wi riot o il Xhli , lrn p,rrf,Iy per..
1 ball toleforrteri- nisi ..I is., r.. ...st
Uon klil.reportedbylbciuil.t,,, wmcultec. And let cd
l aw turt titt, ,f ,hl, b,H.0(uM p, loto . Xv ! ro,
h u.ll . .. .i ..i.i -.--.-, i
u . " T'. ,e,eooe' or 'l)' lun.
abLtb it . TT '""' I'oproiieroeott cannot j
,,ltot4 ... -r-s
u, lita. tsj tbt. nue to U dispcted ofl
ivltlitec,,. onttrtcotWio .!! th,.i.a
" a ai.-wi uiciui i:iianrii.i fis t.iiktr-a. sn nn hf i
trtined to up. lh land b.ll o- beru, tlm
Kir. ltn tt fli" f'rinr. and
!tr wf lbm neil iitfen, 'IV r..nv.lan "f
iete!n m then be nrl fi'H niuli ii. ; an
nvnnt Viil. ffrl'ift, It H fVoV dii. nrtc
r?e ie tmntiyt What tate ol lliinp. U
that ! Il'fT d-dla in the rountry the propeity of
ihn certiinrnt !
Aeiin nr. a-n prntletnen talinil with
prrrent rnndilion of tho public money In regard I..
Itt'ifrtvt l that eoiidlMon r-fe, comniendnhlf
i and prefer f The tj.eniter irom Houtn Carolina
I. . . I'll.. t-. l.hnl M
nrpcni m v" i",,,t " n-i"-i' -.
I h he will rail it up, lhl ue may at lead liae
an opjwrtimiir of tliowin;, f.r onrnehr, what we
thtnV. be exiji-ncv irrjmrr.
A debate cnod on tin motion, in winch Mr
JUnlon. Mr Clay. Mr (Mhonn, Mr rilil, Mr.
K-ainp, Mr Walker, and Mr lllack patlicipated af
ter tt hith.
Tie motion use acrecd to.
The Senate proceeded Ik cnnfldor the hill tnap.
prnprute. forn limileil time, the proccd of the
puhtir lind, nd
Mr. Mill sddrrwed tli" Senate at enih in op
position to thn piinetpleii of the hill. After he con
cluded hiH remarkr, the Sennte ailjiiiirncd.
In tire lloi'in the North Carolina election wm
cotiMdtrcd until the hm.r fur the hpccinl ordcr.wliich
na the Naty ipproiriatlon bill.
This till dUtuiir-cd until the hour of adj mm
mont. Im SENATE, Mnrrli 18.
The joint resolution? on the tuhject of th ad-
joiirnmi'iit of tho twnllnutu wrts laid on the ta
ble for the present, after .Mr Kimj, of Alnhiiiiin.hiid
ftated tint he intended to fix thu UOili of
Mr. IJi'roVs expnnpittg icoolutioiio I citig ta
Mr Hn.iTo.t made n lnn trjument in fnvor of
lii refolutionr-, dwrllinj.' a hmg time outliesix-and-thiity
iricaniiij; of thn word "expunge," and af
ter he had rdumn that ll thu only protcr word
nnd the only proper remedy, ho went tin to cotn-id-cr
the merit of hit proposition.
HOUSE. No liufincKf of impnrtancn transac
ted thiii day.
REMARKS OK MIL PRENTISS,
Oj the question of reception of n pe'ilinti from the
Society of I'rinridi'. praying for the Abolition of
Sinery in the Di.triet of Coliunbiii 'IWdav,
March 1, lbUO.
Mr President : I am unwilling tb-it the mte
which I shall feel myself utilised to gite iiin tlnnn
question slionlil liu liahle, rroni sileiiee on in) pirt
to nny misconception. In all mv pu'dio ac-ts-, innl
mi this occasion p.irtioiilur, 1 inn ilorireous that the
grounds upon whHi I prorei-d should be ili-tim lly
known, su that no ini-nppichciisiou may exist, wnii
respeLt to my conduct or my inutlivs, here or else
where. I rntl'.ll.t )-lil my ..rni.l ... o - i.
doctrines which has (icon iidiiiucoil to this debate ;
and I wirh to sty just enough to prevent the
possibility of cny infiircuco that I acquivee in
Sir, the abolition of Slavery in the District iT
Columbia is a question, in nil ile a.pects and rel.i
tionn, of great interest and delicacy. It is n ques
tion which I have had no disposition tn agitate,
especially nt this time : nnd ut no time would I
interfere, in the tdightcst manner, with s aerv
n it existi in s uue if the States. In my
cnnr.icli'r, I look upon slaiery in the Slnlea onlv
a3 the Con-tiliition of lliu United Slates loi k upon
it; as a Stale institution, existing under Stntn luws
ami sulij-ct only to Stale nuthorily. 1 komv it
only as it is known to tho Constitution, nnd would
not treat it otherwiscthan the ConMitutinn treath
it. I i oiihl leaie it where the CoiKtitution hn
Jell it; and I would neither do nor say nny lhing,in
my public capacity here, tnilh.lurh the tight in itijy
species of property, or in nnv ninnnrr to endanger
Ur see inly. While I say this, sir. in rcfercn.u"lo
oi-itery in the Male, I inn boiirul, in enndor nril
lo say. thut 1 regard slau-rv in this Di.
Inel ma lery (iifTerent li"ht
The pulilioiiH which haie bei n presented her
do not atCr.ny inii-fi-ri'ii e, or assert nny power in
Congress to inierfere.wiili klaiery in tho' Slates.
They are confined to Slavery in this District.
evil, and risk ih iir..,..iii.m r r .. ... 'i
ii.i Luuiiunin oi us existence hero a.t
the rietanre. Tl.. ..,, f
. I-----T v...i. i'- in mure
If- .II . . . .
.-ir, t.aiunun; nas moveij that the piliit.ins be
"ii-1-.eu i no .-enator Irom IViin-yh snia (.Mr
Iluehaiian) nroposes llm the prajer of the petitions
be at once rejected.
Sir I cannot ngree to either of iheso mnii.,u
I'lify dider, to hn sure, in mum of fin--.. I,, i '.i...
efl'ecl nfh.il h, it ipjears to uie.is subs lanfillv thr
vn tin 'l'd.s ii-. :.. -i
.' . " r 11 r' bt,i,re "'
he,""c' ' 'he right in oet.t.on al Bn
tin lfia .!)... '11. . .i
I form deny the right, hut while it professes In ad
M"V. 1 lit" filfifir II I f liu .I.,... ....
' ' 1 it propr.siM ti, reject thu prater of
llm ptilitious imnieduielv, without a heatin-' nnd
without cunndcra They nrc both essentially
prel.iuinuy motions, preelodnig alikstho umal re
ferencc and exammnlinn into the minis ot thu peti
lions; and in my judgment they both, in elTcct
abriilrr iiim r.,.t.i . i i... .i .. . .
s - u,.-u iiy me tonsiitulion'
r'"'rc "l'ly 'peaking, the right reoc g,ij,..J hv
" L,,n"lution as n pre ixisting tipht. D ,;'tl
I TZ " Zl " , iP
" .' h "or"'-''"!r the right to
ll we ran
t... iii i. ii
-irslyia lte.r r,2ry ,( re0U() u
lli.itis, nor reject it inl.inU-t, on ll. lereption,
uithnuta hearing, without any inquiry into tho
The dlitmrlioti between rejecting the jwiiVn,
and rejecting the wuyer of tho petition., immed
iately nr. it. being received, which it llm motion
proposed by the Senator fmin Ponii-ylvsiua it too
rWwed and abttrart
I . V . I"rl "' n,y "l""'7",,n' fur
object of such common and uniterral intorcst to
as-lho nntileee and right to i-itition.
rhe distinction. I mutt reneat. is. lo oiv mind, un-
impohant, and oxisl rather i:i form than in sub
stance. Tne character of the mntiou is not alter-
J, oral all varied, by tho circumstance
raonon sdriols i uienssiou
sion. D.scos.i. may be
etrry preliminary motion.
r.l diseu..u.n. ha. been
had on almost any anJ
I,Us.ion, free and liberal
...u u ,i,c .mi.inu not to receive, mat mntion
still pending; and if diacutwun is all tkx i. i
be lookVd to. every ohnthl. Tfl . , L i
e4e,yofa hen atuiued, and
. . . ... . ....
simia toty aj well vc'.e for fbt
- . I - P i '
f ..IHI..H, nflrr li lill b iccciied l iulty ulif
' ............... J i
Milen'i Mi tin" tn ii(l".r i rn ni er.l'nj;
ami t(l"',)h it mar be a forniaj and It-: Imirat cm
plur.eo with the lntit"" 'l i Pcr nil, to
cy prarlical nnd renlll pnrpove, eqoiialen'. In)
a nrlion of ihe petitnin ll"lf. Ifwo ate bound ,
In lerriie, are bitting I" hear and cutieidei; ind
an abinpt and premature rej'i'tton nl thn prayer
oflho iietition, if not a denial of the thing be
longing to the tight b.tefi rl'any imKitlr.re.
When pettiinna are decoruns in their langtia
ce. and eotitnln nothing winch can b jii.ttly deem
ed intentionally otTem-it': "hen they come from
prrwM compt tent to petition, nnd treat of fiibji-ct
upon ttlmli it in coinpevnt fur Congress to act, 1
hold that we are bound toreceito Ihem, nnd gio
them a tepectfiil cutif idratintl. Nn petition, in
inr opinion, ought tn be injected or eon ciuietittitl-
nnilly bo trjerted and revised n heiring.nn nrcount ,
of the nstuie of the nult'l of whleh it lrtnti, tin
lei-j Hip subject bo obvnu'ly otiU unipicstiimablt
hejond the coniiluliiinil power of Congress.
With this lunit.iliim of the right it belongs, and
must, from thn ten- natlro r the right, ticcefdari-
...... . .. ..... .
ly neiong- etcin.Mii.iy nioe p-uiiumrs iiicniEcivw
to j.iile ol the mi!rj..cl matter. II Congress can
i.crnninato Uelweeu tie uiijectr, nlul i-ny
upon subjrrtH petit ionr may be ri'roivnd but iiojin
others they fhnll ni bereceived, wh.it 1 nsk, le
cotues of the right In petlion! what is the light
worth! It will be in toin, sir, that we ucknow
ledge the right, Two thins limit its extent, if we
thus ci.nl ml ii exercise.
Thcfe prel-iriniry notion", for J can roll them
nothing elro, directly, it nppars tn me,tu nnpnir,
to narrow, and nbiidge thu right. If wo really
rucdil that tho light xliull he. etijoved in it h jti-'t
ilt Icgitiniatu Latent, we shall foihear to embalms
it, to render it nugatory, by questions of thi sort.
We bhall rather treat tie ielilinns, iih I think- we
nrc bound to treat lliein, und tm they have always
lierctofurn been trralud, iiceonliiig tn the ordinary
rules and usages tl' parliamentary bodies in such
I regict exccrdiigly tins harsh expressions which
gentleman have thiught fit to apply to tho petition
ers. They have b-en denounced as iticondinries:
they have bei n clnrged with criminal, with trea
sonable intentions; with intentions to excite a scr
lilu war, and subject the wholu Southern country
to pllliage, Inivoe, tnil dctaKtatiuu. Sir. wo nre
apt to full into the -cry common error of suppos
ing that all uhodifor from us, especially on tub-
jois oi nn inii-re-iii nnu i::;i:iiuig naiuie, uo so
Irom iinwort iv ni'i'ni", and mi' from honest cpn
lirtion. Wt'ii w.rie if 'tie persons who Imvi
sigui'! p.MHMiif ui llm. mi'.jiti I run well acquaint
(!. 1 liio tro.". i tu liu iiiteiliueii'. rntilo'i'-.liioh-
ly ie?pecialilo. 'lion proposittotis miLy In- fti
.i. ' i r-
ll tlalci; then uij;iiii,!'nl nm .( l-oi.l; ll.eir tl!B
itaCons itiaj bo slni'i! t ihe tH-Je or thi judg
' ineut of ;!ion. 'vhose opinions Hi"y oppi'M-; bn
j that all, the whijo eoml.lui'i', piureeds I'nur. i
i.iMi-L-ioosneH, on ineir pari, ui noing nrul snyttig
j what la right, I in-uhtr luio iiur can ontoriinu
i HMU .1....I.I
I With me, sir, it doe? not admit of u question,
tlisi I lie petitioners tielieve, Mil cerely helintf,w!iHt
lliey proli'ss to tluuKtli.it the honor of the countrv
the prospeiity of the cn intry, the bent und highesl
... ..11.1....... I . ... . " . .
.iivsm .ji iiutuj uiiu iriiiiiiui.y, aro ItlVolVCll III
thu question. It they ore wrong in their opinions,
or express incm wiiu loo much uolutiess ami in
iiopetiueiice, mo Unit it it ho onp.is to bu f'ouiul in
the institution ol thu country; in thu evil and
political principles ol the counui; in thu eilncu
j "on in inn country, ll istrom these sources thai
I the petitioners have nnhibeJ their opinion., as wol
as the spirit which prompts them to express then
I it ill. n.u.il.r lV,..il .....i .: ' .
I j in-iu. .in. ..ui. mi, j un cnunoi ii v nnv
I )"u can make, or hy toy v.ilo which umv b
iiere given, repress or tc.-iralui the tree expression
oi ineir opiiiious, any mure than vou can slop or
UJ .. -jiiacniii.il., lujjni L-ourcion the
course and curtent of their thoughts. It would
ue unwise to attempt lo un so. We should rather
treat them as Umv havu heietoforo been treaieil
We should resort to do cxtr iordinnrv measures.
Uo should observo tho ordinary rules and iisaM.v
of this body, and permit the petitions, ns uxutilt.i
yo iu a ciimumiec. mis i, nut only the n-t
constitutional course, but the course, in mi opinion,
enjoined upon us by eiery consideration Jf nolicv.
ii i -
"s wen ns ol duly
Sir, upon the cnnstiiutional
Congress has power lonbulish hluvery in this Dis-
"""e ' crV "npl,nil
inieiuginie nrgumrnt Irom the Scrmlnr fiom Vtr-
gliua; and from thu known nbilttv and habits ol
close anil through research of the Senator, we hai
a right to presume, nnd. indeed must prcume.tha!
every consideration was presented, in support ol
his doctrine, of which llm subject is susreptnlde.
Although the lucid simplicity, the exact nnd elo
quent brevity or his style and reasoning, inturcsicd
and charmed me much, tho Senator must par
dim mc if I say that his argument failed to coniiuce
Two propnsii ions were ralied upon as tho prin
eiplo basts of the argument. It wns itisisterl, first
that the act of cession of Virginia rxprcssly in
'erdicted the c.iercise of thu power of Con-
! Tho net, after ceding the Icrritory.nnd rclinqush
j ed to tho U. States "absoiulo right nnd rclu
1 sive jurisdiction oicr it," protides "lhal nothing
I herein contained shall bu constructed to test in tho
U. States any right of property in the roi7, or to
effect the rights of individuals therein otherwise
, tliaru the some shall or may bo transferred by such
' individuals to the U. S.
This clause, which was evidently inserted in the
act from abundant caution, was ints-nded to define
and ascertain, more exact precision, thu subject
matter of the grant, vnd lo parclude.by express ne
ga'ivo words, the possibility of its being construct
ed lu transfer any right or interest, in tm ( .
self. Tint is not only the gramatical reading, but
1 tho natural and plain sense of the clauso; and, gn
ihg to it its utmost import and extent, it it i',,m.
fe.tlhatit imposes no limitation or restriction
1 whalcicr upon the iegttlation of Congress.
it w a miner ini.ieU that, independent of the
is.no i ue aci oi cet.lon. Congress did not i.os.
Ll. Sll.l ....1.1 .... ... . . .1 I
. nd could no exccrciso the power in question
ll ti. il,.t i'.i i . '
ll ' "'d that neither the Legislature of Virginia ll
''t of Maryland had ,y pyer to abolish the1 ,'
"f property, and that they cousj not .-ram '
or iransier lo totigrt., a pot.f lu.v rj,d m.
.the competency of the Uv'd.lutet nf Vim
rf iUryla- t, cede th, ZSJl
I-'' " j..m.l.rt.o
nurr it pret from the set of Vtrclnla that jnn
.... iA ... ,i . tt o ... i. ....A
pir ei I ' inff miiir, mi tlm act i-apti'Mrn it, ' In
thr tifklh t 'li tfrtrfmt otlic.lt if tr CunrUtu
t'ra rUc TniVfii Sdin." That fection.it ill Ik'
teen eonfcM upon Consrraa "exrluttvo leniclntinn
in nil i-aei n halnri5r'' over tho territory. When
the jnriadirtion ofVirpmia and Maryland rcarrd.tho
jnritilirtion f the U. Hialcn eonimenred; and the
qneMi.in, whether CongTes can abnliah t-lavcty in
tins Dittrict, ilepcndn, not tipnn any power granted
in it by the Legnlaturca nf Virginia and Maryland,
fur thoy cmilil grant nn, but upon the power giv
en to tt b the Ciinntilulinn of the U. S.
Th Conrlitnti.in, as wc hate nlretd een,
gieto Congret.i exclnivo legislation in allcacfH
whanoeter'' over thn District .powers were ai
large and extensile a cotitd well be eimferrtil, and
probably a full f.nd nbiioliite en bnlong tn the
Lecinliitures of nny of llm Slate. Congress then
in itx Inenl legislation for iln Dittriet tiitjl have
. nt lean bn nmpln power nier alaicry within it
j limit s uny Stole Lej-inUture posMtfes, or ran
exerciM-.oier tdavrry in any of the Slates.
Kir. I I. . . .1 nn.l I ...nn, ..tit i.
i . : . v.,
that the law oflho land i tho foiindatton of all
nKht nf prnnertv. Tlicy e.islti onlv hv nnd un
i iter I ho l.'itt. nnilinnunt ptui in,'imiit,.i.t ,rii
I hey may he said lo owo llin.r origin and existence
to the Legislature. This is literally nnd popularly
the ease with respect to the right of property in
slnies. No such right it is well known, is tecog
tiiscd, or ever tolerated, hy tho common law. It
s True tlint a century and a half ago thn court of
roipinon please in l.tiglnnd adjudged Unit trover
would lie for a negro liny, obecanrp," raid the
court, "Ikeiwe Iritthrnt nml iJierefniY a man might
have prtijitrty in them. Hut hi n subsequent can
a few tears nfler wards, in the King's Honch.it was
determined hy thu whole court that truver would
not lin for a negro any more than for nny (.ther
man, fur ny thn common law,'1 said Lord
Unit, '-uu man can haiu proiicrtv in annth
In all the Stales where rdstnry exists, the right
of properly in slims must be derived from pimilivo
enactments of thn Legislature; nnd in this District
I tiiue it, that, independent of legislation, cither
original on the part of Congress, or adopted by it
inc right does not, and would not exist nt all
rtnt it is probably not very material, ns to the pow
er oflho Legist. turn over it, wluther the right is
Derived Irnm acts of positive legislation, or from
the cnuirnoii law.
I have sntd, sir, that nil rights of property owe
ineir origin nnd existunco either to statute; nr com
mon law; mid It forthrr.that it cannot bu maintain
ed that the Legislature, ns the law-niaker, has no
power whilotpi over Mm right improperly. Th
imposition ceitaiuly i-i not true in a general and
onqoalifi.-il sne. Thu elntiFC in the constitution
'if the MtH'os nnd of the United States which pro
tines mat priiiito pmiiertv shall not betaken for
iblic tiso without rnriipeusntion, certainly implies
ho existence of a po" er in tho Legislature over
ii. It a law imi'iih" hy which a person is deprived
oi inn limit in cerinio property, taken for pulil
.to. ii is oy mine ot such taw that the- property
ceases tn bu his: nnd though the law provides a
t-iimpi'iifiiiion, the right ol property is not the
less taken away ngainst the will of tho propric
Tho truth is, tho rights of nrnnertv nm miliii.ci
to legisl-itiiu notion and interference except where
siish action or intrrtereiice is prohibited ur rcstroin-
eu ny eoristttiitinnnl provuioiiH. So far a rcstric
limn-arc imposed upon it hy the Constitution, thu
pnner nt thu J.egihliitun: is nualified and limited
li j ...1...:. . ...i . i... . . . .
11 """ mat ii rignt ur interest in property
imou amuany vested by lav cannot be taken
may Uy inn Legislature, except when token for
public use and then only on making cotnpensa
nun. I liu is mnden fundamental rinciplo in the
organic systems of this country; and without it.law
in use the language of nnother, would bo tyranny,
K"eriiiuem ivniiiti on oppression. The Con
suiuiinu, regariiing the right of property ns on. of
tne most imjiartntit ol rights, nnd I he protection
and security of it as one of tho chief objects ofgov
erment, declares that no persons shall be deprived
... on.-, uuuriy, or property, without due process of
mw. J his process is u judical p.ocess and ofcourse
can cminam only from the ju.licarv. Besides no per
son c.n bo tlepriied of a right, unless hu has for
filed such right. The forfeiture can be nsccrtaiu
ci. nnd declared only by a judicial tribunal. The
adjudication is in its naturo a jnlicial act, which
cannot he performed nny more iJjbn the piocuss al-
io.my iiieiitionuueiin he issued by thn Legislature;
because, according to the theory nnd provisions ol
'" '"'i-nuiiinii, nnu nrancn ot the government
cnunoi exercise powers properly belonging to n
nut although a present vested rigl t cannot be
l-.fpn uwny by a direct act of legislation, except
I-,.. ll, ., ...o .... Il. I. . . . 1
..... Mi.r.r ..uu .in-in ma r. men nave ueen
slated, the Legislature may, and constantly docs,
exeicise a power ovei property, in -many wavsj
without being supposed at nil in interfere with'nr
disturb tho nriuciple of lesled interests. Sul to
muntiiiii statutes nf limitations, and vurious other
i...... 1. 1.. .i nn.. ...i i .
" B"1""" " nicii operaic upon tho rights f
property, ii regulates aim cunlrouls tho transmit.
ion properly hy descent.and tho disposition (,r,t by
will. It can alter, modify, nd chiuo iho
tnese particulars ns u pleases. It can say who
shrill bo admitted as heirs, and whit shall bn the
rule of distribution mid iliii,,,,, . ,,, .
. . O " ! III
can declare that property ,aI , " .' u
scent. hut sha... ist nil heat J Z
bias.. Ib.smay f,.elafIr, f
bold propc,,,,,,,,. Sllc( BW w J .
ory impohoe and unju.t, in reference.,,;,,,
-l-c.04 ,,f proper!,,, but gereral and prnsPe,:liw.
m ... operat.ons, it wuuhl be di31cult t. raise anv
valid obioclion tn i r. . .. . -V
. " ,,,, . - fooii "i con.iiidllonsl
.r. """inestmn of;.,!,cy, off,,,!,; .
tice. is one t hinif . , " "J jus-
power is another.
i ne nuestion of rm. i
of any actual t a " a"Pr
.i... " . . 'M "oerw.i, ny n law nrf.vi.lii...
bor , of slate. Vf, ' ' "' llm C'' ldr,n
o r oi siati, af,e, , frraif)
tested, but rights, if ihevr.n Im s..tl,l ....i
li'UeTCUV mer,;,v' "'' I'ulen'tt.l in
....-.:. ,,ci character. It nny be added lhal
'ha reresl .i il. i
r , "" mi mo tub-
f',, '',1Ve'y ,),,,r,Pl "" iVrl
dual tubti.t.ng right, jus obvioutlhat nu om.
tl.tZ,'. !C,1U",!,I '"
l!7 ! D"l""
Hut I go fiiihrr, sir. If Ci'tigress, under lU
clu Rlifnif It "pxrliisite lepuhilnn In all ea,rt
whalsiN-ter" oier the District, haic authority -j
impose taxes, and piotidnlmw they sliall be rirJ
for local sinl inunii ipal pnrpusrs, I tin not see why
it ha not Hip power, by inrAtia oftsxalton. to ef.
feel lln abolition of !ovrry here. I say notions
of the right or Justice of exciting thb power lir
well Tnipnp. I rpet,t only nf tho power, tnj
ol'tlR rapnrily tn be itfe.1, In arntnpllli audi an
end. Rut, hoActcr this may be, I hold that Con
grpse, if thn public interest and welfare requite it
may dircrtly, an'd nt once, emancipate the sheet,
on making a jnt cninpcnatloii to the owner..
The clause in the Constitution, which regulates the
taking of private property for public use, it not, n
my opinion, revlricted to such property, mefcly, ,
may be contorted end npplinil tu the aetusl use and
emolument of the public. I think' Ihn word tisr. m
the Constitution, i In le understood in a lilirrtl
sense, as eqiiivnlcut to purpose, or benefit; and
that whatever is tskcti for public purpoes, or inr
thwpiiille ben"fit, is taken for public up, tvitlui
the ineniling of the cohtltutinn.
These, sir, am my doctrines upon this lery in
teresting and important subject, I hate stntej
them bnetly but frnnklv; giving a glimpse, ml Iter
than n tiew.of tin; rennilts by w hlch they may hj
s-ustained. I hate felt it Incumbent upon me tn say
somothitig.anil I mull not, in the proper disdiargt
of my duty here, well say less.
I Imvo not been nble to person Jo myself" that tt
would subset lu the ramc nftruih and jutice, con
tribute at nil to tlm peiru of thn ronntry, or serve
in nny degree, In strengthen the tininn of t l.re
Stiite, to withhold the expression of utir real npu.
ions upon this question. Tho people should net
ho blinded upon I Lit subject, any mure than upti
any other. Suite tt is ngitated, it is due In bo
country, it is due butli to the North and toll;;
South, tn state oxplici ly the views we r titer! tin
upon this must important mnt'er. To kmny t fie t
Congress hat thu pnWPr to almluli slavery in tint
District, nceil not, mid will not, jiroduec alarm ur
tpprchension in any q-tartcr of tho Union. Tho
People eiery whern must feel nssured, und ought
to rest snlislied, lhal thsa power, like all other
powers under the Cutis I it ut inn, will be exercised
with becoming u ledum and ilibcretmn ; with ajiiat
tegard to the interests not only uflliis Disttier, but
of the whole country. They ought in know, and
must know, that when policy, expediency, and jus
tice concur in thn measure ; when it can be adopteJ
with safety to thu Union, and security to till
then, nnd then only, will thu power bo exercised;
und that when exercised, it will ha in eucha nun
tier ai shall neilor disturb the public tranqutlity.uor
vii. lute the sanctity of private rights.
Sir, I think the time must conn, und will come,
when slavery will ceahe to exist in this District.
The opinion nf all Chriseiidom, Ihn opinion of tho
civilized world, is becoming uniform and settled on
thn general soilij.-ct of slavery. Its Influence mutt
be felt. It cnmiot nlwnys be resisted t end lha
lime will come when Southern men will cease their
nppiMition to a measure, to which they no.v feci,
anil I have no doubt sincerely feel, that they can
not yield ilo-ir nssunt, iithnul ilooger, great and
imminent danger, to the social rehittuiid nnd es
tablished institutions of thu mules in which thev
HEADQUATKltS ARM Y OF FLORIDA.
ItcOLATA, Teb, 221, 1830.
Major Gen. Scott, having arrived in Florida, as-
Riiiiies llm general direction ol thu war nt'-iinst tho
hostile Seminole Itidl.lln.
The S'nfl' ollicers attached to Oi-neral Hei'l
Cluaters, nt ptescnl are Cant. Cniilield,( ropagraph-
ieul Engineers;. LiMiil. Clmmhi-rs (Chirif of tin
Commissarint), and Limits. Van Htiren. Trmplii
and JohtHiin, Attles-de Ciiinp. All orders and in
tructinns convoyed by either of them in thu nama
of the Major General, and whether orally ur in
writliug, will he duly obeyed.
I he right and left wings of tho army, or tho
troops on tho Wc3t und Kast side of thn St. Johns
river, will be continued under the rrsneclivu orders
of Rrigudicr Generals Church and Kilis, and tho t
Itirces which are to operate from Tampa Hiv, uu-
ler Col. Lltiifsiiy, will, when thev eoinn tttln line,
eoiisitliite the centre. Thu winL's will soon b
really reinforced hi the arri.al of both regulars
The three iininedialp commanders of the right
left and centre of thn nruiv, respectfully, will gen
erally receive orders direct from (1. Head Quarter
but, of course every tumor will obey anv s-uiur
according to the rulcj and nrticlei nf w.ir.nud jha
usage of tho service, whether thu p'trlios heljng; to
thn militia, or the inilitm and regular army. j
as tor tlia lir t lime, patrtottu vuluuteers from
South Carolina, Georgia, Alnhiun, Liuisiani an 1
f' lorid.1, re In coino into the saino line with
portion of llm regular army, it is eotlfi.lenily hoped
that n beneficial einul .tion, tvitlmut tinkinduoss nr
prejudice, may anunito thu different forces. All
are cquully Amuneans, actuate I hy tlm like deter-
ruination lu subdue a treacherous nnd a coinuun
li.lt valor and patrinlism olune aro nur miiruier.l
for that end. Some tactical irislructiun. and in
exact obedience to commands, are alto necessary.
Instruction can only ho acqnirod hy opportunity
sud labor. A firm resolution to oley aceoinph.il
tho great requsite al once . Let the retulutiun i
taken by all who hate nolde i,lri,nd
their htitt liered country men.
Mill, Bgi.ui; tn uirau'o to march i. ,n,..n,t (.usrd
and hi fight, are not the only duties of war; to
handle and preserie the supplies of the arinv. mil
cnnslrart cmo and other field .!..r.
qually required ol'eiery gnod snldler. A corpt of
servants lor these purpuscvwould bo ton lrio and
cumbrous. It would double thu army, ami ret.dir
mm half to omr.n, and thu other too delicate for
the glory of a woll conte.ted field. Falljruo par
lie must, therefore, when wanlod. In. r, .!.,.,! hr
all the sorpt in their turn propoitionally.
The I'lorida War.
of the progress of the
The following particular
war in Florida, potrettes
U. t l.i it, ii ..... i, t,i.
ne ground or apprehension for the safety of Gtn.
aines and his army, even if Gun. Scott fhould not
come to hit rescue. Willi a force of 1800 ur 000
men, and with funr twelve fmuniers, he wilt prub
ably be able to protect himself, and we abtuld hope
ten lo aurronnd the camp of the enemy, sn a. lo
compel them to surrender, wjfhout culliuff lhn to
wv br as amult up&n their lewo. We aro
, - tifviu tail .... ,i.-
Ja ' - - - - -