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Burlington free press. (Burlington, Vt.) 1827-1865, June 30, 1843, Image 1

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NOT TUB GLORY OF OJESAH-DUT TUB WBLFARE OF ROMS
VOL. XVII.
BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JUNE 30, 1843.
No. 'i
, MR. WEBSTER'S SPEECH.
On Bunker Hill, Juno 17, 1843, in com
memoration of the completion of tlio Monu
ment, as reported from liis own notes for the
Boston Courier :
A duty has been performed. A work of gratitude
and patriotism is completed. This structure, liavincj
its foundations in soil which drank deep of early rev
olutionary blood, has at length leached its destined
hcisht..and now lifts its summit to tho skies.
We linvo assembled, to celcbrato the accomplish
ment of this undertaking, and to indulge, afresh, in
the recollection of the great event which it is design
ed to commemorate. Kightcen years, more than half
'tho ordimry duration of n generation of mankind,
havo cjapsed sinco tho corner stone of this monument
was laid. Tho hopes of iis projectors rested on vol
untary contribution, private munificence, and the
general favor of the public. These hopes havo not
cen disappointed. Donations have been made by in
dividuals, in some cases of large amount, and smaller
lams contributed by thousands. All who regard the
object itself as important, and its accomplishment,
therefore, as a good attained, will entertain sincere
respect and gratitude for the unwearied efforts of the
successive Presidents, Hoards of Directors, and Com
mittees of the Association which has had the general
control of the work. Tho architect, equally entitled
to our thanks and commendation, will find other re
ward, nlo, for his labor and skill, in the beauty and
elegance of the obelisk itself, and the distinction which,
as a work of art, it confers on him.
At a period when tho prospects of further progress
in tho undertaking were gloomy and discouraging,
tho Mechanic Association, by a most praiseworthy
nd vigorous effort, raised new funds for carrying it
forward, and saw them applied with fidelity, econo
my, and skill. It is a grateful duty to make public
acknowledgements of uch timely and efficient aid.
The lasttflbrt, and the last contribution, were from
a different source. Garlands of grace and elegance
were destined to crown a work which had its com
mencement in manly patriotism. Tho winning pow
er of the sex addressed itself to the public, and all
that was needed to carry tho monument to its propo
sed height, and give to it its finish, was promptly
supplied. Tho mothers and the daughters of iheland
contributed thus most successfully to whatever of
ULuuiy is iii tuc uui'iisit iist'ti, ui wiiaii'ver ui uumy
anil public benefit nml gratification in its completion.
Ol'those with whom the plan of erecting on this
spot a monument, worthy of the event lobe com
memorated, originated, many are now present! but
others, alas 1 havo themselves become subjects of
monumental inscription. William Tudor, an accom
plished scholar, a distinguished writer, a most amia
ble man, allied, both by birth and sentiment, to the
patriots of the revolution, died, while on public ser
vice abroad, and now lies buried in a foreign land.
William Sullivan, n name fragrant of revolutionary
merit, and of public service and public virtue, who
himself partook, in a high degree, of the respect and
confidence of the community, and vet was always
most loved where best known, has also been gather
ed to his fathers. And last, Georgo Ulakc, a lawyer
of learning and eloquence, a man of wit and talent,
of s iciil qualities the most agn cable and fascinating,
and of litis which enabled him to exercise large Bway
over public assemblies, has closed his career. I know
that in tho crowds before tnc there are those from
whose eyes copious tears will flow, at the mention of
these names. Uut such mention is due to their gen
eral character, their public and private virtues, and
especially on this occasion to the spirit and zeal with
v.hich they entered into the undertaking which is
now completed.
I have spoken only of those who are not now num
bered with the livinc. Rut a lone life, now drawing
towards its close, always distinguished by acts of
puuuc suirn, uumaimy, anu cmniy, lorming a cnar
ecter which has already become historical, and sanc
tified by public regard, nnd by the nfTeclion of friends,
may confer, even on the living, the proper immunity
of tho dead, and bo the fit subject of honorable men
tion and warm commendation. Of the early projec
tors of the design of this monument, one of tho most
prominent, the most zealous, nnd the most efficient,
is Thomas H. Perkins. It was beneath his ever hos
pitable roof that those whom I have mentioned, and
others jet living and now present, having assembled
for the purpose, adopted tho first step tow ards erect
ing a monument on Hunker Hill. I.onir mav here-
main, with unimpaired facilities, in the wide field of
his usefulness. His chanties have distilled, like the
dews of heaven ; lie has fed tho hungry, and clothed
the inl.cd; he has given sight to the blind; and for
nuch virtues there is a reward on high, of which all
human memorials, all 1 mguago of brass and stone,
arc but humble types and attempted imitations.
Time and nature have had thiircourse, in diminh-h-ing
tho number of those whom we met here on the
I7lh of June, 13'2j. Most of the revolutionary char
acters then present havo sinca deciased, and Lafay
ette sleeps in his native land. Yet the name and
blood of Warren are with us; the kindred of Putnam
are here ; and near me, universally beloved for bis
years, sits the son nf the noble-hearted and daring
Prcicott. Gideon f'ostcr, of Danvers, Enos Rey
nolds, of Hoxford, Phincas Johnson, Rolen Andrews,
Elijah Dresser, .losiah Cleveland, Jesse Smith, Phil
ip Hagley, Needham Maynard, Roger Plaisted, Jo
seph Stiphens, iVehcmiah Porter, and James Har
vey, who bore onus for their countrv, either at Con
cord and Lexington, nn the 19th of Anril. or on Hun
ker Hill, all now far advanced in age, have come here
to-dav to look once more on the field of the exercise
of their vjlor, and to receive a hearty outpouring of
our respect.
The v have long outlived the troubles nnd dancers
of the revolution ; they have outlived the evils ari-ing
from the want of a tmitid and efficient government;
they have outlived the pendency of imminent dangers
to tne puutic tucrtyj they hayc outlived nearly all
their contemporaries : but thev have not outlived
they cannot outlive tho affectionate gratitude of
tner country. Jicaven lias not allotted to this gene
ration an ODDOrtunitv of rendering hirrh services, and
manifesting strong personal devotion, such as they
rendered and manifested, and in such a case as roused
the patriotic lircs of their youthful breasts, ond ncrv
ea tno sirengin ot tneir arms; hut we may praise
what we cannot equal, and celebrate actions which
we were not born to perforin. Pulchrum est bene-
Jacerc republics, ttiam bene dteere baud.
The Hunker Hill Monnment is finished. Here it
etands. fortunate on the natural eminenccon which
it is placed higher, infinitely higher in its objects and
purposes, it rises over the land, and over the sea, nnd
is visible, at their homes, to three hundred thousand
citizens of Massachasetts, it stands, a memorial of
thela,st, and a monitor to tho present, ond all suc
ceeding generations. I have spoken of the loftiness
of its purpose. If it had been without nnv other de
licti than the creation of a work of art, tho granite of
which ii it composea would have slept in Its native
bed. It has a purpose; and that purposo gives it
character. That purpose isrobes it with dignity and
moral g'sndeur. That well known purpose it is
which causes us to look up to it with a feclingof awe.
It is itself the orator of this occasion. 1 1 is not from
my lips, it is not from any human lips, that that
strain of eloquence is this day to flow, most compe
tent to move and excite the vast multitudes around.
The potent speaker stands motionless beforo them
It is a plain shaft. It bears no inscriptions, fronting
to the ruins sun, from which the futuro antiquarian
ehall wipe the dust. Js'or does tho riling tun cause
tones ol music to issue from its summit. Hut at the
rising of the sun, andot tho setting of the sun, in the
blazo of norm-day, and beneath the milder effulgence
of lunar light, It looks, it speaks, it acts, to the full
comprehension of every American mind, nnd the
awakening of glowing enthusiasm in every American
heart. Its silent, but awful utterance; its deep pa
thos, as it brings to our contemplation the 17th of
June, I775,and the consequences which havo resulted
to its, to our country, and to the world, from tho
events of that day, and which wo know must contin
ue to nun influenco on the destinies of mankind to the
end of time; tho elevation with which it raises us
high above the ordinary feelings of life, surpass all that
the study of tho closet, or even the inspiration of pen.
lus can produce. To-day it speaks to us. Its future
auditories will be through successive generations of
men, as they riseup beforo it, and gather round it.
Itsspeechwill bo of patriotism and courage; of civil
and rehgioui liberty; of free government i of the
moral improvement and elevation of mankind ; and
of the immortal memory of those who with heroic
devotion have sacrificed their lives for their country.
In the older world, numerous fabrics atill exist,
reared by human hands, but whoso object has been
lost in the darkness of ages. They are now monu
ments of nothing but the labor and skill which con
strucled ihem.
The mighty pyramid itself, half buried in the sands
of Africa, has nothing to bring down and report to us
but thy power or kings and the servitude of the peo
pie. If it had any purpose beyond that of a mauso
leum, such purposo his j perished from history, and
from tradition. If asked for it a: . 1. i
. , . . .. . ....., UUJOI, bu-
monition, its culiment, its instruction to mankind, or
any high end in its erection, it ji silent-silent as the
millions which ho in the dust at its base, and in the
eotacoml'S which surround it. Without a juit moral
fibjeet. thereto, made known to man ikn,mk
sj-int lbs skits, it riritti enly conviction of power,
mixed with strange wonder. .Hut if tho civilization of
the present race of men, rounded as it is in solid
science, the true knowledge! of nature, nnd vast dis
coveries in art, and which is stimulated and purified
by moral sentiment, and by tho truths of Christianity,
be not destined to destruction beforo the final tertni
liin of huniancxistcncc on earth, tlio obicct and pur
pose of this cdifico will bo known till that hour shall
come. And even if civilization should be subverted,
and the truths of the Christian religion obscured by a
new deluge of barbarism, the memory of Hunker Hill
and the American revolution vvill still be elements and
pattsof the knowledge which shall be possessed bv
the last man to whom the light of civilization nnd
VIII ISUUIlll Sll.l l UU I.AlCIIUlll,
This celebration is honored liv the nresenca of the
chief executive magistrate of the Union. An occasion
so national in its object and character, nnd so much
connected with that revolution from which tho gov
ernment sprang, at the head of which he is placed,
may well receive from him this mark of attention
and respect. Well acquainted vviih Yorktnwn, tho
sccneof the last great military struggle of the revolu
tion, his eye now surveys tho field of Hunker Hill, the
theatro of the first of tneso important conflicts. Ho
sees where Warren fell where Putnam and Prescott,
and Stork, and Knowllon, and Hrooks fought. He
beholds the spot where a thousand trained soldiers of
England were smitten to tho earth, in the first effort
of revolutionary war, by the arm of a bold nnd deter
mined yeomanry, contending for liberty and their
country. And while all assembled here entertain to
wards turn sincere personal good wishes, and tho
high respect duo to his elevated nflico and station, it
is not to be doubled that ho enters with true Ameri
can feclins into the patriotic enthusiasm, kindled by
the occasion, which animates the millions which sur
round him.
His Excellency the Governor of the commonwealth,
tho Governor of Rhode Island, nnd tho other dis
tinguished public men whom wc have the honor to
receive as visitors nnd guests to-day, will cordially
unite in a celebration connected with the great event
of tho revolutionary war.
No name in the hi'tory of 1775 and 177Gismore
distinguished than that of an ex-President of the
United States, whom we expected to see here, but
whose ill health prevents his attendance. Whenever
popular rights were to be asserted, an Adams was
present; and when tho time came, for the formal De
claration of Independence, it was the voice of an Ad
ams, that shook the halls of Congress. We wish wo
could have welcomed tons, this day, the inheritor of
Revolutionary blood, and the just and worthy repre
sentative of high Revolutionary nanus, merit and
services.
Hanners and badges, processions and flags, an
nounce to us, that amidst this uncnuntid multitude
are thousands of nativesof New England, now rc-i-dents
in other Slates. Welcome, vc kindred names.
with kindred blood! From tho broad savannas of
the, South, from the newer regions of tho Wet, from
amidst the hundreds of thousands f men nf f:nstem
origin who cultivate the rich valley of the Genesee, or
nvo niong tne cnain oi tiieiaKes, trom the mountains
of Pennsylvania, and the thronged cities of the coast,
welcome, welcome! Wherever else vou mav bestrnn.
gers, here you nre all at home. Vou assemble nt this
eiinuu ui nuuiiy, near uicianiuv nitars, at which your
earliest devotions were paid to Heaven; near to the
temples of worship first entered by you, and near to
inc scnoois nnu colleges in wnicn your education was
received. You come hither with n glorious ancestry
of liberty. Vou bring names, which aro on the rolls
of Lexington, Concord, and Hunker Hill. You come,
some of you, once more to bo embraced by an aged
revolutionary father, or ro receive another, perhaps, a
last blessing, bestowed in love and tears, by a mo
ther, vet surviving to witness, nnd to eniov. vnnr
piosperity and happiness.
nui u luimiy associations nnu tnc recollections ol
the past bring you hither with greater alacrity, and
mingle, with your greeting much of local attachment,
and private affection, greeting also I given, freo and
hearty greeting, to every American citizen, who
treads this sacred Boil with patriotic feeling, and re
spires with pleasure, in nil atmosphere fragrant with
the recollections of 1775. This occasion is respecta
ble nay, it is grand, it is sublime, by the nationality
of its sentiment. In the seventeen millions of happy
people, who form the American community, there is
not one that has not a deep and abiding interest in
that which it commemorates.
Wnc betide the man who brings to this day's wor
ship feeling less than wholly American ! Woebelido
the man who can stand here with the fires of local
resentments burning.or the purpose of fomenting lo
cal jealousies, nnd the strifes of local interests, fester
ing nnd rankling in his heart. Union, founded in
justice, in patriotism, and the most plain and obvious
common iiiictcsi ; union, lounueu on the same love
of liberty, cemented by Hood shed in the same com
mon cause ; union has been the source of nil our glo
ry nnd greatness thus far, and is the gruund of all our
highest hopes. This column stands on Union. I
know not that it might not kiep its position, if the
American Union, in tho mad conflict of human pas
sions; ond in the strife of parties and factions, should
be broken up nnd destroyed, I know not that it
would totter and fall to the earth, and mingle its frag
ments with the fragments of hlerty and the con-titu-lion,
when state should bo separated from state, and
faction and disniein! crment obliterate forever nil tho
hopes of the founders of our rcpnl lie, and the great in
heritanceof their chffJrcn. It might stand. Hut who,
from beneath tho weight of mortification and shame,
that would oppress him, could look up to behold it I
For my part, should I live to such a time, I should
avert my eyes from it forever.
It is not as a mere militiry encounter of hostile ar
mies that the baltlcof tjiunkcr Hill founds its principle
claim to attention. Vet, even as n mere battle, there
were circumstances attending it extraordinary in
character, and entitling it to peculiar distinction, li
was fought on this emi.ienco; in the neighborhood of
yi'iiuer cuy ; in me presence ot more spectators than
wcro combatants in theconflict. Men, women, and
children, from every commanding position, were ga
zing at the battle, and looking for its result with all
the eagerness natural to those who knew that tho is
suo was fraught with the deepest consequences to
them. Vet, on the ICth of June, 1775, there was no-
thing around tins full but verdure and culture. Tnere
whs, indeed, the note of awful preparation in Uoston.
There was the provincial nrmy at Cambridge, with
its right flank resting on Dorchester, and its left on
Chelsea. Uut hero all was peace. Tranquility rein
ed around. "
On tho 17th, every thing was changed. On yonder
height had arisen, in the night, n redoubt in which
Prescott commanded. Perceived by tho enemy at
dawn, it was immediately cannonaded from the Hon
ing batteries in the river, and the opposite shore.
And then ensued the hurry of preparation in Uoston ;
and soon the troops of Hritain embarked in the at
tempt to dislodge the colonists.
I suppose it would be difficult, in a military point of
view, to ascribe to the leaders on either sido any just
motive for theconflict which followed. On theone
hand, it could not have Icon very important to the
Americans to ottempt to hem the Uriu-h within the
town by advancing one singlo post a quarter of a
mile; while on the other hand, if the British found it
essential to diilodge the American troops, they had it
in their power, at no experiso of life. Ily moving up
their ships and batteries, they could have completely
cut off all communication with the tunin land over
the neck, and the forces in tho redoubt would have
been reduced to a state of famine in forty-eight hours.
mutual was not tne aay lor any .such considera
tions on cither sido ! Hoth parties were anxious to trv
tho strength o! their arms. Tho pride of England
would not nermit the rebels, as she termed ihem t
defy her to tho teeth, and without for a moment cal
culating the cost, the British general determined to
destroy the fort immediately. On tho other side,
Prescott and his gallant followers longed and thirsted
for a conflict. They wished it, and wished it at once.
And this is the true secret of the movements on this
lull.
I vvill not attempt to describe the battle. The can.
nonading the landing of the British their advance
tho coolness with which the chargo was met the
repuiso tno second attack ins second repulso tho
burning of Charlestown and finally ihe closing as
sault, nnd the slow retreat nf the Americans tho his
tory of all the-c is familiar.
But the consequences of tho battle of Bunker Hill
are greater than those of any conflict between the
hostile armies of European powers. It was tho first
great battle of Iho Revolution; and not only the first
blow, but the blow which determined the contest.
It did not, indeed, put an end to ihe war, but in the
ihcn existing hostile slate or feeling, the difficulties,
could only be referred to the arbitration of the sword.
And one thing is certain; that after the New Eng.
land troops had shown themselves able to face and
repulse the regulars, it Iwas decided that peace never
could be established but upon the basis of the inde
pendence of tho colonics when the sun of that day
went down. Ihe event of independence was certain!
When Washington heard of the battle he inquired if
tne militia nad stood the ftro or the regulars 1 And
when told that thev had not nnlv tood thnt fire lull
reserved their own till the enemy was within eight
rods, and then poured it in with tremendous effect
"then," exclaimed he, " the liberties of the country
are safe !"
The consequences of this battle were just of the
me iui;HriBHLD um nim reToimion liseu.
it intre wet nothing oi vtme in the principal nf
tho American revolution, then there is nothing valu
nblein the ba tlo of Bunker Hill and its consequen
ces. Hut if the revolution was an era ill the history
of man, favorable to human happiness if it was an
event which marked iho progrecs of man, nil over
the world, from despotism to liberty then tins mon
ument is not raised without cause. Then, the battle
of Bunker Hill is not an event undeserving celebra
tions, commemorations nnd rejoicings. ,
What then is the Iruo nnd peculiar principle of the
American revolution, nnd of tho systems of govern
ment which it has confirmed nnd established 7 Now
the truth is, that the Amcricnn revolution was not
caused by ilia instantaneous discovery of principles
of government beforo unheard of, or the practicable
adoption of political idea', such as had never before
entered into the minds of men. It was but tho full
developcment of principles of government, forms of
society, nnd political sentiments, the origin of, all
which lay back two centuries in English and Ameri
can history.
Tho discovery of America, its colonization by the
nations of Europe, tho history and progress of tho
colonies from their estab'ishment to the time when
the principal of them threw ofTtlieir allegiance to tho
respective states which had planted llioin, ond foun
ded governments of their own, constitute one of the
most interesting trains of events in human annals.
These events occupied three hundred years ; during
which period civilization and knowledge mado steady
progress in the word ; so that Europe, at tho com
mencement of tho nineteenth century, had become
greatly changed from thnt Europe which began the
colonization of America nt the commencement of tho
fifteenth And w;h.at is most material to my present
purpose is, that in the progress of tho first of theso
centuries, that is to say, from tho discovery of Ameri
ca to the settlements of Virginia and Massachusetts,
political nnd religious events took place which most
materially nltccted Ihe stnto of society and the senti
ments of mankind, especially in England, and in parts
of continental Europe. After n few feeble and unsuc
cessful efforts by England, under Henry the Seventh,
to plant colonies In America, no designs of that kind
were prosecuted for a long period, cither by the En
glish government or nnv of its subjects. Without
inquiring into tho causes of this long delay, its conse
quences nre sufficiently clear and striking. England
in this lapse of a century, unknown to herself, but
undir the providence of Ood, and the influence of
events, was titling ncrscll lor the wnrlt or colonizing
North America, on the principles, and by such men,
as should spread the English nam i and Eiii'lish blood,
in time, over a portion nf the western hemisphere.
The commercial spirit was greatly encouraged by
several laws passed in Henry Ihe Seventh's reign ;
nnd in the same reign encouragement was given to
nrtsnnd manufactures in lbs eastern countries, and
some not unimportant modifications of the feudal
system, by allowing the breaking of entails. These
and other measure, and other occurrences, were
making way for a new class of society to emerge and
show itself in a millitary and feudal age a middle
class, neither barons nor great landholders on the
one side, nor the mere retainers of the crown nor
mere agriculturol laborer on the other. With the rise
and growth of this now class of society, not only did
commerce and the arts increase, but better education,
a greater degree of knowledge, jusler notions of the
true ends of government, one sentiments favorable in
civil liberty, began to tpread abroad, and become
more and more common. But the plants springing
irom mcseisccus were oi s'ow growtn. The charac
ter of English society had indeed begun to undergo a
change, but changes of national character are ordina
rily the work of time. Operative causes were, how
ever, evidently in existence, and sure to produce, ulti
mately, their proper effect. From the accession of
Henry the seventh to the breaking out of the civil
wars England enjoyed much more exemption from
war. foreisn and domestic, than for a Ioni neriod he.
fore and during the controversy between the houses
of York and Lancaster.
These years of peaco were favourable to commerce
anu tne nris. lyommerce and the arts augmented
general nnd individual knowledge; nnd knowledge is
theonly first fonntain, both of tho love, nnd the prin
ciples of human liberty. Oher powerful causes soon
came into nclive play. The reformation of Luther
prone oui, mnciiing up the minds or men afresh, lead-
in? tO new habitS Ot thmiphr. nnd nu-fltieninn in in.
dividuals energies before unknown, even to themselves
The religious controversies of this period changed
spcietyos well as religion; indeed,' it would be easy
,u iiu,uu una ui-uussiuii were proper iur u, mat riiey
changed society to a considerable extent, where they
did not change tho religion of the state, The spirit of
tuMHiiciciui huh lureigu nuventure, tnereiore, on the
inic nnnu, wnicn nau gained so mucn strength and in
fluence, since the time of the discovery nf A merle
and, on the other, the assertion and maintenance of
ruugiuui nucriy, naving ineir source indeed in the re
formation, but continued, diversified, and continually
strengthened by tho subsequent divisions of senti
ment and opinion among tho reformers themselves,
and ihis lovo of religious liberty drawing after them,
or bringing nlong with them, as they always do, an
ardent dev otion to the principle of civil liberty also,
were the powerful infiuences. under which rhn'rneier
was formed, and men trained for Ihe great work of
introducing i.ngnsh civilazation, English law, and
what is more than all, Anglo-Saxon blood, into tho
wiiocrnessoi iorin America. Kalcigh and his com
panions may bo considered as the creatures, princi
pally, of the first of these causes. High spirited,
full Of the loVO Of norsonal adventure, evrited tnn in
some degree, by the hopes of sudden riches from the
discovery of mines of the precious metals, and not
unwilling to diversify the labors of settling a colony
with occasional cruising against the Spaniards in the
West Indian seas, they crossed and recrosscd the
ocean, with a frequency which surprizes us, when we
iiiv . . 0' ii;jiiuii, mm wnicn evinces a
iiiusi uiirin;; Mpiru. i up oilier cause peopled Vow
England. The May Flower sought our shores under
no high wrought spirit of commercial adventure, no
love of gold, no mixture of purpose, warlike or hos
tile, to any human being. Like the dove from tho
ark, rhe had put forth only to find rest. Solemn
prayers from tho shores of the sea in Holland, h-id
invoked for her. at her dennrtnre. the Ideeemir. r.f
Providence. The stars which guided her were tho
unobscured constellations of civil nnd religious liber
ty. Mcr oecli was tho nltar of the living God. Fer
vent nravers. from bended knees, minnled mAmTn
and evening, with the voices of oce-in.nnd the sighing
of tho wind in her shrouds. Every prosperous
breeze, wheh, gently swelling her sails, helped the
the P.lrrrinifl nrt,..r.l in ,1..!, .n..., J
...v . a wlt.IU.U 1.1 IllVM LUUIOV, U,V,,IVU lltJWIlU-
tltems of praise; nnd when the elements were
wrought into furv. neither the tcmneat. tnstinrr ,l,eir
fragile bark like a feather, nor the darkness and
howling of themidnight storm, ever disturbed, in man
nr woman, the firm and sottled purpose of their souls,
iu iiuueruu mi, nnu 10 no an, tnai tne meekest pa
tience, theboldest resolution, nnd ilm hiirhe.t imst in
God, could enable human beings to sufler or to per
form. Some differences mav. ilniihtles. tie imerrl ntihta
day between the descendants of tho early, colonists
ui y irginin oiio. inoso or iew i.ngiand, owing to the
uiim-iciii inuucnce" anu amerent circumstances under
which tho respective rcttlcmcnts were made. But
only enough to create a pleasing variety in tho midst
of a general resemblance
-faeies, non omnibus una,
4Ve tlitersa tamen, qualcm, deed esse sororcm."
But the habits, sentiments, and obiecta of bnth. nnn
became modified bv local causes, growing outof their
condition in the New World ; and as this condition
was essentially alike in both, nnd as both at once
adopted tho same general rules and principles of Eng
lish jurisprudence, these differences prndu.-illv Himin.
ished. They gradually disappeared by the pro rcss
of time, and the influence of intercourse. The neces
sity of some degree of union and cooperation to
defend themselves against the savago tribes, tended
to exebe in them mutual respect nnd regard. Thoy
fought together in tho wars against France. The
great and common cause of the revolution I ound them
together by new links of brotherhood; nnd finally,
fortunately, happily, and gloriously, the present form
of government united them to form tho Great Repub
lic of the World, nnd bound up their interests and
fortunes, till the whole earth sees that there is now
for them, in present po-session, as well as futuro
hope, only "Ono Country, Ono Constitution, and Ono
iJeiuiy,
Tho colonization of the tropical region, and the
whole of tho southern parts of thorontinent. hv Rnntn
nnd Poitugal was conducted on other principles, un
der the influence of other motives, and followed by
far different consequences. From tho limo of its dis
covery, the Spanish government pushed forward its
settlements in America, not only with vigor, but with
eagerness so that long beforo the first permnnent
English settlement had been accomplished, in what is
now called the United States, Spain had conquered
Mexico, Peru, and Chili, and stretched her power
over nearly all the territory she ever acquired iu this
continent. The rapidity of these conquests is to be
ascribed, in a great degree, to the eagerness, not to
aay tnc rapacity, oi inoso numerous bands or adven.
Hirers Who Were Stimulated to mhrlua immenu. re.
gtons, and take possesion of them in the name of the
crnwn of spain. The mines nf gold and silver were
the excitements to these efforts, and accordingly set
tlements wwe generally made, and Spanish authority
established, on tin immediate eve of the nhiim9,in
oneimorjr, ini tne nsttvt population mtjhtbr set to
work by their new Spanish masters in tho mines.
From these facts, the lovo of gold gold not produced
by industry, nor accumulated by commerce, but gold
dug from it native bed in the bowels of the earth, nnd
that earth ravished from its rightful possessors by
every possible degreeof enormity, cruelty, and crime.
was long 1110 governing m-soii in opaiusu wura unu
Spanish settlements in America.
Even Columbus himself did not wholly escano the
influence of this base motive. In his early voyages
wo find him passing from islandjnquiringvery where
for gold; as if God had opened the new" world to the
knowledge of tho old, only to gratify a passion equal
ly senseless nnd sordid; nnd to offer up millions of
anunoircnding race of men to the destruction of the
sword, sharpened both by cruelly nndrapacity. And
yei uoiumuus was tar anovo his age and country.
Enthusiastic, indeed, but sober, religious and magna
intnous ; born to great things, nnd capable of high
sentiments, ns his noble discourses beforo Ferdinand
and Isabella, ns well as tho whole history of his life,
shows. Probably he sacrificed much to tho known
sentiments of others, nnd nddtcssed to his followers
motives likely to influence them. At the same time
it is evident that he himself looked upon the world
which he discovered nsa world of wealth, all ready to
bo seized and enjoyed.
The conquerors and the European settlers of Span
ish America were mainly military commanders nnd
common soldiers. The monarchy of Spain wns not
transferred to this hemisphere, but it ncted in it, ns it
acted at home, through its ordinary means, and its
true representative, military forco. The robbery and
destruction of the native rnco was the achievement of
standing atmics, in the right of tho king, nnd by his
authority fighting in his name, for the aggrandize
ment of his power, nnd the extension of his preroga
tives; with military ideas, under arbitrary maxims, a
portion of that dreadful instrumentality by which a
fierfect despotism governs a people. As there wns no
ibcrty in Spain, hgw could liberty be transmitted to
the Spanish colonies?
The colonists of English America wcro of tho peo
ple, and a people already freo. They wcro of the
middle, industrious, nnd already prosperous class, the
inhabitants of commercial and manufacturing cities,
among whom liberty first revived aud respired, nfler
a sleep of a thousand years in the bosom of tho dark
ages.
Spain descended on (he new world in the armed and
terriblo image of her monarchy and her soldiery;
England approached it in the winning and popular
garb nf personal rights, public protection nnd civil
freedom. England transplanted liberty to America :
Spain transplanted power. England, through tho
agency of private companies nnd tho efforts of indi
viduals, colonized this part of North America, bv in
dustrious individuals, making their own way in the
wilderness, ucrending themselves against the savages,
recognizing their right to the soil, and with a ncneral
honest purpose of introducing knowledge ns well ns
unrisiiamiy among uicm. ppam stooped on south
America like a falcon on its prey. Every thing was
gone. Territories were acquired, bv fire and sword.
Cities were destroyed by fire ond sword. Hundreds
or thousands or human hcingsfcll by fire and sword.
Even conversion to Christianity was attempted by
fire and sword.
Behold, then, fellow-citizens, tho difference result
ing from tho operation of the two principles! Here,
to-day, on the summit of Hunker Hill, ond at the foot
of the monument, behold the difference ! I would
that tho fifty thousand voices present could proclaim
it, with a shout which should be heard over the globe.
Our inheritance wns of liberty, secured nnd regulated
h 1.1VV. nnd Pnliohtene 1 ho reltnti-tn nnA 1. ..n...l...ln .
V , " fi iuvr.-ui;,
that of South America was of power, stern, unrelent
ing, tyrannical, military power. And look to the re
sults on tho general and aggregate happiness of the
human race. And behold the results, in all (ho re
gions conquered by Cortez and Pizarro, and the con
trasted results here. I suppose tho territory of the
United States may amount to one-eight or one tenth
of that colonized by Spain on this continent, and yet
in all that vast region ihere are but between one or
two millions.of Kurnpean color and European blood;
while in the United States there are fourteen mil
lions who rejoice in their descent'from tho people of
the mote northern part uf Europe.
But wc follow thu diflerence in tho original princi
ple of colonization, nnd in its character nnd objects,
still further. We must look to mornl and intellectual
results; wc must consider consequences, not only as
they show themselves in the greater or less multipli
cation of men orthesupplyof their physxal wants
but in their civilization, improvement, nnd happiness.
Wo must enquire what progress has been made in the
truo science of liberty, and in the knowledgo of the
great principles of self-government.
I would not willingly say anything on this occasion
discourteous to thencw governments, founded on the
demolition cf the power of the Spanish monarchy
They are yet on their trial, ami I hopo for a favorable
result. But truth, sacred truth, ond n fidelity to the
cause of civil liberty, compels mo to say that hitherto
they have discovered quite too much ot the spirit of
that monarchy from which thoy separated them
selves. Quite too frequent resort is make to military
force; and quite too much of the substance of tho
people consumed in main mining armies, not for de
fence against foreign oirgression only, but for enforc
ing obedience to domestic authority. Standing ar
mies nre the oppressive instruments lor governing tho
people in the hands of heieditary and nrbitrarv tnon
archs. A military republic, a 'overnnient founded
on mock elections, nnd supported only by the sword
is a movement indeed, but a retregrndo and disas
trous movement from the monarchial systems.
If men would enjoy tho blessings of republican
government, they must govern themselves by reason,
by mutual counsel and consultation, by a sense and
feehmj of general interest, nnd by the acquiescence of
ino minoriy in uie win or me majority, properly ex
pressed and above all, the military must bo kept, ac
cording to tlio language of our bill of rights, in strict
subordination to tho civil authority. Wherever this
lesson is not both learned and practised, lliero can be
no politicolJrced,om. Absurd, preposterous is it a
scon nnu a satire on ireeiorms ot constitutional liber
ty, for constitutions nnd frames of government to be
prescribed by military leaders, and the riht of suf
frage to bo exercised at the point of the sword.
Making all allowance for situation and climate.it
cannot be doubted bv intelligent minds that the d:f.
ference now existing between North nnd South Atneri
ca is justly attributable, in a great degree, to political
iiiMiiuiiuiis. aiiu now Broad mat ditterenco is!
Suppose nn assembly, in one of the valleys, or on the
side of onoof the mountains of the southern half of
the hemisohere, to bo held, this day, in tho neighbor
hood nf a largo city; what would botho scene pre
sented? Yonder is a volcano, flaming and smoking,
but shedding no light, moral or intellectual. At its
foot is tho mine, yielding, peihaps, sometimes, large
gains to enpifah but in which labor is dostined to eter
nal and unrequited toil, and rewarded only by penury
and beggary. The city is filled with armed men ;
not n tree people, armed and coining forth voluntarily
to rejoice in a public festivity ; but hireling troops,
supported by forced loans, excessive impositions on
commerce, or taxes wrung from a half-fed and a half
clothed population. For the great, there nre palaces
covered with gold i for Ihe poor, there nre hovels of
the meanest sort. There is nn ecclesiastical hierarchy
enjoying tho wealth of princess; but there nre no
means of education to tho people. Do public im
provements favor intercourse between place and
place 7 So far from this, that the traveller cannot
pass from town to town without danger, every mile,
of robbery and assassination. I would not over
charge or exaggerate this picture; bui its principal
sketches aro nil too true.
And how does it contrast with tho scene now ac
tually before us 7 Look around upon these fields;
they aro verdant and beauliful, well cultivated, and at
this moment loaded wiih the riches of Ihe early har
vest. The hands which till ihem are free owners of
the soil, enjoying equal rights, nnd protected by law
from oppression nnd tyranny. Look to the thousand
vessels in our tight, filling the harbor, or covering the
neighboring sea. They aro tho instruments of a profi
tablo commerce, carried on by men who know that
ihe profits of their hardy enterprise, when they make
them, aro their own ; and this commerce is encour
c:ed and regulated by wise laws, and defended, when
need be, by ihe valor and patriotism of tho country.
Look to that fair city, the abodo of so much diffused
wealth, so much general hoppincss and comfort ; o
much personal independence, and so much general
knowledge. She fears no forcod contributions, no
siege or sacking from military leaders or rival fac
tions. The hundred temples, in which her citizens
worship God, aro in no danger of sacrilege. The
regular administration of the laws encounters no no
sloclo. The long processions of children and ymilh,
which you seo this day issuing by thousands from ihe
free schools, prove ihe core and anxiety with which
ii popular government provides for the education and
moroUof the people. Every where there is order ;
every where (hero is security. Every where the law
reaches to tho highest and reachet to Ihe lowest, to
protect him in his rights, and to restrain him from
wrong; and overall hovers liberty that Liberty
which our fathers fought nnd fell for on this very spot,
with her eye ever watchful, nnd her (tele wingercr
wideout-sprcad.
The colonies of Spain, from their origin to their end,
vysre subject to the sovereign authority of the king,
dom ; their government, as well as their eommsrre,
was a stud homt monopoly. Ifwciddto this the
ettibhshcd usage of filling important pot in the td
ministration of tho colonics exclusively bv natives of
old Spain, thus cutting oirforuvcr all hopes of honor
able preferment from every man born in tlio western
ncnnspiierc, causes enough riso up before us tit once,
to account fully for tho subsequent history nnd char
acter of these provinces. Tho viceroys and provin
cial governors of Spain were nevir nthonioin their
governments in America ; they did not fed that they
wero of thu pcoplo whom they fioverned. Their of
ficial character and employment havo n good resem
blance to those of tho proconsuls of Homo in Asia,
nicuy, nnd ij.aul, cut obviously no resemblance to
those of Carver and Wmlbron. nnd very liltlo to those
of the governorsof Virginia, nftcr that colony had cs-
luoiisiieu n popular nousc oi uurgesses.
Tho English colonists in America, generally speak
ing, were men who were socking new homes in a
new world. Thev broiieht with them their families
and all that was most dear to them. This was espe
cially the case with the colonists of Plymouth and
iuassncnuseus. ninny ot them wcro educated men,
and nil possessed their full sharp, nr -milmrr to their
social condition, of tho knowledge and ntlninincnta of
that ago. tlio distinctive clnr.ictentic of their set
tlement is the introduction of tho civili.ation of Europe
inlon wilderness, without 1 ringing with it the politi
cal institution of Europe. The rts, sciences and lit
craturcof Enulandcaine over with the settlers. That
great portion of tho common law which regulates the
social and personal relations and conduct ot men,
camonlso. The jury came; the habeas corpus came;
tho testamentary power came, and the law of inheri
tance nnd descent came nlso, except that part of it
which recognized tho ri"hts of nrimoireniture. which
cither did not corneal nil, or soon gave way to the
rule of equal partition of estates among children. Hut
tho monarchy did not come, nor thu aristocracy, nor
the church ns fln cst.ato of the realm. Political insti
tutions were to lie framed nnow, such as should be
adapted to tho state of thitiL'Si but it could nut be
doubtful what should be the nature and character of
these institutions. A general social equality prevailed
among tho settlers, nnd an equality of political rights
aecmed the natural, if not the nccessirv conseauences,
After forty years of revolution, violence and war, tho
pcoplo of France have placed at the head of the fun
damental instrument of thcirgovernmcnt, ns tho great
boon obtained by all their sufferings and sacrifices,
the declaration that all Frenchmen aro equal before
tne law. vv nat f ranee had rcnclieJ only by tno ex
penditures of so much blood and treasure, and the
exibition of so much crime, the English colonists ob
tained, by simply changing llieir place, carrying with
them thciifiellectualnnd moral culture of Europe, and
the personal and social relations to which they vveie
accustomed, but leaving behind their political 'institu
tions. It has been said, with much veracity, that the
felicity of the American colonists consisted in their
escape from the past. This is true so far ns respects
political cstablishmc tits, but no further. They biought
with them a full portion of all the richest of the past
in science, in art, in morals, religion, nnd literature.
Tho Hiblu.caino with thorn : nml il is not to bo doubt
ed that to the ftce and universal rending nf the Bible
it is to be ascribed in that age, ascribed in every age,
that men wire much indebted for right views of civ
il hbertv.
The Bible is a book of faith, and a boo'; nf doctrine;
but it is also a book, which leaches man Ids own in
dividual rcsponibihtv. his own dignity, and hi carnal
ity with bis fellow man. Bacon, and Locks, and
Milton andShakspearc also came with them. They
came to form new political syntems, but all that be
longed to cullivntcd man, to family, to neighborhood,
to social relations accompanied them. In tho Doric
phrase of one of our own historians, "they camo to
settle on bare creation ;" but their settlement in the
wilderness nevertheless, wa3 not a lodgment of nomi
nal tribes, a mere resting place of roaming savages.
It was the beginning nf a permanent community, tho
fixed restdenceofa cultivated men. Not only wns
English literature read, but English, good English,
was spoken and written, beforo the a.xo had made
way to let iu the sun upon tho habitations nnd fields
of the settlers. And whatever may be said to the con
trary, a correct use or tho English language is, at this
day, more general throughout tho United States, than
it is throughout England herself. Hut another grand
characteristic is, that in the English colonies, politi
cal nll'iirs were left to be managed by the colonists
themselves. There isanothcr fact wholly distinguish
ing them in character as it has distinguished them in
fortune, from the colonists of Spain. Hero lies the
foundation of that experience iu self government, which
had preserved order, nnd security, and regularity
amidst thu play of popular institution". Home gov
ernment was the secret of the prosperity of tho North
American settlements. The morn dmtimnihdicd of
the New-England colonies, with n mo5t reinarkalle
sagacity, nnd a longsighted rcaih into futurity, refus-'
ed to come to America, unlcssthcy could bring with !
Ihem chancre providingTor thendinnistration of their i
nfTairsin this country. They sivv from tho first, the1
evilsof b'ing governed in tho new world, by counsels 1
held in the old. Acknowledging the general superi-
orityot tne crown, they still ini-tM on the right or "
nassmu local laws, and of local administration. And
history teaches us the justice and the value of the de
termination in tho example of Yircinia.
Tho attempts early to settle tint colony failed,
sometimes with the moat melancholy and fatal con
sequences, from want of knowledge, care, and at
tention on the parlor those who bad charge ol their
all'iirs in England ; ami it was only after the issuing
or tho third charter that its prosperity fairly com
menced, Tho causo was that by that third charter
the neonle or Yirfinin (for Itv this time, thev po ,!e.
served to be called) were allowed to constitute and
establish the first popular representative niemhlv
which ever convened on this continent, the Virginia
House of Uurges.ses.
Hero then, arc tho great elements or our political
system originally introduced, early in operation, and
ready to be developed, more and more as the progress
or events should justify or demand.
Escape from the' existing political system of Europe,
but the continued enjoyment or its sciences and arts,
its literature, null us manners; vvitha series nf im
provements upon its religions and moral sentiments
and habits ; home government, or the power of pas
sing local laws, wiih a local administration.
Equality of rights.
lieprcsetitalivo systems.
I'reeforinsof government, foundedon popular rep
resentation. Few tonics are more inviting, or more fit for phi
losophical discussion, than the action arid inlliieucc of
inc new woriu upon ino uiu ; or iho couiriuuuuus ui
America to Europe.
Her obligations to Europe for science and art, laws
literature and manners, America acknowledges as
she ought, with respect and gratitude. And I he peo
ple or the United States, descendantsnr Iho English
nock, grateful for the treasures of knowledge derived
from their English nnccitors, acknowledge nlso, with
thanks and filial regard, that among those ancestors,
under the culture of Hauipdon and Sydney, nnd oth
er assiduous friends, that seed or popular liberty first
germinated, which nn our soil hax shot up to its full
height, until its branches overshadow nil the lanj.
Hut America has not failwl to make returns. If
she has not cancelled Ihe obligation, or equalled it by
others of like weight, she has, at least, ma lo resper.
table advances, and sonic annioaches towards cuuali-
ty. And she admits, that standing in tho midst or
civilized nations, nnd in a civilized nao a nation
among nations there is a high part which she is ex
pected to act, for the general advance of human in
terests nnd human weirare.
American tiiinca havo filled the mints or Europe
with tho precious metals. Tho productions i f ihe
American sod nnd climate have poured nut their
attendance of luxuries for Iko tables or the rich, and or
necessaries for tho sustenanco or the poor, llirds and
animals of beauty and value have been added Iu the
European stocks; nnd transplantations from the
transcendnnt aud unequalled riches of our forest,
have mingled themselves prnfuely with tho elms, and
ashes, and druidical oaks of England,
America has made contribution far more vast.
Who can estimate ilie amount, or the value, of the
augmentation of the commerco of the world, that has
resulted from America 7 Who can imagine to him
self what wouM bo tho shock lo the Eastern conti
nent, if Ihe Atlantic were no longer traversable, or
there were no longer American productions, of Amer
ican marl.cis ?
Hut America exercises influences or holds out ex
amples for tho cousiderotion or the old world, or a
much higher, because, they are of a moral and political
character.
America has rurnished to Europe proor of the fact
that popular institutions,, founded on equality nnd
the nrmcinlo of renrcsentation, nre capable of main
taining governments able to secure the rights of
person, property nnd reputation.
America has proved that it is practicable to elevate
the mass of mankind-that portion which iu Europe
is called the laboring, or lower class lo raise thcni to
sclf-rcspcet, to make ihem competent to net a part in
the grcal right, and great duly, of self-government ;
and this she has proved may be done by ediicition
and Ihe diffusion cf knowledge. She holds nut nn
example a thousand limes more enchanting than ever
was presented before to those nine-tenths of the hu
man race who ere born without hereditary fort una
or hereditary rank.
America has furnished to the world the character
of Washington! And if our American uistituiions
had done nothing i Nr. that alone would have suutlrd
them ' the respect of mitiMii'l
Washington! "firitin wsr. firil in pex, and first
in the henrtsofhis countrymen!" Washington isnll t
our own! Thctnthu:anic veneration nnd regard in
'.J! . i01',.!0' r ,;,1,lct, liin;. prove I
them to be worthy of sue ; 11 countryman : won 1m
S'iJ" 3b.;'"1 "I1'? " tl'l",'ticst honor on l,n ',
o world e ,V A,-, . r 7, ' ,,. ...' ' .' ... . ..
whole standi out tn tho lelicf of history, most pure,
most respectable, most subliinc-7 ami I doubt not,
that by a s ullrap" approaching to unanimity, tho
answer would be, Washington!
This structure, by in uprightness, its soliddy, its
durability, is no unlit emblem nf his character. His
public virtues nnd public principles weru ns firm ns
tlioe.arlh on which it stands; his personal motives,
as pure as the serene heaven in which its summit i
lost. But, indeed, though a fit, it id mi inadequate em
blem. Towering high above the column which our
hands have builded, beheld, not by tho inhabitants of
n single city or a sinulo stale ascends the colossal
grandeur or bis character and his life. In nil the nets
of tho other in all its titles to immortal love, admira
tion and renown it is an American production. It n
the oml odimcnt and vindication of our trnns-Atlan-tioJiberty.
Horn upon our so.l of parents also born
upon it never for a moment hatiiu had a higbt of
the old world instructed, according to tlio modes of
his time, only in the spare, plain, but wholesome el-
tucntary knowledge which our institution pmvtle
for thu childten of the people crowing up beneath
and penetrated by tho genuine inllu ncr3 of Ameri
can society growing up amidst our e.'.panding, lull
not .luxurious, civilization partaking in our great
destiny of labor, our long contest with unreclaimed
natttro and uncivilized man our agony of glory, tho
war of independence i ur great victory ol pence, the
formation of tli'i Union and the establishment of the
Constitution ho is all all our own I That crowded
aim glorious ii'e
11 Where multitudes of virtues passed nlnni,
Each prrfiug foremost, in the mighty lliron
Contending to be seen, then making room
I-or greater multitudes lint were to come;"
thaldifovvas lliehl'e nfan American citizen.
I claim him for America. In nil the perils, in eve
ry darkened moment of tho state, in the midst of the
reproachesof enemiesnnd the misgiving "nf frie.-.ds-I
turn to that transcendaiit name Tor courage, and for
consolation. To him who denies, or doubts whether
our fervid liberty ran bo combined with law, wiih or
der, with the .security of properly, with the' pursnits
nnl advancement ot haiipiiiess,( ),,, who denies
that our ' i'iti ti ms are iap-i! Iu ol producing exalt i
tiou or noil and the pa.'ionur tnr gl iry - to him who
denies that wu h iv- contributed anything io the "lock
orgreat lessons and great examples to all these I re
ply by pointing to Washington!
And now-, friends and fi llow-citizens, it is time to
bring thisdiseonr.se to a close.
We have indulged in gratifying recollections of the
past, in the prosperity and pleasures of the pre-ent ;
and m high hopes nf the future. Hut let us remem
ber that wo havo duties and obligations to perforin,
corresponding to the blessings which wo enjoy. Let
us remember the trust, the sacred trust,'att,ic!iing to
tho rich inheritance which wc have received from
our father.. Let us foci our personal responsibility
lo the full extent or our nower and imlnenee for ,l,e
preservation four institutions of civil and religious
liberty. And let us remember that it is only religion,
and morals, nnd knowledge, that can nnko men re
speeinble and happy under any form of government.
Let us ho d fist the great truth that communities are
responsible, ns well ns individuals; tint no govern
ment i rispectable which is not jut; tint without
tin-potted purity of public faith, without sacred pub
lic principle, fidelity and honor, no mere forms of
government, no machinery of laws, ran give dignity
to political society. In our day and generation let us
seel; to raise nnd improve the moral sentiment, so
that we may look, not for n degraded, but fir an ele
vated and improved future. And when we and our
children, shall all have been consigne I to the bouse
appointed for all living, may lovo of country and
pride of country glow with equal fervor union-' those
to whom our names and our blood slmll 1
deil ! And then, when honored and dccrrpid age
r.n.,o lem, utilise uic m'o oi tins iiioniiuiciit, and
troops of ingennioiis youth shall bo gathered round
it, and when the one shall speak to the other of its
olivets, the purpo,es of its construction, nnd the
great and glorious events with which it is connected
lucre shall rise, from every youthful breast, the
ejaculation "Thank tiod, I I 'also am an Ameri
can. "
"n the Peach Tree H'urm, by Dr. lurlland.
Among the cause or the perniaturo decay on the
uac'' tree, the depredations or the Peach tree worm
13 1,10 Principal one.
. the larva or grub form, the body of this worm
" a whitish color, anil its head reddish brown.
It' length at maturity, is about t hrce fourths of an
It commences itS detriietie-e eireer een., r.-l.
has batched rrom the egg, and enters iho tice, prob
ably through Ihelcuder hark, under thu suifaeonf
the soil, rrom thence, it first wo, ks downwards in
the root, unt.l the early part of tho ensuing Minimnr,
when it directs its couisa upwards, towards iho body
of the tree, hyevenva uig a channel, as it progresses,
between tho bark and the wood.
Having attained its fill! sio in theurfa or flrtI
form, it netpasesinlotlioptt)ii state, between tho
firft and tho mid lie of July. At lint lime, it mav
j bo discovered close to the trunk or the tree, enve op-
ed in hs fo'lule. and surrounded by a large accumula
tion of gum, tint oozes out of its dessicc.Ued chan
nel in thu roof. In this, the upa state, n continues
until the latter part of July, or Iho begiiiuiii" uf An
gust, vv hen it again changes into the moth, icinrcd, nr
pcrfict state.
In this con lition it is nctivo and vigilant, conceal
ing itself through Iheday, in cracks r crevic about
the trees, fence, or other secure places, an 1 at night
issu.ng forth to fulfil its vocations, nnd prcparefor
propagating a new generation of the grub.
While in tho m lh state, tho sexes di'ler so much
m appearance, ilyi a superficial observer might mis
take them for disiinct species.
Tho relink) son co nmences depositing her eg"s
upon the bark of the treo, just above the surl'ice of Iho
gro nd, and completes ihe process before the close
of September, when ,hc, as well as the male, dies.
Il is sai l that, in some insiaiu'es, she deposits noi
less than lhroebuudre I eggs upon one nee. Thec j
isobloilg-oval, dull yed w, mid so small as to be o7i
ly just observable bv thu naked eye. It hatches into
a miniitu grab in eight or ten dais. Tho v .mil" pro
geny then perforates the lend, r hark or the tuvs, be
ncaih the surface of theearih, iu the manner already
suggested.
"These several changes constitute its anmnl rou
tine of transformation, and they usually occur at thu
periods mentioned ; yet there nre individuals that do
not conform to the general rule, but undergo the
eh inges earlier or later, according to circumstance-,
and it is probable that there are a few fom lie- deposa
t,ng t bur eggs during tho most or nil of iho summer
months.
A dernilel account of tho nabil. nnd scientific
characters or ihe L;er a, as wv.'I ol the im-aiis that
nre sometime employed to prevent its depredations,
is contained in Mr. .-.iv'm "American Entomology,"
volume 11, which your readers will do well to con
suit. A knowledge of ihe lnb!t of noxiou or trouble
some insec's, will many limes enable us to devise
methods fur their counteraction. In the insianeenf
this insect, a very simplo remedy to prevent us de
predations has been suggested, and I nm happy lo
say thatevperience has, lo roino exicnt, confirmedils
efficacy.
The .E.geria, in its perfect or winged state, is close
ly allied to the moth family. The fact is prohahlv
universally known, lint aromatic oils of all kinds are
peculiarly offensive to that family of insect?. Everv
housewife knows thnt a quantity nf camphor, turpen
tine, oil nf taiizy.or tobacco, lilaenl in herd rnwera.
j containing woolen cloths, wid effectually pieserve
tlii-oi hum, tot, nii:,e-! U, mc common 1110111.
I tit evident lint iho same plan, under some form,
may be employed to repel from ihe l'eacli tree, lhc
.Egirt.a, in its moth state; and it is only in that Hale
in winch il deposits its eggs.
Tobacco, sulphur, und-oal ashes, have been tntd
with partial success but they ore temporary, ond
require io be often replaced.
Tansy and wormwood contain large quantities ol
essential oil, which is peculiarly ofl'ensivo to this in
sect; and it is found, ihst if the body of the peach
tree bo surrounded by half a doz ai sprout of cither
nf these vegetables, it wid be perfectly secured against
Ihe approaches nf this destructive enemy.
They should bo planted nut in the spring, neaily in
contact with the body of the tree, nnd so as to sur
round it. During tho summer they should he culti
vated, and kept free from grass. In Ihiswnv they
form a permanent successful means nf defence
against tlio insect that has nearly exterminated the
pencil tree from many sections of lite ewtniiy.
II isnrobable the ChinlpatfumanthehnlnticumAho
plnnt that furnUies the wornisocd ol, and peihaps
somooiuer oiner anuirumanc vcgciauics, would ai
swer equally well.
The Hon Kcuben Wood first surgnlfd tin mlh.
od tome revtral yeais unce, and I bvvo tried it my
self to n limned extent. Puring the last summer I
hJ ihe nt taction of teeing the mcctsjful kfuIi ol
: ., ..i,ki..i..,i.i. r... . r. -,ie.
trnn,r'i.nli,i t i.u.,..ui,J..J.u .,
aian - ling ill I113 g.irdtn tint had reuinincd'evenir
iv. , .?.. .....i.. e r.. - , t ..,..
,atm vChith time they had been'car.fullv s irroun'
"""' "V " '" s1nK Garden and vrry colli!
giiotis, left unprotected, very mpidly declining, wit"
their roots petl'oratcd in nil direction I y the worm
It is probably unnecessary to add, that to,.i i,iet 1
will act ns a prcventiv-: ngainst i'tc inject wh w it x
oily in the winged stale. Tnov vvill not afiect tie
latvn or thu pup i ; nor will th: horticulturist expert
them to preserve his poach ttees ngainst ihe nliacl. '
of the ve'bvi, the cl,l (,1'ecls of n bad sod, or i'
tnjiriwn iiiipre.--innaof cMreiuu cold weather win. i
the wood is immature.
Tun Scotch Majop.. Some siMy or seventy jear
ago, a Scutch Major in the liiitisii nrmy was station
cd at .Mutitrin' in l-ovvrr Canada, lie had from In.i
quarrel"oniedi'poiticn fought several duel", nail r
every iiitance killed his man. Indeed, for bis bu,v
ing riputation, lie had neqauet such a tharactir lli-l
it was decided thu liuglit of fully for any one to con
trndict bia Word.
Yankee prdlars abounded iu thou days as much lis
they do now, and it so Inppenid that onoof them ha i
located bimelf in tl'.c same tavern Willi our valiant
htio from Scotland. Ill the course or conversatto
the .M tjor observed :
'The Yankees are all cowards!'
'You're a harl' cmd the pedlar.
All eyes were turned upon the la t speaker, tin
was informed of the courago and performances of tb
Major, and advised to retract bis words, but nil to n"
purpose. lie persisted in his a-tertion ; nnd the con
sequence was a challenge M n dm 1 the next morning
which was instantly accpted by the Yankee, cm cor.
dition that the battle should bo fjughl without ceo
onds.
Matters thus being agreed upon, tho Major repaired
to the ground tho next morning at the time appointed;
where bo found tlio YnnUo walking to nnd Irowitb
shouldered rifle. On the Mr.jir's appearance vviihs
pair or hair trigger p.stols, the Yankee presented In
rille and said :
' Lay down your arms, dim your skin, or I'll blow
your I rams out.'
Thai's downright tnurdir,' said the Major, 'no man
of honor would require any such thing.'
The Yankee persisted in InsiiVmnr 1 and the nsult
wa; '. ; stols wero laid at hi feet.
'Now,' Mj3 Johnntliatt, 'I'll deal fa,, withvou; I
havo the ptptol- air you shall have the rifle.'
Tho Maior gladly made the exchange! and seiz.n;
ing the weapon, cocked it and aiuud it at the breast
of h snntagonisr, exclaiming,
' l)i hverror I'll blow you thro-..gh!'
'Blow and be hanged"!' said the Yankee.
The .Major snapped the piece ' xis r.ct hededt
Hobc'-nme so mortified from the eircums'.ance that
he left the service. Portland Amcrirm.
A Tnur. Win:. Tlio Iltiff.ilo papers an
nounce tliu dentil, on I lie 21t of May, of
Mrs. Muria Wait, wifu of liunjamm Wait,
one of tlio Canatlian political convicts. An
obituary notice in the Buffalo Commercial
says :
" Sho was a woman or very uncommon powcrs-of
mind, amiable in her deportment, ardent in her affec
tion, and of tiniiring energy nnd perseverance of char
acter. Her exertions in behalf ol" her husband and
his rellow-prisoners, who were under sentence cf
death for political ol! nces. committed during tho win
ter of 1S57 and 1S3S, in Upper Canada, seemed al
most superhuman. After having procured a commu
tation of tho sentence from death lo perpetual banish
ment to Van Pieman's Land, she went directly to
London, where she continued ten mouths, her un
wearied exertions for llieir final release. She was
most kindly received by the flucen, the heads or De
partment, and all theollieersnf the Crown. Through
I her exertions the freedom of tho Island wns extended
' her exertions the freedom of tho Island wns extended
to ihem. nnd nil thu liberty ihevVmild eniov in the
land of their exile; and but for their escape she soon
would have procured llmr final pardon. Her trials
and sufferings during this period of incessant toil and
anxiety aro mostnllecliugly nr. 1 graphically described
in her letters to a friend, publ.shcd in her husband's
narrative."
Tub I.stmjc.v.y is inoio prevalent this
year than it Ins hcun dnnns any oilier sea
son we remember. In this city n great
number of persons enfraire'l about our office
aro tifllictctl with it the- ollices of thu Com
mercial, Courier, and other papcis make iho
same complaint about sixty uf the crow of
the Norlh C.iiolitn aro troubled by it tlio
hotels liavt! been Niicd, and several board-inp-houses
vvilliin mir knowledge have not
escaped. In Albany the editors, reporters,
nnd printers, and others employed in tho of
fices of the Journal, Advertiser, Argus, nnd
other papers, nre alllicied with it. Trom
Philadelphia similar complaints rcaclitis.
A". Y. Tribune.
Gispen, celebrated optician in Paris, has
devised a new mid curious kind of Il.ironi
etur, which is exciting much attention. It
consists of a representation of a rural scene,
in which two lovers are vvalkins;. The lady
carries a parasol, and tlio gentleman an um
brella. In finn weather thu parasol is open
ed and raised, while the umbrella hangs in
the hands of tho gentleman. At tho ap
proach of rain, the parasol is shut and lower
ed, while the umbrella is opened ami raised
over tho couple. The affair cosis forty
fiancs, and sells very rapidly. From Eng
land especially, tho demand is greati
It is n curbus fict lint there is not a 5th
regiment of Li'.dil Dragoons in tlio Hritish
Army. The teasoii is, th.1t in the Irish Re
bellion, about half a century ago, the 5lh re
giment, almost to a man, deserled ami joined
the insurgents. This so exasperated Georgo
III. that ho declared iijiIi regiment of Dm
goons should not e.xUl in his reign ; and
Ii om lb ttlime the numbering of those regi
ments jumps from 4 to G.
Amkiiicvn Liiro.MOTivi:s, At a meeting
of tho Civil engineers Inslitiilion in Lon
don, simin t i mo .since, the subject of Ameri
can locomotive sleain engines was discussed.
It vvssstaled that the supeiinrlty of tho Ante
lirau locomotives was inronieslihle. In n
trialon an inclined plane, tin Americrn 'Iio
giu' engine, vvitha cylinder 12 1-2 incliei
in diameter, driving wheels 4 feet diameter,
weighing 11 tons, couveved u gross load of
51 tuns up tho incline at the rate of 12 miles
an hour, uhilo tho best of tlio English en
gines with n Iii inch cylinder, 5 feet driving
wheels, nml weighing 12 tons, draw 38 tons
up tho incliiio at the rate of six milts nn
hour. It was staled that thu American en
gines consumed a greater amount of fuel
than tlio English.
Tun nwnt or iur. Ocram. This is a
point, says M. Burn, which has puzzled
alike philosophers anil practical men, nml is
afier all, left in a wide field of conjecture.
The most prohablo guide is analogy ; nml
tho wisest men, judging by this cVilerioii,
have presumed that tlio depth ef iho sea may
bos measured by thu height of tlio moun
tains, tins highest of which nio 20,000 and
a0,000 feet. Tho greatest depth that lias
been trinl to bo niensu.ed, is ihru found lit
the northern oceans by Lord M'ilgmc. Un
heaved a very heavy soundinc" lend, and
, gave out nlonc wiih it a cable rope of ihr
Icnglll ol '1,'WI feet, wilhout fn.d o ' ,
bottom.

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