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SIOKTPELIER, TT., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 1879.
' ' JC
WEDNESDAY. FEB. 19, 1870.
Studios Id Early Vermont History.
IIV KEY. R. II. HOWARD, A. M.
VERMONT IX THE KEVOI.LTION.
The career of Vermont in tho Revolu
tion, though not conspicuous was yet
active and honorablo. Slio did what she
could. Besot uiion every hand by states
seeking in every way to embairass and
overturn her government, and steadfastly
and even haughtily, denied tho privilege
of admission to the Union, and hence the
comforting ass trance that in ti e event of
the final success of the co'onies, she should
share the fruits of the victory, Vermont yet
promptly responded to the call of patriotic
duty, cast in her lot with tho colonies, and
cheerfully borj her share of the burden
connected with that great contest for liber
ty, union and American independence.
It o irly became obvious to tho Americans
that if they were effectually to withstand
invasion and sul-j ligation at tho hands
of Great Britain, they must obtain posses
sion of the military posts on Lake Cham
plain. The lirt active measures for ac
complishing an undertaking so desirable
as tho reduction of these posts appoar to
have been taken by several enterprising
gentlemen of Connecticut. Hastening
fjrward to Bennington with a view to en
gaging Ethan Allen In this business, they
proceeded to Castleton, whoro, at an early
day, they were joined by Allen and his
Early in the history of the controversy
with New York, a military association had
been formed, of which Ethan Allen,
ardent, unyielding and bold, a man emi
nently fitted by naturo and experience for
the circumstances and cxegencies of the
times, was appointod colonel command
ant, and Seth Warner, the cool, calm,
cautious, yet intrepid mountaineer, was
appointed second in command. This or
ganization, under tho direction of men
thus so peculiarly qualified by virtue of
an unwonted vigor of both body and
mind, for tho responsibilities devolving
upon them, subsequently beeamo renowned
in our earlier and revolutionary annals as
tho "Green Mountain Boys," a band of
hardy and brave men long a terror at
once to Yorkers an 1 rod-coats.
Allen readily undertook to conduct the
enterprise lookiug towards tho reduction
of tho military posts on L ike Champlain.
Ticonderoga was to bo the first point of
attack. In the evening of the 9:h of May.
177o, Allen, with his men, reached Orwo 1,
opposite to Ticonderoga, without the garri
sons having obtained any intimation of his
proceedings, or having had their suspicion!
awakened of any conteu. plated hostile visii
Though his whole force consisted of 270
men, 200 of whom were Green Mountain
Hoys, yet, in coniequer.ee of unavoidable
delays, but 83 men had been landed on
the New York sido of the lako, when, a
littlo after daybreak on the morning of the
10th of May, 177o, Allen was obliged to
begin his march toward tho fortress. With
so great expedition and silence, mean
time, was this march ert'ectod, and with so
little difficulty was his entrance into the
fort attended, that it was not until awak
ened from their slumbers by the huzzas of
the Green Mountain Boys, already in
possession of, and drawn up on the parade
ground within the fort, that the garrison
and its commander, Capt. lo Laplace.
were aware of what had occurred. How
this doughty commander, without waiting
to dress, hastened te the door of the bar
rack, and how Allen sternly commanded
him to surren ler.an 1 how, when the Britisk
olUoer inquired by what authority the
surrender was demanded, was informed
ill it it was by the authority of the Great
Jehovah and the Continental Congress,
and how that, though he had not been
apprised that hostilities had commenced
between Great liritain and her colonies,
nevertheless, under the circumstances, he
surrendered at discretion, and how that,
on account of this exploit, Eth:in Allen
has always been known as the hero of
Ticonderoga, are noi these facts familiar
to every American school-boy?
Elated by this success, the Venuonters
pressed on until they obtained full posses
sion of Like Champlain. Unhappily, in
consequence of the failure on the part of
Major Brown to co operate with him in
the contemplated assault upon Montreal,
A lien, though fighting with desperate
courage, yet, being greatly outnumbered,
whs finally taken prisoner by tho British
on the 25t.li of September, with 38 of his
men. Ho was immediately loaded with
irons and sent to England, continuing in
captivity there until finally exchanged.
Shortly after this, the British general
(Carlton) who had captured Allen, was in
turn himself severely punished by Cbl.Suth
Warner. Attempting to cross, with his
troops, from Montreal to Longueil, Ihey
were surprised, just before reaching the
souih shore, by an attack on the part of
Warner, who, having been watching them
ever sinco their embarkation, opened upon
them such a well-directed and incessant
fire of musketry and grape, that the enemy
was thrown into tho greatest confusion,
and soon retreated with "precipitation and
Only two battles were fought on the soil
of Vermont during tho Revolutionary
war tho battles of Ilubbardton and of
(ieneral Burgoyne was driving every
thing before him down the Champlain
alley. Tho Americans, rotroaling from
Ticonderoga, wero pursued by Gen.
Eraser, who. on the morning of the 7th of
of July, 1777. overtook and attacked
them at Ilubbardton, under Seth Warner.
The conflict was fiorce and bloody. With
only seven or eight hundred men, Warner
disputed tho progress of the enemy with
tho utmost bravery and resolution. The
gallant Col- Francis fell . fighting at the
head of his troops, Warner, well sup
ported by his officers and men, charged
tho enemy with such impetuosity that
they wero thrown into disorder, and
at first gave way. Roinforced, however,
at this critical moment, the latter recover
ed, formed anew, and again advanced
upjn tho Americans. The fortunes of tho
day wero soon decided. Overpowered by
numbers, and exhausted by fatigue, the
Americans fled from the field iu every
direction. The loss of the Americans in
this encounter was Very considerable in
killed, wounded and prisoners, 321.
The British having supposed that a large
portion of the inhabitants on the New
Hampshire grants were opposed tothe Rev
olution, and that it was necessary only to
march an enemy into their country, and
furnish them with arms, to bring them all
round the royal standard. Burgoyne had
issued a proclamation addressed to the
inhabitants of the country assuring them
of his protection on condition of submission
to the king. To their honor, however, be
it said, notwithstanding the darkness and
gloom which at this time enveloped Amer
ican affairs, very few were found disposed
to abandon the cause of their country. So
far from this, on the loth of July, the
committee of safety of Vermont assembled
at Manchester, not only agreed to raise nil
the men they could to oppose the enemy,
but at the same time wrote in the most
urgent terms to New Hampdiiro and
Massachusetts to send on a bodyof troops to
their assistance. In response to this call,
tho legislature of New Hampshire imme
diately rallied their militia, and hurried
them forward, under General John Stark
an officer .of some reputation in the French
war, and who had also distinguished him
self at tho battle of Bunker Hill. Agreea
ble to his orders, Stark, with about 800
men, made haste to join the Vermont
troops, who, to the number of about 600,
were collected at Manchester under the
command of Col. Seth Warner. Not
long, meantime, were theso patriots to
wait for an opportunity to display their
courage and to win unfading laurels.
Having learned that a largo quantity of
provisions were collected at Bennington,
designed for the American army, and still
laboring under the delusion that a majority
of the people in that quarter were friendly
to tho royal cause, Burgoyno detached a
select body of about 500 regular troops
under the command of Colonel Baum, to
surprise the place and secure these stores,
of which ho was in perishing need, for his
own army. General Stark, who was now
at Benuington, receiving iutelligenco of
this contemplated attack, proceeded on the
16th of August, to intercept and to make a
general attack upon the enemy. Afier
about two hours' bard fighting the enemy
were overpowered and utterly routed
their commander, mortally wounded, fall
ing into the hands of the victorious Amer
icans, as also nearly all his men. The
enemy's loss was 207 killed. That of the
Americans was trilling in comparison.
The battle of Bennington, though of no
great magnitude a mere outlying skirm
ishyet, in consideration of its Influence
upon the fortunes of the war, it was after
all important and decisive. Sinco the fall
of the gallant Montgomery an uninter
rupted series af reverses and defea's had
attended the Americ.in arms In the iiorlh
ern department; in consequence of which
many of tho most ardent friends of the
cause. of freedom had begun to despond.
But this splendid victory of Stark, achiev
ed principally, too, by undi-eiplined mili
tia over veteran regular troops, proved
naturally as encouraging to the patriots as
it was disheartening to the British. Not
only did it disabuse tho mind of the royal
general in regard to there existing on this
territory any considerable number still
friendly to the royal cause, but it demon
strated to the country that, well appointed
as they might be, and haughty as were their
pretensions, tho royal arms wero not yet, by
any means, absolutely invincible. The over to British interests to warrant so pro
hopes and courage of the Americans were, j nounced and decisive a step.
tuereiore, nereoy gicauy leviieu. aim voi-, Tho rilitjsh ..gts yielded this point
unteers from every quarter now flocked to , wiln reluctance. They thought tho prcs
the American standard. j ,.nt ,ul eminently favorable opportunity for
Meanwhile, as brilliant and signal us
had been their feats with the sword, even
more brilliant and signal, if possible, dur
ing this revolutionary era, wero the feats
of these Vermoiilers in diplomacy. In
deed, the history of the Americ.in Revolu
tion is, purh ips, m -irked by a no more j
singular and notable episode than that to
which reference is now about to be made;
while one cannot but be impressed by the
spectacle of a handful of men accomplish
ing by policy what they could have never
done by power baffling and for two or
three years holding at bay, an army
10,000 strong, and thus averting, notwith
standing an utterly expose 1 and unpro
tected frontier, ruinous invasion nnd dev
astation. The Revolutionary war was still wearing
on. Tho claims to independent:.', on the
part of Vermont, were still unacknowl
edged by congress, and New York was
still importunate and vex ttious. Under
these circumstances the British generals
in America entertained hopes of turning
these disputes to their own account by de
taching Vermont from tho American
causo and making it a British province
Tho first intimation of their views and
wishes in this regard was communicated
in a letter, from Colonel Beverly Robinson,
dated New York, March 3d, 1780, to
Ethan Allen. The British agents gave
assurance that if Vermont would return to
her allegiance she should becomo a royal
colony with ijrivileges equal to those en
joyed by any other colony; whilo those
who assisted in accomplishing thi3 object
would be suitably honored and rewarded.
Allen immediately communicated tho con
tents of this letter to Gov. Chittenden,
and not ion afier inclosed tho communi
cation itself in a letter to congress. Sub
sequently fie governor appointed Ira
Alltin one of a commission, on tho part of
Vermont, to negotiate an exchange of
prisoners with British officials in Canada.
A cessation of hostilities with Vermont
was one of tho conditions of this exchange.
During this interview tho British agents
availed themselves of the opportunity to
explain their views, anil to make formal
proposals for tho establishment of Ver
mont under the royal authority. The
Vermont commissioners recoived these
proposals with some attention, and, though
they avoided expressing any definite
opinious, they yet intimated that Ihey
would hold these proposals under ndviso
mont. They separated pleasantly and
with the understanding that tho armistice
which had already been agreed upon,
should bo continued while theso negolia-
ttons were pending, the British officials reliuveJ frum ,lleir cmUirTisamcai ami
meantime flattering themselves that they danger; and thus was finally terminated
were m a fair way to effect their purposes. I enterprise in which a few sagacious and
In April. 1,81, Ira Allen was appointed toJ:lring n,iividuals. byUeir negotiations
settle a cartel with the British for another amj manflgemimt, soured tho extensive
exchange of prisoner,. The cartel being f.omier of Verulont e , til h it
.K.eu tU,l01uJeci oi me armistice
.. ., cai.uii3iiiiieui oi mo royai auiiior
ity in Vermont, of course, came once more
under discussion. Allen acknowledged
that the people of Vermont were growing
remiss in the prosecution of tho war, and
fears were beginning to bo entertained by
some lest its termination in favor of
America might subject them to the gov
ernment of New York a government by
them esteemed to be tho most detestable
in the known world. He did not hesitate
to state that to any such an event they
would vastly prefer to become a separate
colony under the crown, and that the
United States should lie again brought
under the dominion of the British govern
ment. With such consummate skill did
Allen manage this negotiation that, with
out really committing himself, he yet suc
ceeded in leading tho British ageots to an
agreement that hostilities should not bo
renewed against Vermont, at least until
after the next session of tho state assembly.
Thero is no reason to believe that the
peoplo of Vermont wero ever, to any
extent, soriously desirous that their state
should, under any consideration, be made
a British province. It is not presumable
that there were ever so many as a dozen
individual' within the compass of tho
whole state who once so much as even
thought or spoke of such an event. Not
that Allen misrepresented in the least
wheu lie intimated that a great temptation
lay in their path in that direction. As we
have already seen, while from the com
mencement of hostilities at Lexington no
people in America had espoused the cause
of liberty, and of their country, with
greater alacrity or maintained it with
more spirit and resolution, than the people
of Vermont; yet, notwithstanding all their
efforts and sacrifices in the common cause,
not only wero neighboring states permitted
to nionace them continually with dismem
berment and political annihilation, but, to
crown the whole, they wore abandoned by
the very power that ought to protect them,
and left to contend Binglc handed with the
common enemy. And yet, the people of
no section of the country wero more loyal
to tho patriot cause; or ever more cor
dially detested tories or British rule, than
Venuonters. Meantime, however, believ
ing, as did the cabinet council of Vermont,
that tho forces of tho United States had
been withdrawn from her territory, in n
great measure, if not altogether, for the
purpose of compelling them to seek the
protection of New York, they did feel it
to bo tdearly their duty " by managing
the British attempts to corrupt them to
their own advantage, to make the best
provision remaining in their power, for
tho safety of themselves and of their peo
ple." In September, 1781, Colonel Allen nnd
Major Fay had another interview with the
British agents, on which occasion the lat
ter went so far as to suggest n plan of gov
ernment for the colony of Vermont ; all
of which was duly discussed and finally
agreed upon by the parties. But tho Brit
ish agents were now growing soniowhat
impatient, and were beginning to insist
that Vermont should at once declare her
self a British province. Tho Vermont
commissioners, however, urged that such
a proposition would then be premature
i that the inhabitants in some parts of the
I territory wero not yet sufficiently brought
! bringing their negotiations to a decision.
and accordingly used every art to per
suade the Vermont commissioners to ad
vise their state, without delay, to declare
herself a British province. Allen, on the
other hand, still employed every argu
ment to justify further delay, and to pre
vent the renewal of hotsilities. At length
the British agents suggested one further
proposition their ultimatum one which
must be complied with, or the armistice
would positively be ended : and that was
that a proclamation should bo issued by
the British general iu October during the
session of tho Vormont legislature, declar
ing Vermont a colony under mo crown,
and confirming tho plan of government
already agreed on ; and that the legisla
ture of Vermont must accept the same
and take suitable measures for carrying it
into ( fleet.
After some further discussion the Ver
mont commissioners judged it better, on
the whole, to aecodo to this proposition,
unpalatable as it was, than, in the present
defenceless st ite of tho frontier, to incur
tho risk of a discontinuance of the armis
tice The legislature met at Charlestowii early
in October, and about tho same lime a
powerful British army was landed at Ti
conderoga. Tho aforesaid negotiations,
meantime, were known to not more than
a dozen men in Vermont. The crisis is
approaching. A communication from
Colonel Allen to the British agents an
nounces that matlors are going on favor
ably for their designs; but, in view of
certain unfavorable nows just received
from tho seat of war, suggests that it
would hardly be expodiont to publish the
proposed proclamation just yet. A brief
delay would doubtless render it far more
timely nnd effective. In less than an hour
after this communication arrived at Ti
conderoga, an express arrived there from
the south with the news of the capture of
Cornwallis and his whole army. Before
night tho British had embarked all their
troops and storos and, with all haste had
returnod to Canada. Thus were the ne
gotiators in Vermont, at the last moment
During-tbe debates Id courrea relative to tbe ad
misBlon of Vermont into Die Union. General Waabinif
ton aent a verbal meuefre to Oov. Chittenden, deatrlujr
to know what were tue real deeta-us, wlabeaandtn
tentlona of tbe people of Vermontl-wbetber they
would be aaUBued with a recoe-nltion of their Inde
pendence, aud admission Into tbe Vnton with her
oriKlnal territory, or whether .be eerlou.ly thought of
JoiuiuK tbe enemy and beoominir a British province.
Tot bis Gov. Chittenden returned an unequivocal and
decisive answer to the effect " that while no people on
tbe continent were more attached to t tie cause of
America, or more inveterate In their h itred of BrltMi
rule, than the people of Vermoot, they would yet
sooner loin the British In Canada than submit to the
Kovernuient of New York,tbat driven to deepr rutlon
by the Injustice o the v. ho sbould have been her
trionds. Vermont was now obllired to adopt policy n,
the room of power." And this policy had a two-fold
ctli-ct. I servet! tn hold the British iu check, ami
uitbalto Impose a sslutary check ou conirrusa.
was. to an arruv of ten thousand of the
Concerning the justice of tho course,
thus pursued by those patriots, there may,
possibly, be a difference of opinion ; but
of tho beneficial effects of their policy to
Vermont, and to the Union, there can
scarcely lie a doubt. On the part of the
British the negotiation consisted in repeal
ed endeavors to persuade tho leading men
of Vermont to abandon the American
cause, nnd to declare the state a British
province. By the evasive and ambiguous
auswers returned to these overtures, on
the other hand, by the leaders of Vermont,
the latter, whilo in no way really pledging
the government of Vermont, yet managed
so to keep alive the hopes of the British
so to beguilo both the British generals nnd
the British ministry as to savo their ter
ritory and their possessions from spolin
tion and disaster. No firmer friends of
American independence could have been
found on the continent than the leading
men of Vermont wero known to be,
Abandoned, however, as Vermont was
by congress, and exposed to the over
whelming force of tho enemy, no other
means of security seemed open to her but
that of strategy, or artful policy, by which,
though incurring, of course, the risk of a
misconstruction of their motives, to keep
a powerful British, army, for three suc
cessive campaigns, inactive and harmless
on their northern frontier.
Letlcr from Florida.
Jacksonville, Fla. Feb. 8th, '70.
Deak Editok: We are down here
in this famed land of flowers, not for sani
tary reasons, liko the great mass of north
ern visitors, but to see friends and enjoy a
short respite from tho pressure of tho daily
caro and toil that wear us in the discharge
of our ordinary duties.
At this place wo are in tho thoroughfare
of northern travel for tho south. At least.
a largo portion of it comes here, as the
point fixed upon in taking a trip to tho far
south. At eviry turn wo are meeting fa
miliar faces, and find Vermont, as well as
other sections, pretty freely represented.
If any one wishes to get rid of cold
weather for a few months iu the winter,
this place will afford tho. desired change.
The cold for the present winter has been
indicated by twenty-four degrees above
zero, tins to Venuonters can be nothing
darming, but they complain of it here as
unusually cold for tho season. In our
opinion persons coming south make a
great mistake by undertaking to spend the
winter here or on tho low lands of tho St
Johns river. The atmosphere is too damp
to bo congonial to weak lungs. The high
lands of South Carolina or Florida would
be found far more conducive to health.
Persons who have found the climate un
favorable hero have enjoyed the advan
tages of a favarable change by going to
Gainsville, Florida, or to sections us high
and dry as the state affords.
Since our arrival here wo have been
having a few days of rain and damp
weather, and a party of us who had ar
ranged for a visit to St. Augustine have
been obliged to delay the excursion for
more favorable weather. It is certain that
although this is called the " land of sun
shine and flowers," those who try it will
find it not all of either, as the flowers just
now are not abundant, and even a few
rays of sunshine breaking through the
clouds would be to us a grateful change.
The more we travel the more we are
impressed that every place has its advan
tages as well as disadvantages its clouds
as well as sunshine, and its wrecks of fond
ly cherished earthly hopes.
One of the enterprises here which bids
fair to absorb everything else, is the pro
spective wealth to lie secured and enjoyed
in golden harvests from the orange groves.
Tho science of getting rich is reduced to
a mathematical certainty, and it is done
on this wise: Ono acre of land will titt'ord
ample room for the growth and culture of
fifty orango trees. When theso trees are
in a good bearing condition they will afford
two thousand oranges to each tree, and
those will readily bring, say fifteen dollars
per thousand some have sold at higher
figures on tne trees than this. At fifteen
dollars per thousand, nn acre would afford
tho snug sum of fifteen hundred dollars
per acre. If this is really S3 only a few
acres would afford an ample income to
support a small family. I'eople who rat
oranges here are reminded to save the
seeds, and thousands are getting the mania
for orango groves.
At the place where we are stopping the
Rev. Norman Webster h is now started
some eight thousand orange trees, a por
tion of which ho designs for planting sonio
ten acres, on which ho lives near the city
of Jacksonville. It requires seven or
eight years from the planting for the trees
to begin to bear fruit, and still longer bo
fore they coiuo to their full maturity. Mr.
Webster is hero making n successful ex
periment under the directions of an expo
rienced German gardener to start orango
trees from cuttings, which is something
new, even in this section, and has many
advantages, as it supersedes the necessity
for budding or grafting.
This ciphering out of splendid incomes
from orange groves reminds us of tho cal
culations of northern men on tho certain
income of southern plantations in tho
planting of cotton so much could bo pro-
duced upon each acre, and could readily
bo sold at so much per pound with a given
result of an ample income beyond all ex
penses. The experiment was tried, but
tho income was found to be uncertain, )
while expenses were inevitable and iu I
most cases left no margin for profits.
Those who have here boon planting
orango groves with the hopes of becoming
suddenly rich have, sonio of thorn, fallen
into tho temptation of selling out their
improvements for the sake of getting;
ready money tin which to tuwt current
expenses. It is sometimes die case that
orange trees, like other earthly things, dio
severe frosts cut them down, and with
hesu misfortunes conies the Ijligluings of f
Wu h ive a friin I hero from .Vermont
who has Iieen looking into this matter of
orange culture, who is just now hesitating
whether to invest or not, as ho fears there
may be some discount on the figures so
readily put upon paper, for an income,
and thinks that if all the prospects fondly
cherished here are realized, that there will
be more oranges grown soon in Florida
than the world can eat! But it is really
no task to eat Florida oranges! They are
sweeter nnd better than those usually
found in the market, and their good quali
ties have only to be extensively known to
increase greatly the demand.
The soil of Florida Is sandy, and really
the most attractive scenery at this season,
are tho orange groves, and tho hope of the
state agriculturally seems to center in this
industry, to which all classes just now
seem to bo turning their attention. This,
however, gives a slow income, and for the
time being the residents here have to get
their living out of " fish aud strangers.,'
The present demand is northern visitors
and tho expenditure of northern capital.
This, indeed, is what tho whole state needs
more capital and an increase of intelli
gent labor. Wo have unoccupied lands
and ample resources that are wailing to
be developed. The tide of emigration that
so long h is been tilling up tho great west
docs not reach us here. But wo hope the
people here will learn wisdom, and give a
kindly greeting to strangers, and by polit
ical tolerance and fair treatment invite
carpet-baggers to settle, and think more
of a prosperous than a solid south.
Truly yours, A. Webstkk.
Act a Friend In all America.
There was a day when Tallyrand arriv
ed in Havre, in great hnsto from Paris. It
was in the darkest hour of the trench
revolution. Pursued by the bloodhounds
of the reign of terror, stripped of every
wreck of properly or power, tallyrand
secured a passage to America and was
about to sail. He was going a beggar and
a wanderer to a strange land, to earn his
bread by his daily labor.
Is thero any American slaving at your
house? he asked tho landlord of his hotel.
I am bound across the water, and would
like a letter to some person of influence
in tho new world.
Tho landlord hesitated a moment and
then replied :
There is a gentleman upstairs, either
from America or Britain; but whether
an American or Knglisliman I cannot
He pointed the way and Tallyrand, who
in early lite was insiiop, prineo ami alter
ward prime minister, nscented tho stairs.
Ho stood before tho strangers's door,
knocked and entered.
In tho far corner of tho dimly lighted
room sat a gentleman of 50 years, his
arms folded and his head bowed on hi;
breast. From a window directly oppo
silo, a flood of light poured over his fore
head. His eyes, looking from beneath
the downcast brows, guzed in Tallyrand's
face with a peculiar and searching expres
sion. His face was striking in its outline
the mouth and chin indicating an iron
will. His form, vigorous, even with tho
now of fifty winters, was elud in ii dark,
but rich and distinguished eostumo.
Talivrand advanced, stated that ho was
a fugitive, and under tho impression that
the gentleman before him was an Ameri
can, he solicited his kind feeling and offi
ces pouring forth his history in eloquent
French and broken Knglish.
I am a wanderer an exilo! I am forc
ed to fly to the iS'ew World without a ray
of hope. You are an American. Give
me, I beseech you, a letter of yours, so
that I may earn my daily bread. I am
willing to toil in any manner; the scenes
in Paris have filled me with such horror,
that a life of labor would be a paradiso to
a career of luxury in France. You will
giye me a letter to one of your friends?
The strange gentleman rose. With a
look that Tallyrand never forgot, he re
treated toward the door of tho next cham
ber, his head still downcast, his eyes look
ing still from behind his darkened brow.
Hespoko as he retreated backward his
voice was full of meaniug:
1 am the only man born in tho New
World who can raise his hand to God and
say, I have not a friend, not one, in nil
Tallyrnnd never forgot tho overwhelm
ing sadness of the look that aecompained
Who are you? he cried, as the strange
gentleman retreated toward the next
room. Your name?
My name! wilh a smile that had more
of mockery than joy in it! expression
My name is Benedict Arnold!
He was gone. Tallyrand sank in a
chair, cr.-istiing the words:
Arnold, the traitor! one who lias be
trayed his country.
Thus Arnold wanderel over the earth,
another Cain, with a wanderer's mark on
his brow. Kven in that secluded room at
that inn of Havre, his crime found him
out, and forced hi in to tell his name that
name tbe synonym of infamy.
The last twenty years of Arnold's life
were covered with a cloud from whose
darkness but a few gleams of li ght flash
out upon the page of history.
Mr. Tilden lias before this occasion been
very unfortunate in his friendship and
political associations. When ho was chair
man of the democratic stato committee he
made William M. Tweed one of the execu
tive committee, and in order to cheat the
peoplo of the state out of an honest elec
tion a secret circular was sent to demo
cratic agents all through the country, ask
ing for early indications of tho vote, in
order that Tammany might learn the num
ber of thousands necessary to adtl to the
returns- by fraud iu New York city to
achieve a deuico.atio victory. The scheme
worked to a cream; but when the secret
circular was mado public Mr. Tilden dis
owned it, although it bore his namo as
chairman of the state committee, and laid
it to Tweed after that once powerful mag
nate had boon humbled. If woaoccpt Mr.
Tihlen's version of this affair of tho se
cret circular, it must bo admitted that ho
was very unfortunate in his polection of
lieutenants, in tue presem tuniiiiiew, u
Mr. Tilden is innocent of the plots to bribe
election officers, it can only he established
by throwing the infamy upon tho men to
whom Mr. Tilden had entrusted nis cam
nalirn monntrninnnt I fin mas who USllal-
I )y Jiiooses rogues for his confidential ad-
visers and representatives will bo forlu
nato if ho can make tho publio believe
thai such selection is accidental. Boston
Novel Express Freight. A contem
porary says : " It is becoming common
to send children by exproas, and a number
of children in different parts of the country
havo been transferred safely in this novel
way. Tho express agents care for their
human freight, giving them meals at
hotels along the road and accommodations
in the express car. When a transfer is
made from one lino to another, the lad or
lassie, properly billed is handed over to
the expressman of that line. A girt was
last week thus transferred form St. Paul
to a village in northern Michigan, and "he
made the trip safely."
ii.:;inin(; At; viv
When. B.1-U3 times. our feet irrow weary.
Ou tbe riired hills of life-Tlr-
path stretching Ion and dreary
With trial aud labor rife
We pitieon t le Uilsome Journey.
OUu.-iUtf lur.'kward in valley and irlen.
Aud .lh with Infinite lonirlntf
Tore'.uru aud beiua.iiu.
For behiu 1 i. the dew of the nnruiu,
In all Its freshness and liu-ht.
Auil before are doubt and shadow.
And the chill au 1 the irlooni of the ni,rbt.
Wc reme:nb?r the suuuy placet
We passed so carelessly then.
A-iil aik, with a passionate lonsiua-
To return aud bciu attain.
Ah. vain, in Iced, is the atkiur !
Life's duties press all of usou.
Aud who dare .brink from the labor.
Or sitrh for tbe sunshine tbal's truie,
Aud. it may lie, not far ou before us
Wait fairer places than theu,
L-f.t's piths may yo. lead by still waters
Though we may not bctriu as-aiu.
For evermore upward and onward
He our path, ou the hills of life,
Aud soon with a radiaut davuiuf
Trausfiirurethe toil aud the strife.
Aud our Father's hand will lead us
Tenderly upward theu:
In the Joy aud the Maee of a fairer w orl.l
Il'll let us bek'iu aKain.
ttik ui:li;a;i Kiti:i ity.
I have read in some old marvelous tale.
Some leirend strange and vair up ,
That a tui.luUiit h ist ot siectro3 pale,
llelenifuered the wall of Prague.
Beside the nicliHlious, rushiitir stream,
With the wan moon overhead.
There stood as in au aw'tul dreum,
The army uf tho dead.
White as a sea-fox, landward bound.
The Sectral camp was seen,
And, with a sorrowful, deep sound
The river flowed between.
No other voice nor sound was there :
No drum, nor sentry's pace;
The til ist like banners clasped t be air.
As clouds with clouds embraced.
II u t wheu tbe old chthedral
l'roclaiuiel Ihe morning prayer.
Tbe white pavilions rose au.l fell
On the alarmed air.
Down the broad valley fast and far
Tbe troubled army Hod :
Up rose the (tlorious inorniuKstar,
The ghastly host was dead.
I have read, in the marvelous heart of mau,
That stramre an:l mystic scroll.
That au army of phautoms vast and wau,
Ujleairucr the human soul.
Encamped beside life's rushiux stream,
Iu fancy's miBty liht.
Oiirantic shapes and shadows xleam
Porteutous tbrouzh tho tug-lit.
Upon its midnight battlc-Kroiiud
Tho spectral camp is seen.
And with a sorrowful, deep sound,
Flowathe Itivor of Life between.
No other voice nor souud is there,
Iu the army of the grave :
No other challenge breaks the air
Hut tho rushiug of life's wuvo.
And wheu the solemn church-bi-ll
Kutreats tho soul tu-pray.
The midnight phantoms feel the spell,
The shadows Bwcep away.
Down the broad Vale of Toars afar
The spectral camp is rlcd;
Faith shlncth as a morning star,
Our ghastly fears are dead.
AN INCIDENT OK THE I.ATB WAIt.
Tho boys used to say that you couldn't
understand a man until you had tented
with him at the front, and there was con
siderable weight to tho saying. A com
rade might he known as a jolly, good
hearted fellow at home, but his wnolo na
ture would change in a week when you
had him where the real manhood and
worth of a man came to the surface, or
whero a miserably mean spirit took the
place of it and disgusted you wilh him.
A comrade who sbaied bis last cracker,
performed his full share of camp and field
work, stood by you in sickness and divdi
ed clothing wilh you in health such a
man was more to you than all llio brothers
at home, and if he lived to como out of
the war has not been forgotten. The
army is the place where a man can be
meaner than dirt and uglier than a wolf,
and yet retain his place in the ranks or he
can bo a white man all through and re
ceive no reward except the gratitude of
his tent mute.
Now, 1 never saw a meaner private
soldier or a more sulky and morose tent
mate than luck gave me in the winter of
1801 o. He came down to us in tho fall
a recruit, having enlisted for the big
bounty, aud lit that timo the old vets who
had faced shot and shell for several years
hal an edgewise feeling against these
" fresh fish," who had pocketed five or
six hundred dollars and came down to
spend tho winter in a warm hut. Some
of the recruits realized this, and by their
good nature and pleasant ways soon ban
ished the feeling so far as they wero con
cerned. Others were nettled and indig
nant, and were not inclined that the old
vets should get relieved of one single camp
duly because of the arrival of new men
Fate or luck sent me "Jim Shanks"
for a tent male. He w as Jim sonic one
else, but the nick-name was very appro
priate He was dogged and sullen from
thti first, and we hadu't known each other
two hours before we had a quarrel.
Next day we fought again, and after thai
we did not exchange a word for 4 weeks.
When I saw how mean he was, and found
that kind words, kintl wishes and a friend-
ly interest would not touch him, I lei him
alone as far as 1 could, and contented my
self with knowing that every other mem
ber of Company ' E " hatetl him as much
as I did.
Ono night a band of twenty-live men
moved out of our camp for a scout across
the Loudon Valley, then held by Mosby,
and luck placed Jim Shanks alongside of
me. He was selected by accident, it be
ing tho intention lo lake a belter man, but
ho was there just the same, silent, sullen,
and ready to elbow or bayonet any ono
who accidentally brushed him. That night
as we filed along tho muddy highway,
speaking only in whispers, I saw Jim in
front of me ami I whispered to myself.
" Jim Shanks, if you don't get killed
down here you'll bo hung for murder be
fore you are out of the army a year!"
Just in the gray of the morning, ami
when within a mile of Union Town, Jim
Shanks and myself were sent forward to
reconnoiler. I would have sooner gone
alone, and ten times sooner had the com
pany of any one else, but luck decided it.
We said not a word. I watched Jim
and saw that hn was as cool as an old sol
dier. Ho knew as well as I did that wo
wero advancing on Moshy's headquarters,
but he stepped out boldly and with no
change in his demeanor.
When we had nearly reached the church
standing on tho hill ahovo the town and
facing tho road leading away to Leesburg,
I halted, knowing that a picket post must
be near. I had not exchanged a word
with Jim for days, but now I whispered
to him that wo must proceed with caution.
"If you are tired, sit down in tho mud,"
lie growled, striding along, and afier a
minute I followed him, belli of us walking
on the sido of the highway. I knew be
we would soon strike tbe picket, but it wss
either follow Jim or turn back. Suddenly
and without a word, fivo or six men rose
up in our path. I had barely discerned
them when one seized my carbine nnd
another tripped me down, whilo a third
" If you make itny ftivs you'll get a bul-
let mighty quick."
I d tin t propose t make any fuss, hut
.Jim MianKs etui, the two men whourab-
lied at bim were brushed off like flios, and I would como to this? I could hao forgien
whirling his carbine around his head, he j ye a' yeY poleegamv, but hio yc given up
cleared a path for himself and was lost in 'uer parrUekt" Editor's Drawer, in Air
llm darkness. More than a dozen shots per's Mn'ji:;ne for February.
were fired af. er him, and being intercept-1 " See here," said an eccentric old man
ed on his retreat down the road lie made; to nn office boy who had brought a doc
tor tho i liureh on the hill. Before he tor's bill to him. " See here; "tell your
reached it there were a score of enemies ; master that I'll pay him for the items of
about him, and the reports of the carbines ; medicine charged in this bill, but as for
sounded more like a brisk skirmish than j the visits, why I'll return them!"
a conflict with a sinerle soldier and a raw
recruit at that. 1 think lie meant to get
into the . hr,.,. ihnmrl, 1, ,.nl.l n.t l, r
told whether it was a church or other
building in the darkness. Failing to get
I in, lie found a retreat under the front
j steps, and in the darkness the confederates
believed that he had escaped altogether.
They however threw a line of videttes
roads and fields, nnd it would not hove
lieen possible for Jim Shanks to regain the
road by which he had come.
Had the rest of the command moved up
on hearing tho row, there might have
been a show to release both of us, but
lliny did not come. By the time the sol
diers had given up the search for Jim,
our comrades were on the back track for
I was retained at tho picket-post be
cause Moshy's lieutenant was there, and
liecause ho hoped to bribe or frighted me
into lurnislnng Hun information ot value.
I was, therefore, in position to see the re
sult of Jim Shanks' work, single handed
tnd aloue. When he broke awav he dis
abled one man by a blow from his car
bine. In his flight ho killed one and
wnunded two others. Wounded and dead
were brought to tho picket-uost, and I
saw them. Moshy's men were terribly
incensed, and but for the fear of an at
tack by our force, whose strength they
did not know, I believe they would have
hung mo up in ttieir lirst rage.
It was the guerrilla chieftain's last dash
into his beautiful valley. lie was gather
ing forage and hurrying it back to hee's
lines, and many farmers wero robbed of
their last horse ami their last ear of corn.
In three days more thev would have been
out of tlie valley entirely.
At tue him signs of daylight, anil when
the old church on the hill was hardly vis
ible through the gray of morning, came a
bullet which bored a soldier through nnd
through, and dropped him dead in his
tracks. It was from the carbine of Jim
Shanks. Hiding under the steps, ho had
only waited for daylight to open the fight
anew not waiting to be hunted out and
captured. All was excitement in an in
stant, and as soon us Jim's location was
betrayed the guerrillas scattered and
formed a skirmi-li line. The tiro of this
line was concentrated on the steps, and
was as rapid as if opposetl to a lino of
battle. The tiring had just begun, when
one of the skirmishers fell away from a
stump with a bullet in his head. In three
minutes another was shot thro' the chest.
Jim Shanks hail forty rounds of ammuni
tion, and he fired slowly and with precis
ion. I could see splinters fly from the
steps every lime a ball struck, and I knew
that many of tho bullets wero driven
through the board 4. For a long tweuty
minutes Jim held that skirmi.-li line of
thirtv-livo men at the bay killing three
and woundin two, I counting his shots,
and he tired just twenty-one times.
A reinforcement of about twenty mount
ed men finally came up, and hitching their
horses under cover of the hill the men
tool; the skirmish line. Ju-t as the firing
began anew, Jim Shanks suddenly left his
cover and ran for the horses down the
road. Every skirmisher ri se up, and there
must have been at least ono hundred bul
lets lired at the running man in the next
minute. I saw them blow up the earth all
around him, and ono of them sent his cap
sailing into ibo air. As Ue got in lino
with the horses the firo slackened, while
the men saw his plan and rushed forward.
Jim was in no hurry. Resting his carbine
over a saddle he wounded another of his
pursuers, and it seemed a full minute be
fore he mounted and rode off toward I.ees
burg. There was a rush for the horses,
and away they galloped afier the r eiuit,
tiring as they rode.
The strange luck that had stood by Jim
Shanks in his light might have aided him
to escape had he selected a better horse.
After a gallop of half an hour, he found
his pursuers gaining, and in trying to get
into the field his horse fell, rolled over the
poor fellow, and the pursuers found him
dead when they rode up. His clothing
was fairly riddled with bullets, and yet his
flesh had not been scratched. The church
steps wero as full of holes us a colander,
and about the same distant apart, and yet
Jim was not wounded. Mean-spirited,
obstinate and dogged as tent mate, he
hud the courage of a lion and the gallantry
of a knight and the first aud last grave
ever dug for a Union soldier by Moshy's
men was hollowed out for a recruit who
had never been at the front. Hclioit Free
A 1'oisoni.I) Vai.i.k.v. Near Batten, in
Java, is a poisoned valley. It is known
.v the name of Guevo Unas, or Poisoned
alley; aud following a path which had
been made for the purpose, a visiting party
shortly reached it, with a couple of dogs
and fowls, for the purpose of making
experiments. On arriving at the mountain,
the party dismounted and scrambled up
the side of the bill, at tho distance of a
mile, with ihe assistance of this brauches of
trees and projecting roots. When at a
few vards from the valley a nauseous,
suffocating smell was experienced, but on
approaching the margin the inconvenience
was no longer louml. I no vaiiey is aoom
half a mile in circumference, of an oval
shape, and about thirty feet in depth. Tho
bottom of it appeared to be flat, without
vegetation, and a lew large sioncs
scattered beru and there. Skeletons ot
human beings, tigers, beais, doers and all
sorts of birds mid w ild animals lay about
in prolusion. The ground on which they
lay at the bottom oi the valley, appeared
to be a hard, sandy substance, and no
vapor was perceived. The sides wero
covered with vegetation. It was proposed
to enter it nnd each having lit a cigar,
managed to get within twenty feet of the
bottom, where a sickoniug smell was
experienced, wiihout any difficulty of
breathing. A tlog was now fastened to
liie end of a bamboo, and thrust to the
bottom of the valley. At tho expiration of
fourteen seconds bo fell off his legs without
moving or lookiug around, and continued
alive only oighteeu minutes. The othor
dog no - left the company and went to its
companion. On reaching him ho was
observed to stand quite motionless, and at
the end of ten seconds fell down ; he never
moved his limbs after, and only lived soven
minutes. A fowl was now thrown in,
which died in a niinuto and a quarter.
Correspondent in Chictrjo Times.
Poi.YiiAMV ani Poukidce. When we
made an excursion in Southern Utah not
long ago wo were hospitably entertained
by The Mormon bishop at Ricliford. Ho
was a Scotchman, and had boon brought
up a rigid Presbyterian. " Ah, well,"
said lie, " they think ill of mo at homo for
changing my roligiou; but there was my
brother Aleck who took it most to heart.
Ho was on his way last year to California,
and turned off tho road a bit to see me,
an I try to bring me back into tho fold.
When ho cot hero he spent the whole
evening in lecturing mo, and went to bod.
In the morning I gave him the bestbreak-
! fast tho country could afford coffeo nnd
roi3i trout, beef, and venison ttcak, and
nn-h liko. Poor Aleck! he looked all over
I ,i.0 table, and then turned upon mo his
: sorrowful face, blurting out, 'Oh, Jamie,
ninti' .I.-nnio mon did I ever think it
':.. - ,, - ,.;,
I "nt"rogation point.
.,.... ,,, ui.wntiuiiu uii
int," said a teacher to one
of her pupils. ' Can't make a good one,"
replied tho boy. lraw a boot buttoncr,"
said the teacher, "that will answer." The
boy look the cruvon and drew a hair-pin.
Sharp rebuke by the teacher. Other
A little boy ran away from home and,
while enjoying himself in forbidden fields,
a thunderstorm came up, and it began to
hail. His guilty conscience needed no
aecu-er. Running home, he burst into the
presence -of his astonished mamma, ex
claiming breathlessly : "Ma, ma, God's
frowing stones at me!''
A flout English gentleman, a visitor at
a fashionable watering place on the west
co.-t of Scotland, was in the habit of con
versing familiarly with a character of the
place who took a delight in talking boast
ingly of his great relations. One day, as
the gentleman was seated at tho door of
his lodging, Donald came up driving a fat
lioar. " That is one of your great rela
tions, I suppose, you have got with you,
Hon ild?" said the gentleman. " No,"
quietly retorted Donald, as ho surveyed
the proportions of his interlocutor; " no
relation whatever, but just nn acquaint
ance like yourself."
Why 1'hev Did Nor Go. A number
of invitations to attend Senator Booth's
reception were extended to tho clerks of
the different departments of tho state
capitol, to which but few responded. On
each invitation was printed the letters R.
S. V. P., which translated means "Answer,
if you please." As an act of courtesy theso
clerks responded, setting forth the fact
that it would bo impossible for them to bo
present, and to each declination was at
tached the letters, N. G. C. This was a
puzzle to the senator's secretary, but the
matter was explained when the latter in
terrogated one of the clerks, to whom an
invitation had been sent, with a view to
learning tho meaning of the mystic letters
nnd the clerk, wilh the modesty always
displayed by a state ollluial under embar
rassing circumstances, politely informed
him that the translation thereof was " No
good clothes." Sacramento Dee.
Tho New York Home Journal says the
amount of luxurious tenderness bestowed
upon pet dogs in that city is almost incred
ible. It is not at all uncommon to see a
carriage, with two livery men upon tho
box, driving through Central Park on a
pleasant morning, with only a dog.or per
haps a pair of them, inside, taking a snitf
of fresh air. Tbey have had their bath,
their locks have been dressed, and fresli
ribbons adorn their necks, while a short
haired dog is carefully blanketed.
We are asked, " What is the safest
creed?" We answer, " We cannot tell
you." But if ou ask, " What is the saf
est belief?" wo answer, that belief which
tenches yon to have tho greatest amount
of respect for yourself and each other;
that which inspires you to the greatest
progress, the noblest endeavors; that
which makes your life tho noblest and
purest; that which teaches you most fully
of the fatherhood of God and the brother
hood of man that is the safest creed.
Mrs. V.WiV J. T. P.riuhnm
The Good Old Timks. One of tho cus
toms of our fathers which, it is to bo hop
ed, has never passed away, was the habit
of going to sleep during church service.
They were Puritans and strict religionists ;
but ihey would snooze and nod in church,
anil various and singular were the expe
dient adopted by the minister and tho
deacons to keep lliem wide awake. Here
is an accouut of a funny scene in a Lynn,
Mass., church in 1010, during the preach
ing of good old Rev. Samuel Whitney, ).
1). It is taken from Obadiah Turner's
" lOfO, Juno yc od: Allen Brydges
hath bin chose to wake ye sleepers in
meeting, and being much proud of his
place must needs have a fox taile fixed to
ye end of a long staff wherewith lie may
brush the faces of them yt will have naps in
time of discourse; likewise a sharp tliorne
wherewith he may prick such as be most
sounde. Ou ye taste Lord his day, as ho
strutted about ye meeting house, ho did
spy Mr. Tomiins sleeping with much com
foilo, his head kept steadie by being in ye
corner, and his hand grasping ye rail.
Aud soe spying, Allen did quieklio thrust
his staff' behind Dame Ballond and give
him a grievous prick upon ye hand.
Whereupon Mr. Tomiins did spring tip
much above ye floor, and with terrible
force strike his hand against yc wall, and
also, to yc great wonder of all, prophain
lio exclaim, iu a lotide voice, cuss the
wootlehuck; he dreaming as it seemed, yt
a woodchuck had seized and bit his hand.
"But on coming to know where he was,
and ye great scandal 1 he had committed,
he seemed much abashed, but did not
speako. And I think he will not scono
againe go to sleepe in meeting.
" Ye women may sometimes sleepe and
none know it by reason of their enormous
bonnets. Mr. Whitney doth pleasantli say
yt from ye pulpit he doth soom to lie
preaching to stacks of straw with men
jotting here and there among them."
A Gooi Solf Srouv. Joe N. went to
C, shire town of his county, which was
ten niiics from his town. The day was
warm, the road hilly and dusty, and after
caring for his horse he went in for dinner.
Soup was offered him nnd respectfully de
clined ; this was done three times by as
nn a:iv....n.. :. . .:, t .
iuuuv uiiaci urn witui'is, mini doe got Ollt
of patience, nnd rising up (he was a six
footer) ho said to the astonished waiter,
" i hat's three times I'vo told you fellers
that I didn't want any soup, and now I'll
bo gol-darnod if I have any. So bring mo
somo roast beef and fixings about as quick
as lightnin." That was done, and, as ho
was " right smart hungry,'' ho said but
littlo clear profit was made on that dinner.
On coming into the hotel at night, ho
was surprised to find that, it being court
week, evory room was engaged. Joe was
immensely tired, and must have a bed,
' by Jehosophat." The perplexed land
lord finally told him if he would accept of
a cot bed in parlor No. 1, up one flight,
whero a gentleman who had been sick.but
was now convalescent, was staying, he
could bo accommodated. This arrange
ment was agreed to. The sick man's cot
was pushed aside, and another put in its
placo, and immediately taken possession of
by Joe. Morpheus embraced him at once.
About 9 o'clock the physician who bad at
tended tho convalescent came and on in
quiry uf the nurse as to his symptoms,
found that it would be necessary to admin
ister an enema. This was done, but alas
for Joe, whose bed occupiod the identical
spot where heretofore was the sick man,
and who, being so profoundly asleep from
tho effects of labor, heat and dust, and a
clear conscience withal, and who, more
over, was dreaming of suction pumps,
(his fathor boing a pump maker,) and was
totally unconscious of nil of the machina
tions of foes or friends did not fully
awaken, until the doctor, who, by a most
curious blunder had mistaken Joe for his
Salient, had begun to engineer tho second
oso! Then turning upon his elbow, and
uiscovcnng wnat was going on, ne re
marked in a most discouraging tone:
" Wall, ef you'vo got that 'are soup
into mo at last, I hope you nro satisfied !''
.V. E. llomesltail.