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Vermont watchman and State journal. (Montpelier, Vt.) 1836-1883, July 13, 1848, Image 1

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BY E. P. WALTON & SONS.
VOL. XLII, NO. 35. WHOLE NO. 2178.
iUatdjman & State 2ouinaI.
I'uni.tsiiuD Evunv TtiunsuAv mornino.
fRKMH-
SI 60 caili inadvancel 200 If navmcnt 1. not
mad
n advance) Intoieit always charged frmii the end
(rthe year
WOMAN.
It it not hen to gulilb the itorm of war.
To rule tde itate, or thunder at the W (
To lit with men !n legidlatire tin 1 1 1
To Govern realms, or maik their flc and Ml.
Theie thl.ip tiro not Tor her t Hli ffonnn't care,
Alono to roar the ilioott that Aourtth there j
To wipe the itartlrtj tear from cMMhpod'a f ye,
To itoothe Mi llltln wort, hia wonu auppljf J
To guard his moral wllli uncling euro,
And tend for him the iiopllunt knee in prayer j
Then givf, him In lilt Tut1 ami perfect worth,
Tuaorve the land lliul ml.ert upon hit hirlh.
iilisccllancoup.
THE WAY-SIDE BELL.
" Oh ! mnnr a winter nlglit I'm went
And milled, to hrnr lliein toll,
Wilt) Ijulverinf lip and nnwurd Unen,
Tie Itfftnd c lAa but."
O.v the borders of a dreary wood, in the
northern part of Germany, stands a little
wayside chapel, the bell of which is only
tolled when a funeral goes past. The tol
ling of a bell is always a melancholy sound ;
but this, although loud, nnd capable of be
ing heard at a considerable distance, has a
peculiarly sad and solemn cadence, as if it
knew it was never in future to speak of a-
nything but death.
In a small and pleasant cottage not far
.... . I, A1,n,nt 1nn ll.'A.l rti tl.n llltlf) nC
Vmulprnnnt Pnr mnnv rrnnprntinns his
tanuly occupied the same house, and tolled
that same melancholy bell, at intervals few
and far between ; while many legends of
nip iinvv t:ir r pp.nvinrr r.n.mei nnssnn trnm
jts I r - -
lips around the midnight hearth. More than
once it had chanced mat tuc narrator was
interrupted in the most interesting part of
Ihosn wild tains, and obliired to rro forth in-
in lilt rmriv lutriiL nun i:iiliiv lij liii ilk ill'.
' 1 J n
by means of tho wayside bell, that the dead ,
were going past to their long home.
The present proprietor, however, was not
one to care for talcs or legends ; he had no
brlief in spirits, and ho used to laugh at
such superstitions in a way that made the
old gossips of the place shudder, and shako
their heads at his temerity. If Paul Van-
I .1 i n I 1 . . '
aerpani naa 01 taie uegun to entertain seri
ous thoughts that it is not good for man to
be alone, it was assuredly some other senti
ment than fear which engendered them, or
tin tt'ntilfl not linvn ninfln p.linlp.n nfftprlrllrlp
Hoffman for a companion unless indeed,
he thought, with ourselves, that there is no
burer charm against the power of the evil
one than love Tor one another and trust in
God.
Gertrude was the eldest child of a poor
widow, who occupied an adjoining cottage.
She spun and sewed, and made lace ; tend
ed and arranged the flowers which her little
brother Eric sold at the neighboring mar
ket-place; nursed and watted upon her aged
mother, or romped and laughed with Tier
young sister Lily. She was never idle, nev-f
er out of spirits, and her sweet voice might
be heard from morning till night singing at
her tvheel, or among her flowers, or as she
passed feailessly through that dreary wood
where a few cared to bo after night-fall.
Gertrude feared nothing but doing wrong.
Sometimes tho poor girl fancied that it might
be wrong to bo alwaysthinking of Paul Van
dcrpant ; for, dearly as she loved her own
little circle, she could not but feel that he
was dearer than all to her ; for it is strange
how soon such affections outgrow tho love
of kindred! And many a time has she
knelt down, all alone in the little wayside
chapel, and prayed to God to keep her from
idols! lint Paul was worthy of her, and
her influence for oh, how great is a wo-
man's influence who loves and is beloved!!
ten upon iiini iiku u mussing.
Widow Hoffman had seen a great deal of
trouble in her day, and although for her
children's sake she still clung to life, there
was a shadow over her heart that would not
suffer her to enjoy it as she had once done.
From this cause she had a habit of talking
of the world as if it were a very sad and
weary place, to all of which Gertrude list
ened with filial reverence and an incredu
lous smile. It seemed a beautiful world to
her, and full of sunshine ! It is a beauti
ful world for all ; and its Tew days, its wil
derness wanderings make us prize tho sun
light and the flowers all tho more; or, bet
ter still, weans our alfcctions from earth to
that bright and far off land, where there
will be no more sighing or sorrow. Ger
trude's creed was, Let us enjoy and bo
grateful for the present, and trust the future!
to Him who knoweth what is best for us,
whether it be good or evil.
Paul Vanderpant, as we have said, was
no believer in the supernatural, or Gertrude
cither, although the deep reverence of her
nature made his mockery appear painful,
and for her sake he ceased to jest upon such
themes as he had once done.
" After all," said Gertrude, upon one oc-
turn upon this subject, " there arc many
things constantly happening around us,
, which arc too well authenticated to bo de
nied, and too strange to bo explained. I
certainly do not believe in ghosts, but I as
certainly believe that nothing is impossible
to God 1"
Lily, who had all a young girl's lovo of I
the marvellous and romantic, asked Paul if
ho .had ever seen tho spirit which was said
to haunt tho little way-side chapel, of which
mention has before been made.
" No, never ;,and yet 1 have been there
nt all hours, liut what is it like, that 1
may know it, in casewcshould ever meet?"
" Like a woman, they say, dressed all in
white, with her long hair floating on her
shoulders."
"Who says so, Lily?"
" Nonsense ! How provoking you are I
Hut surely you know tho legend t"
" Not I," replied Paul, carelessly,
" Sho is said," continued Lily, without
heeding his incredulous smile, " to have
been tho only daughter of a proud and
wealthy baron, who wanted to force her in
to a marriago with 0110 whom sho could nev
er have lovcti, even it sue nau not neon, as
she was, secretly betrothed to a bravo young
knight with no fortune but his sword. To
avoid this hateful marriage, tho lovers fled
nway one moonlight night ! but somehow
the baron got to hear of it, and burning
with rage, set spurs to his horse, and over
took them just opposite tho littie wayside
chapel, in which tho lady sought refuge.
She was kneeling and praying before the
altar, when her stern father entered hastily
with his sword drawn and covered with
blood j and she know by that, as well as by
tho expression of his countenance, that all
was over. For a moment tho old baron wai
startled by a wild and thrilling shriek, and ,
when ho advanced alter a pause, and lined atmosphere gradually darkened and thick
her from the ground where she had fallen, cned around them.
he found that she was dead ; her heart had! Gertrude's simple purchases were soon
broken 1 The body of the young knight is . made much sooner than Lily quite appro
said to have been secretly interred some- ved of; for she would fain havo lingered
where within tho precints of the chapel ; 'twice as long, looking at tho smart ribbons
while that of his betrothed was conveyed and laces; hut as her sister said, of what
back to the splendid burial place of Iter an- use was it, since they could not afford to
cestors; but every night her spirit comes to buy any ? They next went to visit tho rcl-
wcep over the lonely grave of her murdered
lover !
" And did you really ever hear or see a
nything"" asked tho little Ericof Paul Van
dcrpaut, as his sister concluded her narra
tive. " Yes, I remember now. One night I
was sitting alone in my little cottage, when
I distinctly heard three tlcep groans, suc
ceeded by a heavy fall without "
" And what did you do 1" asked the boy,
creeping closer to him, and fixing his largo
eyes eagerly upon his countenance.
I got up directly, and opened tho door;
there was nothing to be seen, although to
be sure, tho night was very dark ; I had,
however, hardly resumed my seat, than tho
groaning was repeated in somewhat fainter
accents."
" How frightened you must have been,"
said Lily.
" I was startled, I confess; and this time
I took tho lamp with me ; but when I open
ed tho door, there came another gust of
wind and blew it out, so that I was no better
olfthan before. In stepping over the thresh
old I stumbled against something which lay
prostrate on the ground, and another heavy
groan succeeded. It was a poor wandering
pedlar who had lost his way, and was half
frozen to death with the cold; so that he
had not oven sufiicicnt strength left to de
mand admittance at tlt,:t door to which the
light burning within had providentially di
rected him."
" Then it was no ghost after all !" ex
claimed Eric, with a disappointed air.
" We might havo suspected as much,"
observed his sister Lily.
Gertrude put her hand into her lover's
.nd smiled. " Did the poor man recover?"
ksked she.
" Yes, and you will doubtless sco him
;omc day, for he never passes this way with
out calling."
" Supposing that you had sat still," said
Lily, " and feared to open the door I I am
sure I should."
" I hope not answered Paul; forthcu
the poor old man must certainly have per
ishetl with the cold; as Gertrude says, we
should fear nothing but God !" '
Lily smiled and remained silent, for she
well knew that whatever Gertrude saitl, or
thought, or did, was sure to bo right in the
pvps of P:inl ! nml tilt vnutirr rri rl u'nmlnrpil. 1
jp ever she had a lover a possibility which!
shc often seriously contemplated whether
it would be the same, and whether it ever that dreary wood. At length poor l,ily he
would bo " ns Lily saysl" Time enough, 1 gati to lose all hope, and sinking down up-
sweet Lily. J. hou art little more than a
child as yet, although thou wouldst toss thy
prelly head, and curl ihy pretty rosy lips, if
any body should venture to tell thee so.
Assisted bv her mother and sister, Ger-
trude spun all her household linen, antlar-:
ranged Iter simple wardrobe against tho now
fast approaching period which had been fix-,
cd upon for their wedding to take place. It '
was so delightful to think that she was not!
to be separated from her family, but could j
see them every day as usual and go in and
out the old cottage, and ascertain that her 1
mother had everything comfortable, and put 1
,;y j thc way of doing many things which '
would seem strange to her at first; for tho I
active and busy Gertrude had been hither-
to the presiding spirit ot her checrlul home,
There was one or twe little articles, howev-1
er, which Gertrude wanted to complete her
trousseau, and which could not ue procured ,
nearer than tho market-town of S , sit- !
uated at the extremity of the wood about
five miles oh"; but she knew the path well, '
having been that way many times before.
Accordingly, one fine morning, Gertrude'
started for S., accompanied by Lily, who, as
their mother appeared unusually well, and I will be done !" said Gertrude. And as she
Eric had promised not to leave her, asked' knelt and prayed, a strange calm came over
permission to go with her sister ; for there J her, and her heart was filled with a trust.
was nothing that Lily enjoyed more than, "Ho knoweth best," thought she. "He
going to S., which, small as tho town was, will comfort them. And yet, if it were His
6eemed to her like another world. will to spare us a little longer, we are so
Paul Vanderpant prophesied thai there 'young to die but Thy will, O Gqd, not
would be a heavy fall of snow before night ; 1 mine bo done !"
but it certainly did not look like it then. It! " The girls will not be home now," said
was agreed, however, that in case he should widow Hoffman to her son, as she glanced
be right, the sisters were to sleep at the , at tho clock, and then out of the snow-cov-house
of a distant relative, who resided in ' crcd casement as well as sho could into tho
the town ; and Paul was to come over the
following morning and fetch them home.
He would have been glad to accompany
them could ho havo found titno ; bijt, if the
truth must bo told, even Gertrude was not
very sorry that he did not ; for she had, as
wc have said, several little purchases to
make, and men are sadly in the way upon
these occasions.
Lily laughed merrily, as she stood warm -
ly cquippeu lor incir long walK, and with
. i. i i:k !!. : i i-. -i..
the early sunlight glittering upon her bright,
golden hair. " He sure that you bring tho
sledge, Paul," she exclaimed ; " for tho
snow will certainly bo to deep too admit of
our walking back !"
" Wet shall seo," replied Paul Vander
pant good-humorcdly.
" I would lay you any wager wo are home
to-night," persisted Lily.
" I hope so, if it be without danger. Hut
Gertrude, dearest, you will bo careful, for
my sake."
Gertrude answered in a low voice; and
joining her sister a few moments afterwards,
they passed into the thick wood, and were
soon out of sight; although their merry voi
ces, and Lily's clear.jinging laugh, linger
ed in tho air for several moments, and then
died gradually away.
Notwithstanding that they are constantly
together, it is astonishing how many things
sisters always have to talk ahout, especially
when it happens, as in tho present case, that
one is on the eve of marriage. What bright
plans were nrranged 1 what fairy hopes of
future happiness 1 How tho real and tho
ideal mingled together in their thoughts and
words, which, wander as they would, over
came back to the one theme. Now Lily talk
ed and laughed, and praised l'aul Vuiidcr
pant; and how Gertrude blushed and listen
ed, and loved her for that praise. The time
passed awuy bo quickly, they could scarcely
believe that they had indeed come to the
termination of that dreary wood, and were
entering into the little market-town of S.
Neither had they perceived ho iv tho beauty
of tho morning had passed away, and the
atives before mentioned, who received them
with a hearty welcome.
" I think that wo shall have some snow,"
said she, as they sat at dinner.
" It does look like it now, to bo sure,"
observed Lily. " How Paul will triumph to
find that ho was right, after all 1"
" Do you think that the snow will bo
much V asked Gertrude.
" Not until after sunset."
" And wo should bo home by then."
"If you wish to return to-night," saitl
their hostess, " I would advise your losing
no time about it."
"Let us go," exclaimed Lily, " if it is
only to tease Paul. I do not believe that it
will snow at least not before wo reach
home; and wo will walk fast, as wo did
this morning."
Gertrude was also desirous of returning,
for she well know that her mother would ho
fancying all sorts of improbable things, and
have no rest, if they did not come, although
they tarried at her own request. Accord
ingly the sisters took a hasty leave of their
kind relative, and commenced their journey
homeward. The cold was intense, and a
sharp easterly wind cam3 full in their faces,
sometimes in such violent gusts as almost
to heat them back again, while tho wither
ed branches creaked and groaned as they
bent beneath the blast.
" This is anything but pleasant," said
Lily, as she paused a moment to recover
breath and wrap the folds of her cloak close
around her. " Hut at any rate there is no
snow, and we shall yet laugh at Paul for a
false prophet 1"
As she spoke a largo white snow-flake
drifted before her eyes, and whirled around
and around as if in mockery. Gertrude
smiled as she pointed to it ; but there was a
weight on her heart, and she almost wished
that they had not ventured. Hut it was too
late to think of that now, since it was as
near to proceed as to retrace their steps;
and no alternative remained but to walk on
as quickly as possible.
'livery moment the sky seemed to grow
darker, while the snow fell fast and silently.
In an incredibly short space of time the
around and the trees were all whitened over,
while the sharp driving sleet almost blinded
them. Gertrude soon discovered that they
had missed tho right path, but knew not how
In rpir.iin it jtnil fltpv w.milnrpil nlioitt for
hours, until the night came on and found
tliein entirely bewildered in the mazes of
on tho snow, declared that she felt too tired
to go any further. It was in vain that Ger-
trtidc endeavored to arouse and cheer her :
the cold had seized upon her, and a fatal
lethargy was fast stealing over her senses.
"Oh, Lily I" exclaimed her sister, "do
try and get up. It does not snow quite so
hard now, and perhaps we may bo able to
find tho path. We cannot be so very far
from homo: at any rate, it will bo warmer
walking about."
" What were you saving about home, sis
tcr ! for your nice sounds a great way off
and I feel so sleepy. I do not think that
shall ever sec home again."
"Hush
yourself.
dearest! only
try and arouse
Lily; speak to
mc t Lily ! Li-
ly t"
There was no answer.
" If she sleeps now," murmured Gertrude,
" she will wake no more. Uh uod, bemer
ciful ! Savo her save us both ! My poor
mother I My dear Paul!" Antl the girl
lifted up hcr'claspcd hands and wept. She
took oil her warm cloak and spread it over
Lily there was nothing clsn that sho could
do. God alone could help them. "His
darkness, " I inn glad that I thought of
their slaying at S . You can go to bed,
Eric, dear !"
The boy obeyed her, and was asleep in a
- moment but his mother could not rest; so
she opened her large clasped biblo and read,
, pausing at intervals to listen to tho whisper-
inga of the snow as it drifted against the
window pane.
; Paul Vautlerpant, assured of tho safety of
his beloved, went to bed thinking what a
.... ... .r 1 1
merry walk they snouiu nivc on tno ioiiow
ing day back from S , and how ho
would tease Lily for having ventured to
doubt his word. About ten minutes after
wards he was suddenly aroused by some one
knocking at the door, and distinctly heard
tho sweet voice of Gertrude bidding him get
up as quickly as possible, and toll the chap
el bell.
Paul was soon dressed, and went fortli
wondering what should mako Gertrude sum
mon him ; and above all, why they had ven
tured home on such a night. "Thank Gcd
that she is safe I" murmured he. "They
must have heard of tho funeral at S, and
sho came herself to tell mo, that I might
know sho had returned in safety. Dear,
thoughtful Gertrude 1 It is a wild night for
a funeral, anyhow," added Paul, as ho en
tered the littlo wayside chapel and began to
toll tho bell.
It was above a year since the bell had
been heard before Many started out of
their sleep at the sound of its melancholy
voice, murmured a hasty prayer; others
slept on, and dreamt of it. Thf widow, as
she sat all alone -in her little chamber shud
dered with a strange fear. Gertrude sprang
up from the cold ground, where she had
been nestling close beside her sister, and
where she would have soon slept also, with
a cry of joy. God had heard her prayers,
and scut tho voice of the waysido bell to
guide her homeward through the snow;
and she knew by the sound that it could not
be very far off. Tho young girl felt endued
with a supernatural strength ; and tilling up
the slight form of her sister in her arms
for she would havo died with her rather than
loft her behind she tottered forward in the
direction from which the sound seemed to
come. Now sho diverged from tho right
path, and tho voice of the bell became faint
er and fainter, and then again it tolled more
and more loudly and distinctly, and just as
she reached the edge of the wood, and caught
a glimpso of the light still burning in her
mother's cottage, it CRAaea-Jyi" i i M
though it knew us mission was ended.
Having rang the accustomed time, Paul
Vanderpant quitted the chapel, and proceed
cd homewards. The snow had ceased td
fall, and he saw to his surprise, directly be
fore him, a female figure slightly clad, and
bearing as it seemed, some heavy burden.
Slowly it toiled on, staggering beneath the
weight it bore, at length sank within a few
paces of widow Hoffman's cottage. For a
moment Paul thought of the wild legend
which Lily had told him concerning the
spirit of tho wayside chapel, hut it was only
for a moment the next he hr.d sprung for
ward, and was kneeling beside the insensi
ble forms of Gertrude and her sister.
We will not attempt to describe the scene
that followed, or endeavor to explain, or add
a single remark of our own to tho above
simple and truthful narrative; but content
ourselves with adopting and believing Ger
trude's own sweet creed, that not hint' is im
possible to God!
I ho wedding ol Paul Vanderpant and
Gertrude Ilolfman took place in tho early
spring, and Lily was sufficiently recovered
to be her sister's bridesmaid.
political.
THE SLAVERY QUESTION.
KXTIt CT ritOM
MR. VAN BUREN'S LETTER.
Lindenwald, June 20, 18-18.
You desire also my views in regard to
the prohibition by Congress, of slavery in
territories where it does not now exist, and
they shall bo given in a few words, and in a
manner, which will not, I hope, increase, if
it docs not diminish the existing excitement
in the public mind.
Tho illustrious founders of our govern-,
incut were not insensible to the apparent
inconsistency between the perpetuation of
slavery in the Lnitcd Slates, tuo prin-
ciptcs ot mc revolution, as uenncaicu nunc
declaration of independence ; and they were
too ingenuous in their dispositions to at
tempt to conceal the impressions by which
they were embarrassed. Hut they knew,
also, that its speedy abolition in several of
the States was impossible, and its existence
in all, without fault on tho part of the pres
ent generation. They were also too upright
and the fraternal feelings which had carried
them through the struggle for independence
were too strong to permit them to deal with
such a matter upon any other principles
than those of liberality and justice. The
policy they adopted, was to guarantee to the
States in which slavery existed a conclusive
control over the subject within their respec
tive jurisdictions, but to prevent by united
efforts, its extension to territories of tho
United States, in which in fact it did not
exist.
On all sides the most expeditious means
to carry out this policy were adopted with
alacrity and good feeling. Their first step
was to interdict the introduction of slavery
into tho North-western territory, now cov
ered by the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan and Wisconsin. This may justly
be regarded as being in the main, a South
ern measure. 1 lie subject was first brought
forward in Congress by Mr. JefTerson. Vir
ginia made the cession of territory upon
which the ordinance was intended to operate
and the representatives from all the slave
holding states gave it n unanimous support.
Doubts have arisen in the minds of some
whether the ordinance of 1787 was author
ized by the articles of confederation. A
bill was introduced in tho new congress at
its first session under the constitution, re
cognizing and adapting it to the new or-
ganizatton,
and it has cvor since been treat-
cd and regarded as a valid act. This bill
received tho constitutional approbation of
President Washington, whose highest and
sworn duty it wastostipporulbonstitutiun States, whether obtained by annexation, by
under which it was enacted. Nor was tho cession for a valuable consideration, or by
North backward in doing its part to sustain conquest, must as long as this opinion is
the policy which had been wisely adopted, held, and as far as the action of tho nation
They assented to the insertion of provisions 'al Legislature is concerned, be subject to
in the constitution necessary and sufficient! the inroads of slavery. And this consc
to protect that interest in the States, and qiieucc is to be submitted to on the assump
thcy did more. j turn that the framers of the Constitution,
The trouble apprehended at tho com-, with their attention directed to tho subject,
incncement of tho government from this, and with a well understood desire to do so,
source, began to show itself as early as have failed to clothe Congress with the ne
1700, in the form of petitions presented to ccssary powers to prevent it. I cannot with
Congress upon tho subject of slavery and ' my vote contribute to this sanction. I can
tho slave trade by the Quakers of Philadel-1 not do so, because I cannot concur in tho
phia and New York, and by Dr. Franklin I opinion which wc aro called upon to sus-
us president oi a society tor uiu iiuiuuuu
of aboliiion. These petitions were, in tho
House ol Representatives rcierrcu to a
committee of seven, all but one of whom
were Northern members, whoso report, as
amended in committee of tho whole, afhrm
ed " that Congress have no power to inter
fere in the emancipation of slaves, or in tho
treatment of them within any of tho slates,
it remaining with tho several states alone to
provide any regulation therein which hu
manity and true policy might require."
Tho perseverance and good faith with
which both branches of policy thus adopted
have, until very recently, been recognized
and carried out, aro highly honorable to tho
wholo country. The peculiur liability of
tho subject to bo converted into an clement
of political agitation, as well in the slave
holding as in tho non-slavcholding states,
may havo led to occasional attempts so to
employ it, but theso efforts havo been very
successfully frustrated bv the good senso
I and good feeling of tho people in ovcry
quarter of the Union. A dctnilcdidccoutil
of tho numerous acts of the Federal' gov
ernment, sustaining and carryingiinto full
cflect the policy of its founders upon tho
subject of slavery in tho states, and its ex
tension to tho territories, and the, steps ta
ken, in tho non-slavcholding' states, tn,nup
press or neutralize undue agitation ui re
gard to it, would bo" alike instructive and
honorable to tho actors in them. Hut .it
will he readily perceived, that tins coutd
not be given within the necessary limits of
a communication like the present.
It must therefore suffice to say, that from
1787, tho date of tho ordinance for tho
prevention of slavery in tho North-weitcrn
Territory, down to and including 18113, at
least eleven acts of Congress have been
passed, organizing territories which havo
since become states, in all of which the con
stitutional power of Congress to interdict
the introduction of slavery into the territo
ries of the United States, is nithcr directly
exercised, or clearly asserted by enactments
which, as matters of authority ara tanta
mount to its exercise; and that at the only
period when the peace of tho slave holding
states were supposed to be seriously endan
gered by abolition agitation, there whs a
spontaneous uprising of the people of tho
North, of both parties, by which agitation
was paralyzed and tho South reassured of
our fidelity to tho compromises of the con
stitution. In the laws for the organization of the
territories which now constitute tho States
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wis
consin, and Iowa, slavery wassxpressly pro
hibited. The laws for the organization of
tho territories of Mississippi, Orleans, Ar
kansas, Alabama and Florida, contained en
actments fully equivalent in regard to the
extent ot power in Congress over the sub
ject of slavery in the territories to the ex
press exercise of it in tho other cases.
These acts were approved by Presidents
Washington, the elder Adams, Jefferson,
Madison, Monroe, Jackson, and myself, all
bound by our oaths of office to withhold our
respective .approvals front laws which we
believed unconstitutional. If in tho pas
sage of these laws during the period of half
a century, and under the administration of
so many Presidents, there was any thing
like sectional divisions, or a greater or loss
participation in their enactment on the part
of the representatives of the slave holding
or of the non-slave holding states, I am not
apprized of it.
I believe the plan devised by the founders
of tho Government, including the fathers of
our political church, for the treatment of this
great subject, and which has hitherto been
so faithfully sustained, and which has pro
ved so successful in preserving the union of
those states, to bo not only the wisest which
the wit of man could have devised, but the
only one consistent with tho safety and pros
perity of tho whole country. 1 do therc
foro desire to sco it continued so long as
slavery exists in the United States. The
extent to which I have sustained it in the
various public stations 1 havo occupied is
knnwn to the country. I was at the time
well aware that I went farther in this re
spect than many of my best friends could
approve. Jfut deeply penetrated by the con
viction that slavery was tho only subject that
could endanger our blessed union, I was de
termined that no cfibrt on my part, within
the pale of the constitution, should be wan
ting to sustain its compromises as they were
then understood, and it is now a source of
consolation to mc that I pursued the course
I adopted.
The doctrine which the late Haltimore
convention has presented for the sanction
of the nation is, in substance, that the laws
I have referred to were so many violations
of tho constitution that this instrument
confers no power on Congress to exclude
slavery from tho territories, as has often
been done with the assent of all. This doc
trine is set fortli in the published opinion of
the highly respectable nominee of that con
vention, Mr. Cass," who it is well known
received that distinction because he avowed
that opinion, and who it is equally certain
would not have received it if he had not
done so. It is proposed to give this doc
trine the most solemn sanction known to
our political system, by the election of its
declared advocate and supporter to the
Presidency. If it receives the proposed
sanction of the people of the United Stales,
the result cannot bo doubtful. The policy
in regard to the extension of slavery to tho
territories of the United States into which
it has not yet been introduced, which has
existed since the commencement of the
government, and the consequences of which
have been so salutary, must cease, and eve
ry act of Congress designed to carry it into
effect be defeated by the veto of the exec
utive. I'he territories now owned by tho United
States, and every acquisition of territory
1 that may hereafter be made by the United
unit
Entertaining these views of tho constitu
tion, I could not uy my vote contribute, to
tho proposed sanction of this new principlo
in the administration of tho Federal Govern
ment, without at tho same time, avowing
myself to bo in favor of the extension of
slavery in tho abstract, and this I can never
do. Those who agree with mo in regard to
tho existence of tho power and tho expedi
ency of our oxercising it, and can still
bring their minds to dissent from this con
clusion, must havo more light upon tho sub
ject, or havo greater power of discrimina
ting, than I possess. I do therefore, unhes
itatingly approve of tho course you propose
to pursuo, in withholding your votes from
Governor Cass, and shall do so myself. If
no other candidates than thoso now before
the country aro presented, I shall not vote
for President. Tho manner in which our
political brethren in other non-slavcholding
States shall dispose of their suffrages, is for
them to determine, and with it wo have
nothing to do. Hut that they accord with
us in the opinion as to tho existence of tho
power in question, and tho expediency of
exercising it whenever tho occasion for so
doing arrives, wo have the best reasons to
know.
The power, the existence of which is, at
thin tato day, denied, is in my opinion fully
granted to Congress by the Constitution.
Its language, tho circumstances under which
it was adopted, the recorded explanations
which accompanied its formation tho con
struction it has received from our highest
judicial tribunals, and tho very solemn and
repeated Confirmations it has derived from
the measures of the government leave not
a shadow of a doubt in my mind in regard
to tho authority of Copgress to exercise tho
power in question. This is not a new opin
ion on my part, nor tho first occasion on
which it has been avowed. While the can
didate of my friends for tho Presidency, I
distinctly announced my opiniort;in favor of
the power of Congress to abolish slavery in
tho District of Columbia, although 1 was,
for reasons which were then, and arc still
satisfactory to my mind, very decidedly op
posed to its exercise there. The question
of power is certainly as clear in respect to
tho territories as it is in regard to that dis-
trict; and as to the territories my opinion
was also made known in a still more sol
cmn form, by giving the executive approval
required by the constitution, to the bill for
the organization of the territorial govern
ment of Iowa, which prohibited the intro
duction of slavery into that territory.
The opinion from which we dissent was
given in the face of, and directly contrary
to the views expressed, in forms the most
solemn and explicit, by all, or nearly all tho
non-slave holding states, and wc arc not at
liberty to suspect tho sincerity of these ex
pressions. Honest and well meaning men,
as wc know tho musses of our political
friends in those states to be, are incapable
of trifling with so grave a subject.
Our ancestors signalized the commence
ment of this glorious government of ours by
rescuing, from subjection to slavery, a ter
ritory which is now covered by five great
states, and peopled by more than four mil
lions of freemen, in tho full enjoyment of
every blessing which industry and good in
stitutions can confer. They did this when
tho opinions and conduct of tho world in
regard to the institution of slavery were
very different from what they aro now.
They did so before Great Britain had
even commenced those gigantic cflbrts for
the suppression of slavery, by which she
has so greatly distinguished herself. After
seventy-four years enjoyment of the sacred
and invaluable right of self-government, ob
tained for us by tho valor and discretion of
our ancestors, we, their descendants, are cal
led upon to doom, or if that is too strong a
word, to expose to the inroad of slavery, a
territory capable of sustaining an equal num
ber of new states to bo added to our con
federacy a territory in a great part of which
slavery has never existed in fact, and from
the residue of which it has beci expressly
abolished by the existing government. Wc
aro called upon to do this at a period when
the minds of nearly all mankind have been
penetrated by a conviction of the evils of
slavery, and arc uniting in cfibrts for its sup
pression at a moment too, when tho spirit
ol trecdoni and reform is everywhere lar
more prevalent than it has ever been, ond
when our republic stands proudly forth as
the great exemplar ot tho world in the sci
enceof free government.
ho can believe that a population like
that which inhabits tho non-slavcholding
states, probably amounting to twelve millions.
who by their own acts, or by the foresight of
others, havo been exempted lrom the evils
ot slavery, can, at sucli a moment, be indu
ccd, by considerations of any description,
to make a rctrorado movement of a charac
ter so extraordinary and so painful f Such
a movement would, in my view of tho mat
ter, and I say it with unfeigned deference
to the conflicting opinions of others, bring
reproach upon the influence of free institu
tions, which would delight the hearts and
excite the hopes of the advocates of arbi
trary power throughout tho world.
MR. CALHOUN'S VIEWS.
We copy below a sketch of Mr. Calhoun's
remarks in the Senate, on Tuesday the 28th
ult., from the Journal of Commerce.
Mr. Calhoun said there was a stikiug
difference m the position m which the slave
holding and tho noii-slaveholding States
stood upon this question. Tho former de
sired no law for their benefit. All thev
...:..t..i ... .t. iv r : V
winuuu fciiu ni;; uau ui mi; mti liui IC3 ui
the Union until they become States, when
they would regulate their own domestic in
stitutions. Hut tho nou-slaveholding States
demanded a law for the exclusion of the
people of the South from tho tcrrritorics,
with a view to monopolize them as states.
He denied the power which the non-slavcholding
States claimed to do this.
This was a confederacy of States, all on
equal footing, and with equal right to the
common territory. Tho possession of slaves
did not destroy this equality. Slaves were
tho only property expressly recognized by
the Constitution. Nor could tho power bo
found from the manner in which tho territo
ries were acquired. They were acquirtd
by the common resources. Thcro was no
presumption in faror of such a power.
Thcro was no positive proof allcdgcd ; but
on the other side, it was assumed without a
particle, of proof, that the Constitution gave
absolute power to Congtess over the terri
tories. The Senator from Now York inferred
this power from tho clause of tho constitu
tion conferring upon Congress power " to
make all needful rules and regulations re
specting tho territory and property of the
Union." Mr. C. showed that this contem
plated land only, oud did not give govern
mental powers. What confirmed this view
wus that, in another express provision, the
power of exclusive legislation was given to
Congress over tho District ofColumbia, and
sites for dock yards, forts, arsenals, &c.
Tho long list of precedents cited by Mr.
Dix to show that Congress had exercised
such powers, were all swept away by the
fact that tho constitution gave no power to
Ooitrrrcss to establish a government. But
ono of these precedents the ordinance of
1737 preceded the adoption ot the consti
tution. Ho denied its applicability. The
old confederation could give no precedent
f"r 1,10 government under tho constitution.
The old confederation was just going outof
existence, and was " non compos mentis."
Ho went into a history of the ordinance,
to show that it was a compromise for the
purpose of securing to tho south the provis
ion for tho arrest and return of fugitive
slaves. Tho South had been faithful tothat
compromise, but the West had not, with tho
exception of Illinois. They had passed
laws which rendered the proviso for the re
covery of slaves a nullity.
Mr. Hanncgan and Mr. Corwin said thai
there wore no such laws in their respective
states.
Mr. Calhoun was glad to learn tho fact,
and would be pleased also to learn that there
were no organized companies in those states
to prevent tho recovery of slaves.
IIo came next to consider the Missouri
Compromise. Tho South, he said, never
acquiesced in it. They were voted down.
It was carried by northern votes. He vindi-
catcd Mr. Jefferson from tho charge that he
was tho author of the slavery restriction.
In a letter to Mr. Adams, Mr. J. said ho
felt no uneasiness about banks, bankrupt
laws, manufactures, the Florida Treaty. &c.
'but he looked on the Missouri question as
tho most langcrous one in our afluirs. This
was fir811. Subsequently he addressed a
lcttcj to John Holmes, in reply to a letter
from Mr. II. giving his reasons for voting
for the Compromise. This letter is long
and lugubrious, expressing the belief that
the slave question was to destroy the Union
and the hopes of tho world, and consider
ing the Missouri Compromise as the begin
ning of the troubles arising from that source.
Mr. Jefferson had, however, committed a
great error in moving that short provision
in tho old Congress, relative to slavery in
the North West territory.
1 he power to acquire territory and he
agreed that wc had the right must neces
sarily be accompanied with sole and exclu
sive po.ver over the territory but solo and
exclusive power were not absolute power.
This government acted only as Trustees in
this case, and the trust was limited to cer
tain objects the sale of the lands and the
admission of the territories as States.
The territories belonged to the States a-
lone, as common partners, and it followed
that Congress could not, as a trustee, ex
clude a portion ot the people of tho Union
from any of these States. Mr. C. then de
nted that the people of tho territories them
selves could exclude slaveholders, coming
with their slaves; for if they could, then a
few squatters or Mexicans could take pos
session of the territory, and exclude every
person.
Having shown that neither Congress nor
the people of the territories could exclude
slavery, ho went on to show that it could not
be excluded by the institutions of tho con
quered territory. Mexico had indeed abol
ished African Slavery, though she tolerated
a worse description of slavery ; so had sho
excluded the Protestant religion from it ;
but would it be said that the conquered par
ty can impose laws on the conquerors.
Air. L.. went on to show that the Southern
States had contributed their full share to
tho acquisition of Oregon, and he appealed
to the Senators to say whether in justice and
in common honesty, they could exclude the
South. As to the rest of the territory,
the Californias and New Mexico which
had cost so much blood and treasure and
to which tho South had given its full share
how could the ISorthern States make of
it a monopoly a close corporation and
undertake to exclude tho South ? He ap
pealed to the Southern Senators to say
whether they were willing to sink down to
yield their right to equal share in this com
mon lund, and, it so, what condition would
they be left in ?
The question could never be finally and
effectually settled, but by leaving it to the
Constitution. If left to the Constitution, it
would, in his opinion, be settled nearly by
the line of 30 deg., '30 min. It might not
be a direct line, and so much tho better for
harmony. He would assure gentlemen that
there was never so great a mistake as that
which the people of the North had fallen
into, that white labor was degraded in the
South by association with slavery. It was
true white men could not, in the south, per
form menial offices; as body and domestic
servants; but as laborers in the field, and
as mechanical operatives, their position was
infinitely elevated by slave labor. No white
man came to his house to perform the smal
lest mechanical labor or free-labor, who did
not set down at his table with him and his
family, and he was proud to have him there.
Mr. Calhoun said this was the time for
settling this question. The longer it was
left open, the more incurable it would be.
It was never nearer that point than now.
He advocated the proposition offered by Mr.
Bright to adopt the Missouri compromise.
The eveof a Presidential election he con
sidered as favorable to the settlement of the
question ; because it was an occasion which
would enable all to see the dangerous char
acter of tho question. Should this happy
Union bo terminated by this slavery ques
tion, the future historian would attribute it
to the ideas and doctrines growing out of
the ordinance of 1787, and tho Missouri
compromise ; or seeking a morp recondite
cause, he might look to what was a fatal er
ror that " all men were born free and e
qual." He was not afraid to speak on this sub
ject and he would declare that there was
not a word of truth in it. " All men" men
were not " born." Infants were born.
They grew to be men. Infants were not
borii equal. They were subject to their pa
rents till twenty-ono, under our laws. In
no caso were men born equal. Nino men
out of ten, if asked where they got this tru
ism, would say that they took it from tho
Declaration of Independence ; but it was
not so. Tho Declaration said, "all men
were created freo and equal." But this was
untrue. Only ono pair was created, and of
those one was subject to the other. This
error was now, in concert with other caus
es, upheaving the fubrics of European in
stitutions, and agitating this country to its
centre. Unless it should bo checked, Eu
rope and Christendom must fall into hope
less anarchy, or it must terminate in milita
ry despotism.
VIEWS OF MR. PHELPS.
Mr. Phuli's, of Vermont, made a very a
bio argument to day, against the arrogation
of elf-cxton8iou of slavery, in opposition to

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