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Vermont watchman and State journal. (Montpelier, Vt.) 1836-1883, June 17, 1852, Image 1

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BY E. P. WALTON & SON.
THURSDAY, JUNE 17, 1852.
VOL. XLVI, NO. 30..AV1-1OLE NO. 23S3.
lUcitcIjmnn & 0tatc3ournnl.
ptIiaiSllF.lt IIVEIIY THURSDAY MOItNINd.
1 I tlM- - '"! 'li t" uImum; SS.OOirpMmtnt li nt
, ,i ifi .ih.ii. e , intpfeit nlwajri ctirftl from iba cad of
l j ii . n riiBffnt.tortceiaitth.erinlantltt(TrtUft
1 1 c.-mniunlcMlun., md acknowledge psjlMhl ftl
IM
.fi.id, j. n. rosinnov,
llr.- kin III, - II. I- t t J II
i t numvN,
ii ,.'!., in iii.b . dwa,
I . . , - ; WMTT,
li.. I. .irk, I- l)V AHII H. HAWYER,
jl,ii.i.n, I '. V. tH'OIT,
M .l fi. Id, I".. t. rUTNAM.
Mi. .,i, J. NOVR-",
M.ii,. . JOIIN-OV, Jr.
..i. i.. 1.1, I-.. HUITH,
ii , ,(. .rAiti.ni rAitrr,NTnit,
Fl i in- .1, A. T. IUNVIWFT.
fuuili llariUii-k. '. HIUPM s,
Si .... , JlHI.ril r, ItAYMO.M),
- , ,fT..l, WILLIAM llOl.l.t.N",
- il, lr,ITof.l HAMCL W. junn,
i , ,..,l8.-, JI'.iO.MIAII ron t u.
u ...li .' nn.l 1 nt.irni, 0KAM1E HMITII.
U,,..i IRANKI.IN A. WRIllllr,
v wr it r v .in I llutliurv, K 17 PMI'I II,
w , i .,, ii miii'i mine,
u.i'ul.i JIJNA" AOIIOTT.
CluIc jploiu.
II. il. .1 ' 11,- I'luw woul. thilt.
It...-. II llitl.t -llhr HOI O UT DMVt.'
ADDRESS
or '
m:itY stevexs, esq. !
PrllTrrrtl lirfore tlie Mrmltria nf llift Mute '
ultttrnl ut'lcly nt .lllililletitirr, Sent.
II. 111.
Tin' pursuits of Agriculturo havo been
In 1 i hi the highest culiniMtimi, among the 1
i-ist and most powerful natiiius. Indptd
t . in j'prt thai art, would indicate a want
, I w i -.l.itji ; mid the coiiiequences of uch
i i uould he a want of power. When
i i-li iintr) I'Xntes hut little attention, thrre
r ui I'e little rise worth intending to. The
i. miMHMici-s and comforts of I tie must be
nkii'ivtn, and even in necessaries, its in-
ili- i n-ibles must have a fluctuating and
p., -nun xiMericc. Distress waits on
ii, ' i 'U nrc; want treads on the heel of
i ii in i' Famine was frequent among
i , , r gmiil tribes of New Knpland, and
i .i i r uitli pestilence, it iifii.il concomi
i i' I ited the land, mil left large tracts
I, iiintrv without an inhabitant to iiiipede
I,. . uli niciit ol me l'llgrnns.
1'in iiitivcsi.f this country owed these
n . nine- and at lenglh their utter exttne
t 1 1. ti iln-ir ignorance f agriculture, and
i jnt ui" acquaintance with those ri,
uhiiii give" iiibsistrncc and minister com
i Tt tn civilized man. Had the poor ludi-,;i-
In i-n Husbandmen, Artisans, Mcchan-
M miif icturers, this part of the couti-
nt ,iuld titill have been possessed by us,
-i n live inhabitants. Should we neglect
"K am, and pay no attention to tho pur
Mits ( tho husbandman, artisan, median-
ui i manufacturer, tic too mutt cease to
I' i n iti .ii, ami our country bo occupied
! t a Mronjor because a wiser people; to
n ii Mjcri(ir knowledge in agriculture
i ll useful arts, has given superior power. 1
Ti." United Slates will exist then only in
f ri, and occupy only a few pages in the
mi i s of alien posscssers of this goodly
1 in J of our fathers.
I i r 1 1 ii t as agriculture i, artisans, me
r! ii,, i , nianul icturers, can lurdly be deem
eJ l h'ss couseqiieiice. They must ad
v .net- lund in hand, or they will all go
In, kw.ird. L tilted they stand, divided they
I', I. Tlif y ,'iro the uioati of national greal-nr-,
:is well as the Alpha and Onieua of
n,,.i nlii.il prnspi rity. T talk of any clit.h
i'i., in their mlertaix, is to npe.ik ol h"siii
ii v liitvvecn the right and left hand of the
Tile unlit utuul. If one is nick the other
- I mil; if one perishes, the oilier will .-non
!, nifiiliil.ited. Agriculture, without art i--ini,
iiifc-hauics or manufacturers ould
jot us tVniers without tool. Artisans,
1 in i iiu tac Hirers without agriculture
u Id produce iiiechauici without bread.
VI m could not hat a dressed the garden of
K leu, without first becoming a mechanic,
or lie.ujt furnished with the necessary im
pleiiit'iiis by the Almighty Artisan, who ex
i, .'mis n,e uiuver;e us a sample ol his man
ul h inre. ,
b.nce then, not only our prosperity, hut
out nation il evislencc depends on the mic
c --lni pursuit of agriculture and mauuuic
luri s, w hat can we do to promote tho ag
" u'tu'il, niechaiiic.il and manufacturing
in'., r sis ol tbn. Statu and of nu,' country t
Tii s is a questiun of as great iniporlance ,
i ii v of a liinte nature, which can posi
tiv call 'or the exercise of the best mtellec-
'ul ,niers and faculties given to man by
1 it Creator. To btato all w Inch should ho
dune, would require a complete and loiyi
' luminous Cyclopedia. I shall therefore J
confine myself to somo remarks, relative tn,
what ought not to be omitted, if we wish!
agriculture to acqtnru and maintain that!
sirt ngth and stability which bhould be the,
prnn ipal pillars of public and private pros.'
pernv In order that agriculture may pros- j
per, it must be made profitable, It must
he ilirected withskill as woll as industry.
It must be considered honorable. The far
mer must be contented, economical and in
uustnous. The pursuits of agriculturo are
probably rising in public estimation ; Mill
e do not believe they have yet risen to
their proper elevation! That n further as
cent may be effected, agriculture must con
tinue to command the attention and patron
age of men of wealth, of talents, of repu
'atioti and high ollicial character. Persons
who have it in their power, to mould tho
miuiiers, and excite and direct tho nidus
"I "f mankind, should nut consider them
selves too great to be useful: and should
Iht'Av the weight of their inllucnco, precept j
and example into the icale of agriculture, j
They should employ their heads, if not
'heir hands, their money, if not their per
sonal labor, in promoting an art, which if,
neglected would place them, as their inferi-'
f. on a level with the savage.
We h.ive many examples. iSoino of the i
principal statesmen in our country, from the'
tldj-s ot Washington to the present time,!
cro fanner's sous, and many of them havej
added to their wealth, and gained distiiic-l
Huns more honorable than those of birth, by
ueiug authors of mechanical inventions and
improvements. Yet aiming savages, dan
dies and fools, who aie anxious to figure in
'gh life, without manners or jneaus; with
out wit, wealth or wisdom ; coutrary to the
decrees and habits of uatuir, rural occupa
tions are thought degrading ; and to culti
vate the ground is consldeud as the bitter
est punishment of poverty, or the last shift
f unsuccessful knavery.
1 Ins occasion will not permit mo to r- jwhen the United Stolen will rule the com
peat to you tlio many historical facts, in re- mercc cr tlic world. When I look hack to
Hon to the agricultural mechanical and man- the period when the British Parliament pro
l1I'Lc!ur'"K illlcrcst "I" ''"a state from A I). . Inbiled tlio exportation of thecp, wool or
7i'liit,IC Prcscnl ,ime' mM)' re-j yum, to the American Colonies prohibit-
corded lessons of wisdom, of our political ed the manufacture of iron, and declared
fathers, in relation to the scleral important all rolling mills and stilting mills a nui
interests, arc well worthy of our considers- sance, and required the Governors of their
Hon; and to me, it is a groat satisfaction, several colonic! to caiuc them to he de
to ho able to repeat to you, from careful ex-1 mnlished within thirty days after notice,
animation, that not n document among our nnd yet permitted the Americans to export
archives is to lie found, other than in favor pig iron to Liverpool to exchange for lint
of giving encouragement to the agricultural, 1 isli manufacture, 1 find that the Colonial
mecuariicni and inanulacturing interests .
this State, as well as of the United States.
Our political fathers, on certain imnortant
political questions, hare from the lime this
Mate was admitted into the Federal Union,
been in favor of protection' in favor of in
ternal improvements, in favor of reducing the
price of public lands, and in favor of divid
ing the proceeds of the sales of the public,
lands among tho several States. The rec
ords of Congress will bear testimony, that
on these most important questions, Vermont
has been consistent, without a shadow of
turning or of doubt. Our political fathers
at all tunes considered their agricultural
productions, as well as all raw materials for
manufacturing purposes, in a measure thuir
land, their farms ; the land, the common
wealth itself, they considered their rtiw ma
terials us well as all agricultural products,
m constituting their flesh, their bodies, their
blood and Mtength. Helieving this to be
truo, they pursued a policy designed to en
courage the skillful artisan, mechanic and
manufacturer, in hopes that by giving this
class of worthy citizens full employment in
converting the raw material into necessary
manufactured articles, equal to a full sup
ply ; then and not till then could tjiey ven
ture to talk of their independence "being a
reality. They considered that the best way
to preserve our commerce, is to recommend
the preservation of the best markets, for the
products and manufactures or our nalive
country. The first and best market for the
Tinted States, is the inhabitants of the Uni
ted Sutes. It is computed that we have
twenty-fire million of people, and that great When about to leave to join the army ; our
and small, rich and poor, one with another, mothers would say, Husband, and you my
are not housed, lodjed, fed and clothed for son, are about to join I lie army, here are
leu than $ 50, per head; so that the expen- my blankets for your comfort; jou will heir
ses and coiisumpinin of our whole people in mind that they must be returned. Was
must amount to J? 1, '250,000,000 per annum. ' not this patriotism, genuine patriotism? i
This whole sum is annually paid for tho Soon after the close o." the revolutionary
products and manufactures of the U. Stales, War, and the independence of the United
except only so much of it as is paid for our Stales had been acknowledged, our coun-'
foreign consumption. Our entiro imports- try was flooded by foreign manufactures;
ttousAir Ifsfll) amounted to $l?c!,I!Ji,dlt?, ' the solid com was soon exported, and ten
Tho same year there was e.xportcd of fureign derlaws, and appiaisemenl laws, were pass-j
impnrt U,fl51,S03, leaving a balance of ed by the general assembly of this state. '
$ IG'J.ISOGIO as being the amount contum-l At length our general assembly were under '
ed by the people of the United States of tho necessity, in order to sustain our public'
foreign production and manufactures. l)e-; credit, to make one more appeal to our pa
duct this sum from 1.250.000.000 leaves a ' trintic mothers. In 1786 the assembly pass-
balance of ?Sl ,lilJ,SI!J,.l(ll) as being constim-1
ed by the people of the United Stales of
their own productions, and paid for tho pro
ducts and manufactures of our native coun-
try. Our own peonle are a cnirstnnt mar-1
ket for our own products and manufactures. I January 1S3 and October 179- your Itev
For my own pari, I consider every person ; olulionary debt was paid, Hilda further
in the Uniied States for what he eats and mm of 8!J0,000 paid to the siato of New
drinks and wears, a tenant to the land and a York, and your State Treasurer reported
paymaster of our laborers ; and if 25,000,-' that lie had on hand $14,000 in solid coin.
000 of people consume the yearly value of It was then a common saving that a woman
I,lf'vi,8l;J,IS0 of our native products and who manufactured for her own household,
m.tuulaciures as above, every one at a medi- and one piece of goods to sell, did mure to
inn, pays the jearly sum ol $1,17 to the retain the solid com in the state, than all
laud and labor of the United Slates; every the batiks and the greatest financiers. 1 am
one is a market of such value to his c.niii- astonished when 1 look bick to the tune
try. All our exportations to foietgn coun- that the constitution of the United States
tries, both of our own and foreign goods was adopted and government under the
and merchandize for the vear J.f-50 ..iiiouu- constitution fully organized, and pril
led to hut 61:30,0 10,012 f our own products vision made for the public debt, that the
and 614,051 ,&0 of foreign, amount in the tariff on imports was so very moderate. Had
whole io ?15 1, (-9?, "20, and therefore, since Cnnjress pursued the policy, long pursuod
our own people are our market for our own by Great Britain, in converting the staples
products and manufactures to the value of of the United States into necessary manu
6 1,I60,SIU,490 yearly all our foreign mar factured articles for consumption, equal to
kels joined together, are not one seventh a full supply and for export, long belore this
part of that value. Besides, from the time, the Unitod States would have ruled
foreign market there ought to be deducted the commerce of the world,
the price of all goods wu buy, and especial-! Washington, in his messages to Congress,
ly that interfere with or hinder the con- says in substance, that the invention of any
sumption of our own ; and if this shall be! improvement whereby the raw material was
considered it will be found that all our for-, converted into a manufactured article
eigu markets, are fur from a seienlli part,
and cannot ue equal to one tivonlieth part
ol our own, for liking oh" our native pro
ducts and manufactures ; it remains there
fore, as I said at first, that our own con
sumption, the consumption of our own peo
ple, is ti e beat and the greatest market for
the products and manufactures of our own
country. The preservation and increase of
this market ought therefore to he the thing
principally regarded. It is not to beexpec
ted, that our own people will ever buy the
products and manufactures of their own
country, if the like can be had cheaper from
foreign nations. Therefore, foreign pro
ducts should be prohibited, or loaded with
duties so that our own may have no rivals
to contend with, except among ourselves.
And I make no doubt that the use of fore
ign manufactures in the United Stales will
always be discouraged by our legislators for
this reason, viz. ISccauseour own consump
tion pays yearly the sum of $l,ltU,Ultl,4S0
to our own producers ct manufacturers, that
is, to the rents of our land, and to the labor
of our people. The legislature should
take care, that we may never pay any part
of the above mentioned sum to the rents
and labor of foreign nations, or at least
stiflicieut care will be taken that the con-
sumption of every other nation shall pay as
much to the rents and labor ol the United
Stales as the United States shall pay to any
other nation
When 1 turn back to A. D. 1020 and
trace up the history of tho progress of our
Pilgrim Father, and their desceudents, un
til the present tune, I have no hesitation in
saying, that history, ancient or modern,
gives no account of such rapid progress
having been made by any other people, in
matters connected with the agricultural,
mechanical, manufacturing and commer
cial interest, in so short a period as two
hundred and thirty-one years. Then but a
few scattered families lined our coast, from
the .Mississippi to Plymouth Hock. Hut
now it constitutes a
republic, containing
nearly 25.000.000 of people, and will most
nKsureillv dnubln mprv 25 vn.irs. for at least
150 years. A. D. 1675 50,000,000 ; 1000,
inn imd 000 m-2. "fin 0(111 (HID 1050.
lOo'oOO.OOO ; 1075-800,000,000 ; 2000,
1.OU0.00O.U0U; It is now about to be admit-
ted by all intelligent nations, that the Unit
ed Stale's of America are now the centre
of intelligence and civilization throughout
ttieworld. The tune is fast approaching
Avimulv of New Iliunnslure in recemt of
this act of Parliament, passed law) design
ml to encourage the increase of sheep, nod
prohibited the killing of ewe sheep for five
years; and that that the Massachusetts Co
lonial Assembly passed laws giving great
encouragement to the Farmers to increase
their flocks of sheep, nud manufacture the
wool. 'I' tic Legislature made an appropria
tion of .-100 in addition to large sums sub
scribed by individuals. The Massachusetts
assembly ulso appointed trustees and estab
lished a spinning school, for young ladies,
in (he city of IJotm. By law the selectmen
of the several towns, were required to visit
the several families in town ami sec that
the boys and girls did not idle aw a r their
time, but were employed in carding and spin
ning. Public exhibitions were held on Hus
ton Common, and at one time, !!l)U young
ladies were seated by their wheels spinning,
&, male weavers weaving, were carried round
on men's shoulders. Yes, Ladies and Ge"n
tleineu, these were tho women that refused
to drink tea; thoy were the mothers of our
political Fathers ; it was these mothers and
daughters that manufactured clothing for
their husbands and sons during the revo
lutionary war. The assembly of New
Hamshire, during the revolutionary war,
passed a law making tow cloth a tender for
all state taxes. Who but the women paid
this tax ? Among the archives of the State
department not a hill of the purchase out
of the slate of woolen blankets is to he
found. Our mothers and their daughters
maiiuhctured fur their husbands and sons.
ed a law, that a person w ho manufactured
tow, or tow and linen cloth, should be cred
ited a certain sum per yard on their grand
lilt. Gentlemen, by turning to your pub-
lie document. vhi will find ilint betwtwn
hould be rewarded from tho public treas
ury, and the improvement become public
properly. Hamilton, in his report as Sec
retary of the Treasury, December 5th, A.
D. 1701 gives us his opinion as to the im
portance of giving encouragement to the
artisan, mechanic and manufacturer.
From these various considerations, 1
have come to tho following conclusions :
Wo have our state and other departments,
embracing every interest. Why not havo
a department, embracing the agricultural,
mechanical and manufacturing interests?
Il belongs to our farmers to ask of Con
gress tho establishment of a department,
devoted to the great interests of our coun
try. The government, by proper agents,
ought to tako tho lead in encouraging the
artisan and mechanic. All of their improve
ments in machinery whereby the raw mate
rial is converted into the manufactured ar
ticle, ought forthwith to become the com
ninii property of the whole union. While
I rejmce at the idea of individuals associa
ting for the sole purpose of encouraging
t!ieartisau and mechanic for their private
advantage, this alono ought to induce the
"overnment to pursue the same system for
The benefit of the whole. We want a sys
tem of stale and national legislation fur
this purposo, that shall be effectual to co!
' l. ...... ...I,r.llu iii mil kIhIh of nur union.
and concentrate to one point, at the seat of
Cl.1 ICI UUIVUIMi II. J - " '
government in each state, and at the seat
of national government, precise, accurate,
authentic and official statistical information
upon all the annual results of the husband
man, mechanics' and manufacturer's indus
tryshowing to any body, at all times, as
near as human watchfulness can, upon n
scale su extensive, all tho elements of both
demand and the supply of every article of
produce and manufacture that enters our
market.
With information of this description,
embracing improvements in implements ol
husbandry, mechanics and manufactories,
published and disseminated through the
laud by Congress, with only half the profu
sion the partisan documents are spreau uy
each and every party; an entire revolution
1 in the condition and productiveness of the
husbandman, mechanic and manufacturer's
lauur, m u cueuicu,
l'hcre would be
system, certainty and confidence pervading
' . , f I I I
the outlays aim tne income ui mo nusuanu
man. mechanic and manufacturer. Broth
er Farmers, this is what we want, and I say,
must have. I may have come to hasty con
clusions on this subject, hut I will ven
ture one assertion for your consideration.
I claim that it is the manufacturer with or
dinary machinery, that establishes the pri
ces of the raw material, as well as the price
of labor, and that the manufacturer with
the most perfected machinery establishes
the price of the manufactured article in
market. Therefore, if wc had a tariff of
thirty, forty, or fifty per cent, specific or
iidvalurem, who is most benefitted, the pro
ducer of the raw material, the manufactur
er with ordinary machinery, or the matin,
f.icturer with the most perfected machinery?
Certainly tho manufacturer with tho most
perfected machinery derives the greatest
benefit. The manufacturer w ith ordinary
machinery works more hours, and harder,
when hard pressed; first reduces the price
of labor, then the price of raw material, in
hopes nf saving himself, and make a little
gain, when at the same time, the manu
facturer with the'most perfected machine
ry is dividing his fifteen, twenty or thirty
per cent, per annum. As a farmer, if I am
to choose between having a tariff, either
specific or advalorem, say fifty per cent, on
cotton, silk or woolen imports, or govern
ment reward the inventors of the most per
fected machinery used in the manufacture
of cotton and woolen gnnds, I am fully
persuaded that it would be much better for
the agncu'tural interest, as well as tho in
terest of (ho operatives to havo all the im
provements whereby our raw materials are
converted into a manufactured article, the
best and cheapest, to become pttblio proper
ly, so as all manufacturers may operate the
most perfected machinery. I say further
more, that there have been improvements,
within the last ten years, winch enables the
manufacturer to manufacture at least from
twenty-five to thirty per cent, cheaper than
the first clas ()' cotton and woolen mills
manufactured ten years since. Yes, gen
tlemen, our first class cotton and wo..len
mills now manufacture from H from twenty-'
five to thin v -fue per cent, cheaper than our
third class of cotton and woolen mills now
in operation. Our fir-t class ol cotton and
woolen mills now manufacture from fifteen
to 25 per cent, cheaper thin our second,
clas of cotton and woolen mills. We have ,
ahui.dant faclt to sustain these propositions.
Again, our first class of cotton mills, now
manufacture all qualities of yarn less than!
No. 25 as cheap as any portion of creation,
pay the highest wages, as well as interest.
If we farmers expect an even chance with'
tho manufacturers, we must cause all in- j
provements wherohy the raw material is
converted into manufactured articles for
consumption, to become, public property ;
the government generously reward the in
vention, then as farmers, wc should never
be compelled to sell our productions at a'
low rale in order to enable the manufactur
er with ordiniry machinery to make gain,
or the UMiiuficltirer with the most perfect
ed machinery to amass large properties up
on itin ruin of ilia fir odiiuar. y Vjrinu bun
been the estimate as lo the quantity of cot
ton necessary, to average the whole popula
tion equal to a full supply fur all purposes,
for u Inch cotton is now used We will say
twelve pounds. We now have a population
of twenty-five millions. 300,000,000 pounds
of cotton would be necessary fur a full sup
ply per annum. I estimate thai the present
quantity of cotton manufactured in the U
lined Stales into yam, cloths and hatting
as follows : Tho New England States
manufacture 171,623,020 pounds of cotton
into 455.253,404 yards of cloth. Admit
ting (hat all other portions of the United
States manufacture an equal amount, the
whole amount of cotton manufactured this
year (1651) would be U 1:1,057,810 pounds, i
If our population in A. D. ItoTJlis 50,000,000
we shall need G00,000,000 ; in A. D 1000, ,
1.200,000,000, for domestic consumption,
a greater quantity (ban is now exported!
from the United Slates to foreign countries. !
In A. D. 1025, with a population of 200,-1
000,000 the consumption would be 2,400,
000,000; in 1950, 4,600,000.000; in
1975, 9,000,000,000; in A. U. 2000, 19,- j
200,000,000 pounds of cotton would be
necessary for the consumption of the good I
people of the United Stutcs. I
It has been frequently estimated that.
eight or ten pounds ol wool is necessary
for a full supply per annum to average tho
the whole population, say to average eight
pounds, would require at the present tune,
200,000,000; in IS75, 400,000,000; in
1900. S00.000.000; 1925, 1,000,000,000;
in 1950, ;i,200,000,000; in 1075, ,400,
000,000 ; in A. D. 2000, 12,-00,000,000.
Gentlemen Farmers, every mother, son
and daughter in Vermont, in New Ruglaud
and the United Slates, I ask you all to reflect
much upon the prcsent'conditnui and future
doiliny of the United States of America.
The inhabitants ol tho United States arc
now cipable of making their iron, manufac
turing the machinery, erecting the neces
sary buildings, and wilhm from five lo sev
en years manufacture our present produc
tion of o-ttoti and wool, with the probable
increase of production, admitting that the
average production for seven years of cot
ton would be I.'dOO.OOO.OOO of pounds mure
than wo now manufacture per annum. We
require at ninety pounds of cotton per an
num for each "piudle, an average increase
of 2,002,492 spindles per annum for seven
years, with all oilier necessary machinery
to accomplish so desirable an ouject. uy
doing this, cotton would naturally very
greatly increase in value, and for the seven
years would average, say fifteen cents per
pound, amounting to 191,000 per annum,
and when manufactured would be equal to
four times its value, say, 8776,000,000.
I have prepared tables showing the amount
of cotton exported from the United Stales
to foreign countries, and the quantity re
tained for spinning its Hugland from A. 1).
1791 including lefil, also tables giving the
quantity of cotton imported into Great Um
laut from colton producing countries from
A. D. 1835 to 1817; also the quantity reex
ported, as well as the quantity retained fur
spinning or homo consumption; also extracts
from Parliament documents, as to the de
pendence of the United Kingdom upon the
United Slates for a supply of cotton, being
equal to nine tenths, and equal to a plenti
ful supply of food.
T-ible ono, giving the quantity of cotton
imported into Knglaud from A. D. 1C97 to
1701, as well as the ollicial value of British
cotton goods exported.
Second table shows tho amount of cotton
imported into England, quantity exported
and amount retained for home use, from A.
D. 1743 to A. D. 1749.
. Third table, tho quantity nf cotton im
ported into F.nclaml, and exported from A.
D. 1097 to A. D. 1800.
From these documents we learn tho slow
progress of the manufacture of cotton, in
l.ngland. I have also estimated the amount
of cotton manufactured in the United States
for the year ending January 1849.
Cotton exported from the United Stales
to foreign countries mid quantity retained
lor .pinning in huglann.
IVnrj.
Jhported from
U. S. .'l.lbs.
160,310
1.031,701
0,100,729
0,300,005
19,769,803
27,501,075
33.118.011
37,40 1.2S2
12,004,300
93,874,202
23.952.544
I9,S00,479
81,747.117
92.471,178
127,600,152
144.G75,005
143,309,003
20 f, 535,4 15
210.590,403
293,459.102
322,315,122
413,923,210
40500,000
448,075,500
531,851.850
584,115,017
792,207,100
872,905,990
5 17,553,055
Spun in Eng
land, Ibi.
1791
1791
1790
1793
1600
1602
1804
1800
1803
1810
1812
1RI4
1815
1818
1620
1822
1S24
1820
1623
1530
1S32
1831
1835
1830
IS33
1H40
1HI2
IP 13
1844
1840
18-17
1S48
1850
31,130,510
50,213,780
50,503,000
(0,S13,79l
57,330,300
41,018,533
420,016,487
59,827,701
52,004,0 IG
60,530,051
172,0 IS, 965
141,912,207
120,094 ,03G
131,201,303
150,231 (590
208,310,029
270,000,000
330,923,229
477,100.103
453,814,781
450,318,770
033.37!!, 1 30
007,40 11
401,925,570
393,573,723
814,274,717
035.3-1, 00 J
From vol. 51, Parliamentary Reports A.
D. H17 and HIS, copy of a memorial ad
dressed by certain mill owners, of Lanca
shire, England, to the board of trade,
recommending the deportation of numbers
of unemployed poor operativos heretofore
engaged in cotton manufacture, with a
view to the cultivation by them of cotton,
in the British colonies. To the right hon
orable, the Lords Committee for Trade, iV,c.
Tho memorial of the directors of the cham
ber of com. and mnuulactures of Manchester
sheweth That a plentiful supply of raw
cotton for the manufactories-of this country,
is second only in importance to a plentiful
supply of lood. That the dependence of
this country in an overwhelming degree,
upon one source of supply, has during the
last two years, added greatly to the calami
ties which have been heaped upon the man
ufacturing industry here, hut our having
In contend, during that period, with high
prices, inseparable from u short Kupply, si
mullnucntis with high prices of lood, and
consequent disturbance of the currency and
credit. That tho colton trade of (his coun
try hai aioiimd a magnitude and impor
tance which renders it highly dangerous to
rest content with our existing means of
supply. For however firm reliance may be
placed upon the continuance of thai good
undcrslaiidini;, which reciprocal interests
have fostered between this country anil the
United States, the experience of tho last
two years has shown that from either an in
crease of consumption in their own manu
factures, the failure of the crops, or a pref
erence for the cultivation of other products,
tho United Stales have not yielded to Great
Britain a supply of cotton sufficient to se
cure the regular employment of our people.
That in reflecting upon this subject your
memorialists attach little importance to the
cause of deficient supply ; they have expe
rienced the effects of the past, and in tak
ing a propec(ivo glance, they see more to
arouse fear than to confer confidence, grant
ing that friendship may continue, as lliey
fervently pray it may for many years, be
tween the two countries, and that no other
cause of disturbance should intervene.
Your memorialists do not think it wiso to
suffer tho well being of our artisans and the
complicated interests of British commerce
to hang upon so ilendcr a thread, as the
failure of a crop in a single country, or to
neglect timely provisions against the evils
which will ever arise from a bhort supply,
he the cause what it may.
Paiimamknt ItEroitTS, Maiicii, ISIS.
To tho Right Honorable tho hoard
of trado.
Tho memorial of tho undersigned,
tho Cotton mtintifncturcrs of the city of
Glasgow, and its vicinity.
That tho Cotton trado of this country
is mainly dependent for the requisite
supply of the raw materinl, on thu Uni
ted States of America. The propor
tion of Ainorcan cotton consumed in
tho manufactures of this country, being
not less than nine tenths of the entire
consumption.
That tho cotton crop of the United
Statos is subject to various casualties,
from frost, from drouth, from blight
and from the ravages of the insect!?, und
that when such casualties occur, ns
was tho case durinc thn ivist year, tho
crop is greatly diminished and tho price
projiorttonably encliauceu, to tne tsru
isli consumer.
The necessary result of which is that
Ihe wholo cotton trade of this country
is deranged, tho mills are either stopped
or put upon short time, and thousands
of industrious operatives aro thrown
out of employment. That it is thoreforo
of incalculable importance to tho man
ufacturing interests of Great Britain, to
have other resources of supply, for tho
raw material of her manufactures ojhju
ed up, and if posstblo within the limits
of her own collouial emporium, &c.
Signed, 2tth March, 1818.
Extract from Vol. Gl British Parli
amentary Reports for A. I). IS 17-8,
Page luo. Cotton Cultivation in India.
There is no product which has be
come so important, as raw material, for
tho employment of tho most numerous
class of our manufacturing population,
than the vegitablo wool, called cotton.
This will appear evident, when wc con-
siuer tnai not onty tne United King
dom, but tho factories of Continental
Europe, and of America, have to rely
for this material chiefly upon the crops
of the United Slates. It is true thut
many parts of (he British possessions,
arc by soil and climate adapted to fur
nish the most ample supplies of cotton
wool. British Guiana, British India,
,and the North eastern part of New Hol
land, nro well adapted to produce the
j best quality, in abundance. That the
scanty and high wascs of labor in
(Guiana and New Holland, will long
provont our obtaining any great quan
tity of cotton, except from the Uniied
States, except wo by improved cultiva
tion, and new facilities for preparation,
and bringing to market, increako tho
quantity of cotton, which India in pro
fusion can supply. Same Vol. Cl,Paga
177, gives the amount of cotton im
ported in 10'i l. The Ecst India Com
jiany exporting at an average of 50,000
pieces per annum ; but our official ac
counts are for a loim period doficient.
jainl Ihe rapid extcnlion, and chief pro
duction of (he various manufactories of
I cotton in Lancashire, and even in tho
.North of Ireland, and also in tho New
Lngland States and Switzerland, con-
stitutu the most extraordinary ' branch
of industry which tho world affords.
j Franco, Germany and Belgium, follow
next in order of manufacturing coun-
j trios. Austria has also considerable fab-
I Iii.g t "Si Inlmim mniiiidiiilii . rn.,.. .....1
..v-o, V.....I1MIIII iii,.mi...i.HMt mum;, uiiu.uraii useu extensively mine wcsicrn
by contraband (ho safety valve of pro- parts of South America as a material
hibition, imports abundant cotton fab-j for clothing before the discovery of
rics into Spain. Russia has established those p'gionsjby Europeans. Our first
several factories, under a pernicious accounts of it as a staple article of corn
system. Attempts to manufacture cot- mcrcc is in St. Domingo before 172G
ton havo been making in Holland, Den
mark, Naples and Portugal.
A great question for tho consideration
'of the people of these Kingdoms, is in-
jvolved in an inquiry of almost vital im-
Iportanco, to the employment and sus-
tenanco of not only tho greatest mass
,of the manufacturing population, but to
i tho commerce of the empire, the sources
lrotn which, and the necessary quan
tities of tho raw material, is to be here
after obluiued.
The greatest producing country of
cotton wool, is the U. States of America
It has become also a great manufac-
Hiring country, (sec our report part
iiiteen, on tne unitcu states lor nut
details of colton crops, and of the cot
ton manufactories of the United States.)
And we must in our enquiry nud con
clusion, bear in mind, that all the above
named countries, are now berome com-
l petitors in tho market of tlio world, for
j tlio raw material of cotton wool, the
quantity of which produced in the
southori) climate of Europe, the two
Sicilies and Spain, need merely be
mentioned as being of utter insignifi
cance. America, Asia, and Africa are
the countries upon which wo must de
Ipeud; many parts of South America,
) and of the West India Islands, are ad
jmimbly adapted by soil and climate,
'for its cultivation, but with the excep
tion of tho Spanish West Indies and
' part of Brazil the wunt of sufficient la
bor constitutes tho greatest drawback,
on both abundant and cheap produc
tion. In Cuba and Porto Itico, sugar
cultivation is more profitable than cot
ton. In Brazil, even with slave labor,
agricultural energy is wanting.
The extensive and fertile regions of
the British Empire alone might supply
not only the United Kingdom but all
tho world with cotton wool. The want
i of labor, the consequent high cost of
'production in the British West Indies
(constitutes tho impediment, certainly
i not the climate nor the soil. Guiana
jhas probably as great an area of soil,
j gonial to the growth of cotton wool, as
jthe extent now under cultivation in the
J United States. But the laborers are
; wanting.
Africa, otherwise congenial to tho
cultivation of cotton, is in too hopeless
a stato of Barbarism to yield a supply,
at least, not at an early period. Egypt
has for some time cxmirted cotton ; but
oven under a compulsory system, tho
cultivation of cotton in Egypt, will for
a long timo bo comparatively limited.
With respect to Asia, the celestial em
pire demands a largo supply from India
or othor countries. Cochin China, Siam
and Borneo, arc in too rude a condition
to grow it in largo quantities, although
in the two former some is crown, and
tho soil tn id climato of the latter is ad
mirably adapted to the growth of cot
tun, in the districts of llassariah und
Araik-ipoms small quantities of cotton.
Tho Dutch Eest Indies yield some, and
might yield much. Under Spain little
productive industry can bo hoped for
in tho Philippines, and the growth of
cotton wool in those large atiu naturally
fertile Islands is trilling in quantity ;
Borneo may in time yield a considera
ble supply of cotton. The south west
ern part of New Holland apjjears to bo
well adapted by chmute and soil, to
yield excellent cotton in abundance.
But there aro no laborers in the field ;
it may bo baid, no inhabitants ; Malacca
may also produce some.
It becomes therefore almost n policy
of necessity to direct our views and our
labors ohiullv to Britiih India for a sup
ply of tho article, which to tho Untied
Kingdom is tho most important next
to that of fowl, which in fact more than
any other articlo, has enabled a great
portion of the people to pay for food.
Tho early accounts of the imports
of raw cotton wool aro very meagre.
'From the quantity of 1,97G,350 lbs
being imported in 1097 and not more
than 1,658,365 lbs. 1749 and.only. 1,.
870,392 lbs in 1761 and.only 5,19s!
7781bs. in 17SI, tho slow progress of.
the manufacture until the Jenny mnlo
and spining frame came into full oper
ation is apparent. The following ta
bles arc given, tho first by Mr. Bains,
tho second from the commercial Dic
tionary, and tho third from both, and
from official returns. The tables which
follow are all condensed from official
statements.
TABLE I.
IVarj. Lis. flaw Cot- nrilish Cetlon
ton Imporltd. Goods rrported.
1G97 1,970,359 5,915
1701 1,995,5GS 23,253
1710 715.00S 5,093
1720 1,972,80-1 16,200
1730 1,515,472 13,521
1711 1,675,031 20,709
1751 2,976,710 15,9SG
1761 3,870,392 200,35.1
TABLE II.
Ytars, Imports, llrports, Retained for
home use.
1713 1,132,383 40,870 1,001,418
1714 l,(ift.,8.VJ 182,705 1,700,4 OS
174.'; 1,100,523 73,172 1,309,351
174 0 2,204.8(58 73,270 2,201,529
1747 2.221.8G9 2!),43d 2,105,131
1743 4.655,!C0 291,710 4,501,218
1740 1,(553,305 :i30,993 l,J27,3.-7
Early imports of American cotton
from America into England. Cotton
is snui to oo muigcnous in tne tower
Missippian region; it is said to have
' 1... .... .. , . - , .
and in Sttrrinam before 1733. We
And that the cotton patches were com
mon in Carolina, about tho end of tho
seventeenth century, and that there
was exported from Jnmacia 2000 bags
of cotton in 1753 and in 1 70S to tho
United Kingdom, 221 1 bans. 442,200
, lbs. and to North America 252 bags,
The first itnnorts of cotton wool the
produce of the United States of Amer
ica was at Liverpool on the 20th of
Jaiuary, 1785, of one bag from Charles
town, Febuary 17th New York ono
bag, July 21st Philadelphia 3 bags and
November 18th
'total 12 bacs.
Philadelphia 9 bags,
17S6, May -Ith, from
Charlcstown 2 bags, Juno 2 1st Charles
town 4 bags, total 6 bags. The Gov
cnor of South Carolina, A. D. 1717-8
speaking of exports from said colony,
says, that 7 baga of cotton was expor
ted to England. . .
TABLE III,
Account of imports and exports of
colton wool into and from Great Britain
since 1797.
Years. Imports. Exjiorts.
lfJ!7 1,996,359
1730 1,515,-172
1711 1,045,031
1751 1,976,010
1761 1,660,392
1781 5,193,778 90,760
1782 11,828,038 -121,329
1783 9,735,773 199,626
1784 1I.'1S2,083 210,845
1785 18,400,381 '107,896
17S6 18,475,020 323,152
1787 23,250,208 1,073,381
1788 20,467,430 853, M0
1789 32,576 023 2.99,838
1790 31,147,605 844,151
1791 23,806,6S5 363,412
1792 34,803,493 1,481,465
1793 19,040,928 1,181,566
1794 34 359,508 1,353,950
1795 35,401,310 1,193,838
1790 33,136,358 691,961
1797 33,35-1,381 009,059
1793 31,880,041 001,139
1799 43,309,393 833.GS1
1800 50,010,833 3.3IG.5IO
From these remarks and from the sev
eral documents retercd too, it is time lor
me to como to my final conclusion, and
leave to you gentlemen and ladies to
come to yours.
I am decidedly of tho opinion, that
it is high time (hat tho fanners of this
Stato, and of (ho United States, uso
every possible exertion, to Imve govern
ment reward the inventors ol all improve
ments whereby all raw materials are con
verted into manufactured articles, either
for export or consumption, and with
sufficient protiction will be able to man
ufacture our productions of cotton and
wool, and in our view leather tfcc, and
that within seven years (as before said)
equal (o a full supply and to spare.
Were I to nuk you gentlemen, what
government for years has established, tho
price of cotton and sheep's wool, you
would say that England, being the great
est manufacturing nation of thoso stuples
in a measure establishes their value.
Agnin, were I to usk you, what class of
manufactures establishes the price of
those staples thcro, you would say as
I havo said, that it im the muaiifacliirers
with ordinary machinery that establishes
tlio price nf the raw material, as well as
the price of the operum cs wages. From
the volumes ol Parliamentary documents
1847-8 aro to be found returns of tho
maniicfuture of cotton und wool, and
from these ollicial returns, it appears
that more than one-fourth of tho no., of
yards of cloth, both colton and woolen,
manufactured in England, Scotland and
Ireland, at that tune were wove by hand.
It is to me very strange, that our got
ernment continues to pursue a policy so
well designed to permit foreign nations
by their pauper labor and their ordinary
muchincry to establish the price of our
(See Uh rose.)
f

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