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Burlington free press. (Burlington, Vt.) 1827-1865, January 22, 1836, Image 1

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n o t t ii k c. , o i: v o r c m s a n ; ii i; t t u n av i: i, v a nn o r it o m n.
BY If. 15. ST ACT.
Prum die l.oii" If l.mti Sinr.
A I'AJIHiY.
I taiv Content, 1 lie oilier day,
Sil by her (pinning wheel,
And Plenty in u wooden I ray
Of wheal and Indian meal.
Healili, also, at a table rati
Dining upon a h.itn;
tut iii)elilc demanded yet
A cabbage and a clam.
W'caldi en I cnthiniicil upon a gi ecu
And fragiant load of hay;
And happiness rompellcd a dog
Bihind the earl lo pl.iy.
Delight una chasing bullet flies,
Willi Laughter and wilh Joy;
Airection gated wild indent ccn
Upon tlic sweet employ.
lkauty was uaterin? tinners
Hetide tin- (-utilise door:
And I'len-ure spi.he about .1 lour
To Mr. Staple's sluie.
Industry liiil good tnoriow, and
luiiled mi; lo lea;
liul Jolly liid me rlay away,
Unless I came with dice.
Patience fat in an easy rliair,
Unriitelliiig a ikc-in;
liilc Miilli, with 1 ognUli eje, and air,
Would langle it again.
llcncvnlenrc ImI hnill a tower
Of pudding, biead and meat,
And bid companion lake il o'er
To Want, ano:f- lliu slicel.
lint I was gratified to Fee
Ha.ey, and dec, and fair,
Willi Iiiiioeeiteo upon I113 knee,
Old tf.it 1 f.icl ion llicic.
lie look 111c by he hind, nnd led
ale down a lisla giten,
Wlieic l-'un and t'lolic a at ie plaje 1,
Two aneienl oaks between.
I'm, best ol all it was lo Had,
That Low, lliu day define,
The fuptinj Dieis had kiiked behind,
And tossed linn out of door.
An flu' wan ninding thti-ad, he came
Willi gi iniaec and .1 siniik,
And inked her if she'd change her name
And leaie her diny uoik.
I'm hlu; had ronimun sense, and (he
Had stieiigih ot mind anil limb;
She bid him fioni the house to flee,
.' i I iImi- .isHtc.l him
And now kind leader, i T J oil ihoosC
Thi.s family to know,
A fanner' heic I'll intiodnre:
A 'hundred years ago."
A nRAUTII'UL, l.iri'TER.
Tlic fiilluw ing chr.riniiig letter was writ
ten by a young lady pining wilh the con
sumption, to a young gent leuian lo whom
hho was ungagi'd in marriage. Sue lived
in New Yurk and was spending a winter
in New Orlean--, hoping that a milder cli
mate would re.-loru her health. Hut t-he
gradually Mink under the dreadful disease,
and died eroi-ho relumed home. Il breathes
the spirit of impassioned devotion, and its
peru-al will awaken the ! 1 v het and best
sensibilities, ofthc heart. The sweet, hal
lowed sentiments which pervades it the
spirit of unchanging attachment which
distance cannot weaken, nor the pro.-pecl
of death extinguished, is unearthly, ami
comes over the soul, like the mellow und
subsiding influence of the setting sun.
liYiio Orleans, Jan. 20, l!!'Jj.
Mv Demi William:
1 have broken my promise, but ynur too
kind disposition will forgive me. even with
out a cause. It was, as I know you (ear,
my poor health that prevented my writing
Aias! I had little hopes I hat a change ol nir
would restore my health, or fresh r 11 in
withered cheeks. liul my dear frn mis
thought so, und for their snkis 1 utti here.
Oh, I wish lor your eaUc, I could say that
southern airs were Mrengllining my con
stitution and my feeble body. My morn
in" rides bring me momentary frcthocss
and ease, nnd the fragrance of the orange
trees is very grateful; the deep green groves
look lovely, but 1 only view tlieir in aul
ill coulra-t with my own feeble, perishing
health. 'I'he airs are too damp nnd heavy.
Perpetual fogs frown upon us here morn
ing and evi Ming. Mid-day is warm and
pleasant, and brings us refreshing breezes.
Oh. do not think I writu thus to give n
fresh wound to your too generous and
bleeding sympathies. Hut Jon know inc
tuo welT ai.d too true In think lliu-. And
why should I fit you of hopes thai have
Ion" since ll"d from my almost pulseless
liealt? Why bhould I deceive by lljliering
words, ho that is next to my dear blessed
mother, dearel to mo on earth! No, tho'
a kind Providence will soon separate us
to meet aain in a brighter nnd a bettor
home. Oh William, do not hope. Kuch
salting sun t-inks paler upon my vision, and
warns" mo that 1 Mall too but few more
ode behind the blue west, lint a pros
pect mure bright and beautiful strews flow
ers in my pattiwav to 1 In grave. I am lull
of joy nnd christian cheer. Your Harvey V
Meditations is a sweet comforter, my pil
low companion Your letter I liavu read
nnmn and aain. It strengthens mo more
than all I he kind nfilces of my good friends.
Don't part with that friend that you have
taken to ynur busotii. Ilu is worth tho
world, and more. 1 would not part with
Jesus to find my cheeks flushed with rosy
.health, nnd my feeble body bounding in
strength. Oli Ikuv I wish you were hero
I hat wi might (itico mure f-pralc together;
but my sunken chueks wtnilil so digress
you, that I h 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1 bo tin limes more tni-or
able. Wu talk nf returning next month.--Hut
I fear I shall niver roinrii. Come
iloivn when yon receive I hi?, and hrinir lit
llc Jane with you. Ktes ilcnr little1 Mary
ami John fur tl oir sisicr, and give my
warmest !nve to all the fnmily anil my It mil
friends. I find my strengths weakening,
and I 111111 airnin bid you a fund nnd nffee
tiunalo farewell, Catiii:iuni:,
Prom the Northampton Courier.
TUB PRODUCT 01-' SILKWORMS.
Silkworms were !i rl known in Amcri
ca abuut the year IG'JO. In the reign of
King Jaincs I. of Buy land, eggs of the
silkworm and mulberry seed wcro sent to
llic southern sect ion nf North America,
men called Virginia. lo encourage lhctmo-t wi'bout
Cillturonr (hp motto.
made to settlers 111 Georgia, on condition o
setting out nr planting 100 white tnulberrv
trees to every ten acres of cleared hnd
and considerable silk was made from heavy
cocoons, 200 of which were said to woig
a pound. I lie moru.-s multicaulis was then
unknown in Lurope and America: hut the
white mulberry was cultivated, and sil
made north ol the Potomac, long befor
. 1. .
tuo revolution ; nnu many 'allies- mainline
lured and wore dresses of American silk.
juujoyear 1 ,u, buwnna iFw'hl, ol
Lancaster County; Pa., made a piece ol
silk from her own cocoons, measuring sixtv
yards, which 111 that day was highly com
mended ; since which time, the inanufac
lure has been gradually, but slowly pro
grossing to the present time, and has now
wo trust, received such an impulse that our
granite hills and pine plains shall, in due
tunc, rtval even the cclcslial Kingdom if
euna, in the product of silk and with the
inle!ligence,iiidu,try and aid nf yankee ma
uuncry combined, not many years hence
leave Chinese enterprise far in the rear
Hut in return and in exchange for tho plant
nnu seen ol the morus multicaulis, we will
send to China the seeds of moral culture
and the Tree of life, which shall make wise
uiiln iuhalion
At the suggestion of President Sliles, of
lalo College, Dr. Aspinwall introduced
me nioioerry aim 11 .lniiiucturc of sill; into
re.,,.. 1 1 1 1 ... , .
j.e-iaiiu, .inn I'aiauiisneu tne culture
of the mulberry at Mansfield and New
Haven, and some 50 or 00 years since pre
scnlcd J'rcudcntStilcs with a toga or schol
astic gown, Ihe product of American silk
wioi.il me i-resiuent deligted to wear and
exhibited as a specimen of the risiu" man
u'ociureofour country, unJ which at some
futiiro day, he furcsaw would become
-Kipie inauuiacltire of JNew Bmrlaud ihut
day note begins to dawn upon the Con
iieeticui.
A'urthamlon, for more than half a cen
tury has been known to have patronized tin
cuhure of the white mulberry and manufae
lure of nlk 011.1 limited scale under the
un'ired exertions of the late Joseph Clark
decea-cd who from year to year fed
and nurtured the silkworm and manu
factured silk, in anticipation of its future
success
President Stile, Apimrall. Clark and
a few choice spirits of New England, were
but pioneers of Ihe silk cau,e, which soon
r or later mu-t. extend uver our belovede
country. There is a lady now living in
'hi- town, who assisted .Mr. Clark in" the
process of manufacturing silk, and within
a lew days presented a sample, and exhih
Med a garment of silk, which she spun at
1 ne nouse 01 .Mr. t;iaik, some -10 or SO years
-nice. Hie garment like tho Hear nf
t.raij in the song, litis been made to enn-
lorin lu tlio l.ibliiuo ol iliflorent ages, nnd
loom under different colors. The silk was
first made into an elegant clonk nnd thu
wurn during the fashion of tho day it then
1 em-leu u uiiiereni coior ami was altered to
a pelisse and woin as such during the rage
of the fashion; and then again, altered into
uriWcand is now worn as such bv the
1 .l.n- , ,
very lady who spun the silk of which it is
made, and is yet ntrm and stout article
appearing capable of being worn another
half century a sample of which may be
seen at Ilu1 ollicu of J), S,
Northampton. Nov. 1(135.
SHEEP AND WOOL CROWINC.
I have long felt a solicitude for the suc
cess of tho wool grower, m his interitsi
must he considered as intimately blended
with our prosperity as a nation. As nil ng
ricultural people; u should aim at en
tire independence in all thing-, which our
clnuutc will admit or soil produce. The
live 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 s of dollars wu nav to Franco
ami England for silks, i- ueilliur more or
le.-s than a Iribute paid by us. to ifc-ir ti"n-
cultural manufacturing skill, am) winch
ought lo be, and I trust soon will bo dis
penned with, or 111 other words retained tit
home, as so much productive capitul addei1
annuully 10 tho nation's wealth. .So tin
twenty or more millions we have yearly
paid lor the wool of Spam audSagnny, and
the woolens of England and France, ehould
FKDBAY,
!)' viewed in tlio nanio light, and enndof
i'd a dtsgraci'lul burden, from wiiicli we
lihonld iwlricnto iiiri-Ivc n-t fur and nit
fast an possible. Thcro can bo no good
reasonbla pi von why ilia neb patiirace of
the bills, and I In: liigiirt.mt mo.idows of tbn
N'ortliern .State? ennnnt iiroditco as gnnd
(lock'' of shorn, and as fiiif quant it km of
wool, m .-imilar rrsriniH in Saxony or An
d,iln-ia; or why 1 lie tmnufncluriiig skill
nnd industry of our free citizens, cannot
compete ticces--futly wilh Ibo spiriting ar
tizatu of tin) old world. To expect t tin t all
this can In' aecnrnpliibi'd it onca is idle ;
lime i rcqttiril. emit al and perseverance
intit be employed and exerted, nnd it is
evident tint those arc mow successfully us
oil. Tin; prices which nil kinds of woo),
more particularly the higher grade?, have
l'or a few years pal coinni'inded, have i no
tified the attention which ha been uaul to
H, t. ..I- r 1.... ...i 1. 1
amply emnpensnl.! lh,.sn who long, and .1
rrmuneriti-iii. rnu"nvore:l to
introduce the best breeiM of foreioti sheep.
and render the quality of our native wools
unexceptionable.
There arc ninny sections of our cnunlrv
which are not ndipled to the prod iction of
grain, but which arc most rxc lien! for
pa-lurage; ami in such cies, nature her
self seem-' to have pointed out the inns'
proper means to be adopted in the culture
of tin: soil. Too long have the farm' rs in
such parts nf our state, been engaged in
attempting the cultivation of wheat and
corn ; tolerable crops tniv have sometime
been rai-ed, hut as a whole their sv-lem of
farming is a failure. Until grain commands
a higher price tnan at pre,ent, to undertake
lo force it growth mi uncongenial soils,
must result in a lo-s to the farmer ; and lie
who, with the present Itghis of experience
and nresent prospects belore him, persist-,
in sowing wheal or planting com, when lie
might cover his plain with herds, and lulls
with flocks, most clearly mistakes lu.s true
interest-". Il needs but little skill in arith
metic to show, that where the average
crop of wheat does not exceed from ten to
fifteen bushels per acre, It cannot be raised
with profit ; the b st Hung the owner n
such a farm can do. is to convert 11 at once
into a grazing larm. There is every prob
ability that fine wool will continue lo com
maud a gnnd price, since it im-y be in our
climate considered one of thu absolute ne
cessaries of hie, nnd not lo he di-pensed
with ; and a larm ad iptcd lo its production,
taking nil tilings into con'siderni ion, Ihe
wool grower, or the dairyman, cannot fiill
o far behind the wheat grower in nelt pro
lit as some have Mummed
In gelling a flock of sheep, much care
and attention are requisite, in order that
tlic Dreed ol stieep and the quality of ih
wool be of the kind d -sired. Then is ni
the present time -ntiielhing of a i-.ont rover
sv going on in this country between tie
friends of tho Spani-h M 'rino anil the Sax
on Merino. It is alleged tint the former
arc, as a whole heavier bodied sheep, and
in our country have proved the hnrdio-t
while the wool produced bv Ilu; Sixmiy 1
clearly superior to the firmer. Reasoning
Irotn analogy, we should hardly expect that
the nsferlion of the Snuiiisli race nf meri
nos being the hardiest could he suh-l.iiilia
ted. It is well known that the Sixui
breeds were derived from Spun in about
I 0, anil the similarity ol' the soil and cli
mate in the north of Ceruiany to ours, R.
may have been considered a- nccluintud
with us on their first introduction from the
Elerloral fl icks to our country.
No wool 10 Spain ean bo found equal to
uiai ot naxuny, anil 11 Dears m linglatid a
wcllas in this country a correspondm" unci
As to size, considered with reference to the
fleece, nature, horse!!' seems to have nn
scribed rules which are never detnrted
from. Fmo wool and a large body, or fine
wool with a heavy fleeeo. have in nil mr,
from the itmn of the Mlky Tarentino- of
Columella, ihe line Merinos of Andnhisi
and Castile. In Ihe beau'ifiil Eh etoral flock
of Stolpen, been found iuei'tnpnible. Whai
has been gained in one point by crosses.
nnd mixtures, has invariably been at. the
expense of another. The man therefor-,
who wt-hes lo select a tl ick of sheep must
understand his object before commencing.
Iflhe finest qualities of wool be his object,
let him look out for the purest and h'a-t
...it, 1 1 1- , .
oiini-o union, ii no 0- sires a iroe 1 -eee
1 nit plenty of million, he need be less scru
pulou-; but let htm not expect to shear
silky woid from the race of Anakius. So
fur iib our knowledge and experience ox
lends, wo prefer Ibo Sixonv kind ofhbeeo
we have only to s.iy, lei uthcrs suit them
selves.
On nnnthcr point has there arisen a dif
ference of opinion ntnong wool growers
the relative profit on docks comtM.-ed re-
pccMvclvof weathers unit ewes. It ,
e rally admitted that the clip from the
weailiers is ralhor Ihe greatest, and some
have siippoM-tl that the wool was of a su
lienor quality; hut there is reason lo be
lieve thatuhorelhis superiority has cxi-letl
it was because the weal hers pas-Til the
winter in better order than Ihe ewe.--.
When loo ii 1- renii'tnln' red that from 100
wes, 75 lambs will, under ordinary eir-
eum-tances, h.) raised, there can ho but
h'lle doubt. I think, that owes are 01 Un
wind" thu most profitable, ami of" eotir-e
liuuld constitute a large pirt of the fl ick.
flenace. Farmer.
A German professor. Si rave has pub-
li-hed a pamphlet to prove that there will
'mi be any severe winters for the nei
ihoii-and years. We ran h.irdlv believe 11
however, wu shall wait p itieiitly and see.
1 icon la .Vli lianii's. Never allow
yourself lo lie dunned twice for a snrill
uui.if it is in your power to piy it.liursufler
1 small demand to be Mini. ,M-l of tne
hardness felt ngain-l Lawyers, arises from
this kind ofsiiii-,, and if you desire to starve
1 In-ill out. pay up or il you wish to feel
kind ami pleasant towards them, pay up.
Hy u cnursu of this kind you will feel better
pleased with yourself &witii every body else.
.JANV ARY 22, J.83G.
1'ioni tlio N. V. 'JV.ni'Cllpt.
TAlt AND I'MJATUKRS UBVKNGI2D.
Just, efiru the brealting out of the revo
lution. 1 imn by Hid name of Diison, be
loiigioo lMlorica, Jfae. was tarred and
feat leri'd in HuMou, by the Hritish f?oldiers
.oflii"' enant Colonel Nesb t. Tlio Hrit
tish nfrlifrs wishod to prevent tlio Ameri
cansfri 111 purchasing guiw, and in order to
furnish an opportunity to inflict punishment
and to raiu oceasiuti for a senotn qinrrcl,
i fnMior was ordered to o1T,t the country
man an old rusty musket. Di'son caught
at th bait, and purchased the gun for "
dullari. Hi; w.h thoreupou seiz d and
alter
eing confined in their guard-linusc
all n
it. IV.H K!rinr nnltrnli, itt.tit nti,1
' I'" -"V
i0"'5 "" l" feathers, and in that
ui-.r-. vivraueii ihroii'M the etreets ol
!!)( ill. The Yankees, however, began
to c Heel in great numbers, and Ihe mili
tary fearing fir their own safely, di-missed
the tnan and ret rented lo their barracks.
Thus far the incident isrelalid by a con-tcmpi-rary
historian. What follows we
have from the lips nf the old continental
himself. Many a lime and oft have we
heard him relate the story, with clenched
bands, and eyes Hashing fire, anil always
with this ending Hut I hail my revenge!"
When he was dismissed by 1I10 Hritish,
he caned for his gun, winch during the op
e ration of tarring and feathering had been
taken from him, 'Take the gnu and be
d d !' said the oflicor who had coin
uiniuled tho tarring nnd feathering parly ;
you'll he the last Yankee I'll be sworn,
who will come hern to purchase a mu-kel.'
'Hut nnt the last that will u.-e one.' said
Oil son. as he grasped Ihe weapon 'and
mark me. Sir, I'll have my revenge.'
The enck is clear game ;' said the of
licer. turning to his companion with a laugh
but he had b- iter rufllo his feathers on his
own dung lull !'
Diison by the aid of soap nnd warm wa
ter, got rid ol'hls feathery coal ; out the
ni "a ol'lhn instill clung to his iiiiud ; burn,
tog deeper and deeper like the shirt ol
Ni ssns. He drc'impl of it by nignl he
p ndered on Ihe means of accoinp'isliing 11
by day. JIu " how was he to ncci.inpli-h it ?
An oppnrtuiiity was not long wanting for
ilia' purpose. His country fl iw lo anus, to
redress Its public gneianees; and ho to
redress his prune ones. As soon ns he
heard tli.il the Hrit ish had marched to Con
cord, he seized hi- rusty musket, and ran
to t 10 seeno ot action.
What are you g"ing to do? said his
iieiihniirs, as they saw l.mi unyoking Ins
i-H'.i in tho middle ol the fluid, and at an
uti-easin,. j,-.1 hour of the day.
I'm going to pay Ihe red coats for the
'ar nnd feathers.' said Ditson, setting his
teeth firmly together. Come on. and you
shall see eport.
Jlnt you are nnt going to take that old
rust v piece?' said one.
Hut I am though,' said Ditson, 'I shall
take ii, nono the worse nm I fir its being
rusty.1
He histcned lo the field of fight, and his
neighbors went with htm. Having select
ed the houghs of a 1 hick tree, by the way
-ido, whither the Hriti-ih were 011 their re.
ireat he climbed into them ami there se
curely e-con-ed. nnd taking deliberate aim
every shot from th old rusty musket told
one.
I aimed, said Ditsnn, 'particularly at
the efjicer.s ; and the first man I dropt wa
Iho comminiler ot the tar ke'tlo. 'I'hii
di I me more good than t he he-l dinner I
ever ate m my life. 'Tuuru' I could'nt
help exel-jtming ! tnld you I'd have my
revenge?' Half a dozen shots were fired
into the tree hut they were I roil at ran
dom, for I was well secured in tho bough-,
and only two bullets went through my hat.
My bo-inn loll lightened as -non as tlnj of.
Doer fell Tho fir seemed as it were lo
loosen from my skin, and I felt fifty per con'
belter. Hut still I had not completed mv
rovengo. The tar hid not yet all dropt oil".
It was there siill, in imagination and Ihe
feaMiers clung to it. Tho Hritinh would
make nli'liliwr-cork of tne, and I was d--
loriuiued they should feel the full length
of mv spurs '
Diison was again present at tho battle
of ISunker Hill ; irlieru he had an oppor
tunity ot' using ilu: old musket to still great,
ur advantage than at thu battle of Lexing
ton. Reserving his fire agreeably to the
mode enjoined by Putiiian until he could
sec 1 ho enemy's eyes, he brought down bis
man at every shot ; ami several more, hose
count. unices ho recollected, as having be
longed lo iho-o engaged in the tar and
('a' her nig scrape, fell victim- to t he i reuglli
ofliis in. -ii wry, theiiocuraey ol his aim. and
Ihe sure lire ofnis rusty old piece. He
was the last to leave the ditch, and when
hi- p iwder and b ill was expended, ho fought
like a tiger with the butt of hi- inu-ket :
mil ns he d.i-hed it 11U0 the skull of ihe
reg'lurs" in quick succession, he exclaim
ed, 'That's to pay for tho tar and feathers !'
lie was at la-t wounded, and was willi dilli
culiy brought oil' hy Ins companion, lie
-tillered much in con-eouence. 'I!nt,' as
used lo exelaioi in afier ears, 'I did'nt
mind that ; for I hail my revenge!'
lie recovered ut In-wound, ami foti"hl
through thu war; and ullhongh naturally
bravo and attached lo hij country, Ins cnur.
tge and nts patriotism wore not a lit t lu
stimulated bv the remembrance of ihe lar
nnd feathers. No single arm sent a great
er iiuinlier to Ilieir linal account. Me U
length saw his country tree. Her injurix's
were redre-sed and so weru hi? own.
He lived to bo an old man. Poverty
visited his hut. Every thing that could he
spared wa sold, except thu old inilsket.
Ilu wnul I shoulder Mint
"An I shun- how fielilj eio Hon."
Then as his eye gleeined al tho reeolloctinu
of the never-to-ho.forgolteii lii-ull, 111 uhl
exclaim, 'It was allowing tollr-tar and
feathers, liul I had my revenge-
MR. CLAY ON THE PUHLIC LANDS.
I.v Sr.NATK TonstiAVi Dec. 29.
Mr Clay arnso and tiddres-ed lliu Chair.
Alibnugh(hesald) I find myself borne down
by the severest affliction with which Prov
idence has ever been pleased to visit me.
I have thought that my private griefs
ought not longer to prevent 1110 from at
tempting, ill ns I feel qualified, to discharge
my public duties. And I now rise, in pur
suance of the nnlico which has been given
ion-Is leave to introduce a bill to approp
riate, for n limited tune, the proceeds ol
il.p sales of public lands of the United
States-, and for granting land to certain
Slates.
1 feel it incumbent on mo lo make a
brief explanation of the highly important
inea'ii.o winch I have now tlio honor to
prono-c. The bill which I desire to intm.
(luce, provides lor the distribution of Ibo
proceeds 0! th,. public Innds in the years
l3J, 31, 33, 30, o'7. among the twenty
four Slates of tins Union, and conforms
ftibslatitlally to IhaKwhjcljj'passed m 1833.
It is therefore ofnjcmpornry character;
but if 11 shall be'foundtoliave a salutary
operation it will:BoJiuJthe power of a fu
ture Congress to"gTyr?iPnn indefinite con
tinuance; and. if otherwise, it will expire
by Us own terms. In the event of war
unfortunately breaking out wiili anv for
eign power, the hill is to cease, aiul the
fund which it distributes is lo bo applied
to Ibo prosecution of tho war. Tlio bill
iliri'ds lliut ten per cent of the nett pro
ceeds nf the public lauds, sold within the
limits- of the seven new Slates, shall be
lirsi bo set apart for them, in addition to
the five per cent re-erved hy their several
compai'ls Willi the United State.-; and that
I In; residue of tho proceeds, uhethrr from
sales made in tho States or Territories,
'hall he divided among tho 21 Stales, in
proportion to their respective fidornl popn
latum, lit tins respect the bill conform
to that which was introduced in 103-J.
For one, I should have been willing to
have allowed th- new Sia'e.s 12 msTeatl
of 10 per cent; hut as that was objected lo
by the President, m bis veto message, nnd
hns been opposed in other quarters, "l tho'i
II be-t to restrict the, allowance to tin
more moderate sum. The hill also con
tains large and liberal grants of laud to
several of the new Slates, to place them
upon an equality with others lo which the
homily of Congress has been heretofore
extended, and provides that when other
new Spates shall he admitted into the Un
lonthev shall receive their share of the
common fund.
The nett amount of sales nf public lands
:n i.ie nr va- hie sum 10 cj.j. yii7.o;j'J
53. in ihe year 11131 was iIl'a.7.G0i) fin
and in the year l!J3j according to actual
receipts in the three first quarters, and an
estimate of ihe I'ouith, is i'.o-j., )5
making nil aggregate for the three vear.-
ol S-! 1 .0 17.-10 1 39. Tins arr.,r,.n, js ....,,
the hill proposes to distribute and pay to
no- iweoiy tour oia'cs on me 11 ol .May.
1IJJC, upon the principles which I have
stated The difference between the esti
mate made hy the Secretary ol'tho Treas
ury and ihat which I have offered of the
product of the la-t quarter of this year,
arises from mv having tak-m, as 11,,, ."....i,
ablo sum, one lliirh of'iho total amount of
the three first quarter--, and some other
eoijectural stun. Deducting from the
1 .0 17,10 t 39 the fifteen per cent to which
the seven new States, according to the lull,
wili he first entitled, amounting to g.VGl.'.
250 Iff, there will remain for ill t rihution
among llietHoiity-fniir States of the Union.
Ihe sum ol jjll! -I J Oj 1 21. Ot this sum.
Ihe proportion of Kentucky will b- CjOtJO,
917-11 of Virginia, the sum of I oU 1 ,
0C9 39 of N. Carolina. j9lili.C3.' 'l.' and
of Pennsylvania, J.O.'U J.J J 3J. Tne pro
port 1011 ot Indiana, including the fi'teen per
cent, will b- g'ijj.fitio 2J ofOI m.077.
MORI and ol M1-.-1 ippi, jj93KU 13 -12.
And Ihe proportions r,f ail tho twenty four
S'ates are indicated 111 a table which 1
hohi in my hand, prepared at my m-tance
in th-office oi tlioSecrHn'y of the Suia'e.
and to wnich anyjfSenatofr may have nc
cos Tlio gruundsfoiikwljich Hie e.vira
allowance i 3 mail eltolt h ol n ew S'aies are.
Inst their cnmplaTntTUiatfallllands soh
bv
the federal g'lvernnient'nrelfivi
ve.irs pv
uuipted from taxatiouTsecriuly, tint it 1-
tw uu .tiLoivu losouii manner as win aug
ment thu value of the unsold pubhc l.ind
wilhiu them; and, lastly, their recent set
tlement. It imy bo recollected that a hill passed
boili Housed of Congress, in the scs-nm
which terminated on lho3d Al.ireh, 1RJJ
tor Ilu- di-iribnlion of th,; am unit received
from Un- public lands, upon the principles
of that now ofi'ored. Tlio President, 111 lit
message, at 1 he commencement of Ihe pro
vioiis session, had specially invited tho at
tention of Congress to the subject ol'tho
public laud-; had adverted to their libera
tion from the pledge for the payment of the
puiiiic ilt-ui; aim liaii intimated Ins reidt-iio.-s
to concur in any di-nosal of them
which might appear to Congress more con
ductive lo ihe quiet, harmony ami general
interest of tlio American people. After Mich
a ino-sage, the Pre-identS disapprob itiou of
the bill could not have been uutit 1 lalcd, It
was presented to him 011 the 2d of March
UI3.J. It was not returned as the Cousti
tuiioii requires-, but was reiiiined by h.m
afier the expiration of his oflicial torn) and
utiMl the next se-sion of Congress, whicti
nad no power to act upon n, Ii was tin
derslood and helievo Ih il. in anticipation
of the pi-sago of the bill, the President hid
prepared obj-clions to it. whieli he had in
tended lo return wilh his negative; but he
did not. If the bill had been returned,
there is reason to believe that It would
h-ive pis.-ed, notwithstanding tho-e olip-c
ttniis. In the House, it had been curled by
a majority of more then two thirds, anil
in Ihe Senate, although there was not that
majority on Us passage a Waa supposed
VOBj. JX--No.595
that in consequence of the passage ortho
Compromise Hill, some of tho Senator)
who had votctl against the Land Hill had
chnnged their views, and would have voted
fur it upon its return, and others had left
the "-onate.
There are those who believed that the
bill was unconstitutionally retained by
tho President nnd is now tho law of the
land. Hut whether it be so or not.tho Gen
eral Government holds the public domain
111 trust for the common benefit of all the
.States ; and it is, therefore, competent to
provide bv law that the trustee shall make
distribution of the proceeds of the tbreo
past years, as well as future years, among
those entitled lo tho beneficial interest.
The bill makes such a provision. And it
is very remarkable, that the sum which it
proposes to distribute is about tho gross
ourplus, or balance, estimated in tho Trcas
ury on tho 1st of January, 103G. When
tho returns of tho last quarter ol'tho year
come in. it wnl probably be found thut the
surplus is larger than tho sum which the
biil distributes. Hut if it should not be.lhcro
will remain the seven millions held in tlic
Hank of the U. Slates, applicable, as far as
it may bo received, to the Horvicc of tho
ensuing year.
It would be premature now to enter into
a consideration of the probable revenue of
future years ; but, at tho proper time, I
think it will nut be difficult to show that,
exclusive of what maybe received from the
public lands it will bu abundantly sufficient
for all the economical purposes of Govern-,
moiit, in tune of peace. And the bill as I
have already stated, provides for seasons of
war. I wish to guard against all miscon
cepiion by repealing what 1 have hereto
fore several times said, that this bill is not
I'oun led upon any notion of a power in
Congress to lay and collect taxes & distri
bute the amount among the several states.
I think Congress possesses no such power
and has no right to cxerci-e it until soma
-neb amendment as that proposed by tho
Senator from South Carolina (Mr Colhoun)
-hall bo adopk'd. Hut the bill rests on tne
b isis of a clear and comprchon-ivo grant
of power In Congress over the Territories
and properly ot the United States in the
Constitution, and upon express stipulations
111 1 lie deeds of cession.
Mr. President. I have ever regarded
with feelings of the profoundest regret, tho
decision which Ihe President of the United
Slates felt himself induced to make on the
bill of tb'33. If it had been his pleasure to
approve it, the heads of departments would
not now be laving their ingenutty lo find
out ii.-ele.-s objects of expenditure, or ob
jects which may be well po-tponcd to a
more di-innt day. If the bill had passed,
about twenty millions of dollars, would
have been, during the Inst three year.-, in
1 be bands ol the several states applicable
hy them to the benehcient purposes ot in
ternal improvement, education, or colnniza
'inn. What immense benefits might not
hive been diffused throughout Ihe land
by the active employment of that largo
-nm? What new channels of commerce
and communication might not have been
opened? What industry stimulated, what
labor rewarded? Ho.v many youthful
onnds might have received the blessings
if edncat ton and knowledge, and been res
cued from ignorance, vice, and rum?
How many descendants of Africa might
hive been transported from a country
where they never can enjoy political or
social equality, to the native laud of iheir
''aiders, whom no impediment exists to theif
iiiaininent of tho highest degree of clcva
noii, intellectual, social, and political!
Where they mighi have been successful
in-iriiments in Ihe hands nf God, lo spread
ill-- religion of hi- Son, and to lay the luuiv
djiions of civil liberty !
And, Sir.when we institute a comparison
between what might have beer, effected,
an I what ha- been in fact done, with that
large amount of national irea.-urc, our sen--aitoiis
of regret, on account of the falo of
tho bill of l';33, are siill keener. Instead
of its being dedicated to the beneficent
u-es ol'tho whole people, and our entire
country, il ha-bein nil object of scrambling
am ing-l local corporations, ami locked up
hi the vaults, or loaned out by thu directors
of a few of then) who ate not under tho
-lightest re-pon.-ibihly lo Ihe government
r people of thu United Slates. Instead
of liberal, enlightened, and national pur
poses, ii ha- been partially applied lo local
limited, and .-elfiWi uses. Applied to in
crease the semi annual dividends of favorite
sleek holders in favorite hanks! Twenty
millions of tho national treasure are scat
tered 111 parcels among potty corporations
and wlnl-t they are growling over the
fragments and greedy for more. Ihe Secre
taries are brooding on schemes for squait"
during the whole.
Hut. although wo havo lost three pre
emus years, Ihe Secretary of the Treasury
tells us that the principle is yet safe and
much good may he still achieved with it.
ho li neral Government, by an extraor
dinary cxerciso of executive power, no lon
ger alliirds aid to any now works of inter
nal improvement. AlthoiiL'h it snrunir
from the Union, and cannot survive thu
Union, it no longer engages in any public
improvements to perpetuate tho cxistance
of the Union. It is but justice lo it lo ae
knowledge that, with the co operation of
the public spirited State of .Maryland, it
effected one national road having hat ten.
dency. Hut the spirit of improvement
pervade.- the laud, 111 every variety of form)
active, vigorous, and enterprising, wanting
pecuniary aid as well us intelligent direc"
lion. Tho S'ates have undertaken what
the General Government is prevented from
accomplishing. Thev arestrengtlnng the
U by various lines of communication
thrown across and through the mountains.
New York has completed one great'chaiu.
Penii-ylvini.-i, another, holder m concep
tion nnd lar more arduous 111 the execution;
Virginia has a similar work in progress,
worlly of her enterprise and energy. A
fourth, farther south, where tho pa'rls of
the Uumii are too loosely connected, haj

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